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Liuzhou
Liuzhou
(/ˈljuːˈdʒoʊ/,[1] Chinese: 柳州) is a prefecture-level city in north-central Guangxi
Guangxi
Zhuang Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China. The prefecture's population was 3,758,700 in 2010, including 1,436,599 in the built-up area made of 4 urban districts. Its total area is 18,777 km2 (7,250 sq mi) and 667 km2 (258 sq mi) for built up area.

Contents

1 Geography

1.1 Climate

2 History 3 Administrative divisions 4 Economy 5 Tourism 6 Transport 7 Military 8 Quotes 9 People 10 See also 11 References 12 External links

Geography[edit] Liuzhou
Liuzhou
is located on the banks of the winding Liu River, approximately 255 km (158 mi) from Nanning, the regional capital. By road, it is about 167 km (104 mi) to Guilin, 167 km (104 mi) to Hechi, 237 km (147 mi) to Nanning, 373 km (232 mi) to Fangchenggang, 448 km (278 mi) to Beihai. Swimming in the river is a tradition of the city. The river is normally green, but sometimes in summer, floods from the mountain areas upstream bring sediment which colors the water yellow. In early 2012, a cadmium spill upstream caused serious pollution worries.[2] The river can be deep. Normally, the depth is 60–70 metres (200–230 ft) but can as deep as 90 metres (300 ft) before it floods over the wall. In 2000 a bus, with 78 passengers, fell over the side of a bridge, and into 27 metres (89 ft) of water.[3] Climate[edit] Liuzhou
Liuzhou
has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa), with mild winters and long hot summers, and very humid conditions year-round. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from 10.6 °C (51.1 °F) in January to 29.1 °C (84.4 °F) in August, while extremes have ranged from −0.3 to 39.0 °C (31 to 102 °F).[citation needed] Rain is both the heaviest and most frequent from May to August, when nearly two-thirds of the annual rainfall occurs.

Climate data for Liuzhou
Liuzhou
(1981−2010)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 27.5 (81.5) 32.9 (91.2) 34.1 (93.4) 35.6 (96.1) 36.7 (98.1) 36.8 (98.2) 39.0 (102.2) 38.9 (102) 38.5 (101.3) 36.0 (96.8) 32.7 (90.9) 29.2 (84.6) 39 (102.2)

Average high °C (°F) 14.3 (57.7) 15.9 (60.6) 19.3 (66.7) 25.1 (77.2) 29.3 (84.7) 31.7 (89.1) 33.4 (92.1) 33.7 (92.7) 31.9 (89.4) 27.8 (82) 22.7 (72.9) 17.7 (63.9) 25.23 (77.42)

Daily mean °C (°F) 10.6 (51.1) 12.4 (54.3) 15.7 (60.3) 21.1 (70) 25.1 (77.2) 27.7 (81.9) 29.0 (84.2) 29.1 (84.4) 27.2 (81) 23.1 (73.6) 17.9 (64.2) 12.9 (55.2) 20.98 (69.78)

Average low °C (°F) 8.0 (46.4) 9.9 (49.8) 13.1 (55.6) 18.2 (64.8) 21.9 (71.4) 24.7 (76.5) 25.8 (78.4) 25.8 (78.4) 23.7 (74.7) 19.6 (67.3) 14.5 (58.1) 9.6 (49.3) 17.9 (64.22)

Record low °C (°F) 0.1 (32.2) 0.3 (32.5) 2.3 (36.1) 8.0 (46.4) 12.2 (54) 17.7 (63.9) 20.0 (68) 20.4 (68.7) 15.0 (59) 9.6 (49.3) 3.3 (37.9) −0.3 (31.5) −0.3 (31.5)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 54.0 (2.126) 59.5 (2.343) 95.3 (3.752) 137.4 (5.409) 228.8 (9.008) 281.0 (11.063) 190.2 (7.488) 161.7 (6.366) 73.4 (2.89) 58.7 (2.311) 55.4 (2.181) 35.7 (1.406) 1,431.1 (56.343)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 13.4 14.2 16.6 17.0 17.0 16.0 15.4 14.4 8.8 8.8 7.5 7.2 156.3

Average relative humidity (%) 72 75 77 77 76 77 75 74 69 67 68 67 72.8

Source #1: China Meteorological Data Service Center

Source #2: Weather China (precipitation days 1971-2000)

History[edit]

From the National Museum of Natural History

Kaiyuan Temple (开元寺, "Temple of Beginning")Ruins of Tang dynasty

Liuhou Ancestral Hall柳侯祠,"Ancestral Hall of Liu Noble"

Liuzhou
Liuzhou
by Japanese Army Situation Map

The Liujiang men (Chinese: 柳江人) are among the earliest modern humans found in East Asia.Their remains were discovered in the Tongtianyang Cave (通天岩) in Liujiang County, Guangxi, China.[4] Liujiang man
Liujiang man
is a Late Pleistocene Homo sapiens sapiens. Liuzhou
Liuzhou
has a history of more than 2,100 years. The city was founded in 111 B.C. when it was known as Tanzhong(潭中, "Center of Deep Pool"). In 742 A.D. it became known as Longcheng (龙城, "Dragon City"), after the Long River, before finally changing to Liuzhou
Liuzhou
(柳州, "Willow Prefecture") after the Liu River
Liu River
in 1736. The most famous historic figure is Liu Zongyuan
Liu Zongyuan
(773-819), who was a poet and politician in the Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
and who died in Liuzhou. He is commemorated by a park in the city. Liuzhou
Liuzhou
was the site of Liuchow Airfield, used by Nationalist Chinese and American Army Air Forces in World War II.[5] (At that time the airfield was closer to the centre, where now is the zoo.) It was captured by the Japanese army on 7 November 1944 during the Battle of Guilin– Liuzhou
Liuzhou
and recaptured by Nationalist Chinese forces on 30 June 1945 prior to the Second Guangxi
Guangxi
Campaign.[5] Administrative divisions[edit] Liuzhou
Liuzhou
has direct administration over 10 county-level divisions: 5 districts, 3 counties and 2 autonomous counties:

Map Map of the tributaries of the Pearl River

Chengzhong District (城中区) Liunan District 柳南区 Yufeng District 鱼峰区 Liubei District 柳北区 Liujiang District 柳江区 Liucheng County 柳城县 Luzhai County 鹿寨县 Rong'an County 融安县 Rongshui Miao Autonomous County 融水苗族自治县 Sanjiang Dong Autonomous County 三江侗族自治县

1 3 Yufeng 2 4 Liubei 5 Liujiang 6 Liucheng County 7 Luzhai County 8 Rong'an County 9 Rongshui County 10 Sanjiang County 1 Chengzhong 2 Liunan

Map of the tributaries of the Pearl River

Economy[edit]

Liuzhou
Liuzhou
city center in 1948

Liuzhou
Liuzhou
is the second largest city in Guangxi
Guangxi
and is the region's industrial center. According to statistics issued by the Liuzhou government in 2015, the city’s GDP was 231.1 billion yuan.[6] Among important companies based in Liuzhou
Liuzhou
are:

LiuGong
LiuGong
- a multinational construction machinery manufacturer SAIC-GM-Wuling Automobile
SAIC-GM-Wuling Automobile
- a joint venture between General Motors, SAIC Motor and Liuzhou
Liuzhou
Wuling Motors

Tourism[edit] As with much of Guangxi, the landscape around Liuzhou
Liuzhou
is a mix of rolling hills, mountain peaks, caves and karst scenery. It is an ideal base for exploring the minority villages in the area.

Rongshui: Rongshui Miao Autonomous County
Rongshui Miao Autonomous County
is located in the north of Liuzhou
Liuzhou
prefecture, 118 km (73 mi) away from Liuzhou
Liuzhou
and 168 km (104 mi) from Guilin. The territory is inhabited by Miao, Yao, Dong, Zhuang, Han nationality. Dayaoshan scenic area is in Jinxiu Yao Autonomous County, 154 km (96 mi) from the city of Liuzhou. It has a scenic area of over 500 km2 (190 sq mi). Sanjiang lies to the north of Liuzhou
Liuzhou
near the Hunan border. It is a Dong minority area and is surrounded by picturesque ethnic minority villages. LiuZhou Industrial Museum (柳州工业博物馆) was set up on the original site of the former Cotton Textile Factory No.3, and opened in 2012.

Transport[edit]

Liuzhou Airport
Liuzhou Airport
provides flights to major cities in China. Liuzhou
Liuzhou
has extensive rail connections with the rest of China. Hunan- Guangxi
Guangxi
Railway ( Hengyang
Hengyang
- Pingxiang, a.k.a. Xiang-Gui Line), Jiaozuo-Liuzhou Railway
Jiaozuo-Liuzhou Railway
( Jiaozuo
Jiaozuo
- Zhicheng - Liuzhou, a.k.a. Jiao-Liu Line) Railway and Guizhou- Guangxi
Guangxi
Railway ( Guiyang
Guiyang
- Liuzhou, a.k.a. Qian-Gui Line) make Liuzhou
Liuzhou
the center of freight transportation in Guangxi. China National Highway 209

Military[edit] Liuzhou
Liuzhou
is the headquarters of the 41st Group Army of the People's Liberation Army, one of the two army groups that comprise the Guangzhou Military Region
Guangzhou Military Region
responsible for the defense of China's southern coast and its border with Vietnam. Quotes[edit] Liuzhou
Liuzhou
appears in the Chinese saying 生在苏州, 活在杭州, 吃在广州, 死在柳州.

Born in Suzhou, live in Hangzhou, eat in Guangzhou, die in Liuzhou

because, in the past, the city was known for its coffins, made from firwood, camphor wood, and sandalwood,[7] which are said to preserve the body after death. Guangzhou's "Cantonese" cuisine is famous worldwide, and Hangzhou
Hangzhou
is known for its prosperity and the beauty of its location. Suzhou
Suzhou
is reputed to have the most beautiful people in China, so the line is sometimes given as "Marry in Suzhou...". Today many tourists buy miniature coffins, about 3 to 30 cm (1.2 to 11.8 in) long, as souvenirs or good luck charms. The coffins are usually inscribed 升官发财 (shēng guān fā cái) which means 'get promotion and get rich". The second and fourth characters are homophones of 棺材 (guān cái) meaning 'coffin'. Some miniature coffins are used as caskets to hold the ashes of ancestors.[7] People[edit]

Liuzhou
Liuzhou
was the home of Li Ning
Li Ning
(born 1963), gymnast and entrepreneur who lit the Olympic torch in Beijing in 2008. Chinese gymnast, Jiang Yuyuan
Jiang Yuyuan
was also born in Liuzhou.

See also[edit]

List of twin towns and sister cities in China

References[edit]

^ " Liuzhou
Liuzhou
pronunciation". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 25 April 2015.  ^ http://www.danwei.com/panic-buying-of-water-in-liuzhou-a-report-from-the-ground/ Panic buying of water in Liuzhou
Liuzhou
– a report from the ground ^ Liuzhou
Liuzhou
Bridges 6 – Hudong Bridge ^ Shen, G.; Wang, W.; Wang, Q.; Zhao, J.; Collerson, K.; Zhou, C.; Tobias, P. V. (2002). "U-Series dating of Liujiang hominid site in Guangxi, Southern China". Journal of Human
Human
Evolution. 43 (6): 817–829. doi:10.1006/jhev.2002.0601. PMID 12473485.  ^ a b Hump Express, Vol. 1, 25. "Liuchow Victory Complete as Chinese Force Enters Smashed and Burned City Archived 2012-04-25 at the Wayback Machine.". India China Division, Air Transport Command, 5 July 1945. ^ http://www.hktdc.com/info/mi/a/mpcn/en/1X072H6F/1/Profiles-Of-China-Provinces-Cities-And-Industrial-Parks/Liuzhou-Guangxi-City-Information.htm Liuzhou
Liuzhou
( Guangxi
Guangxi
) City Information ^ a b Du Feibao, Du Bai, Lin Nianpei; Things Chinese, China Travel and Tourism Press, 2002, ISBN 7-5032-1856-8

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Liuzhou.

Official website (in Chinese and English) Introduction to Liuzhou Map of Liuzhou

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Qingxiu District Xingning District Xixiangtang District Liangqing District Jiangnan District Yongning District Wuming District Long'an County Mashan County Shanglin County Binyang County Heng County

Liuzhou

Chengzhong District Yufeng District Liubei District Liunan District Liujiang District Liucheng County Luzhai County Rong'an County Rongshui Autonomous County Sanjiang Autonomous County

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Wanxiu District Changzhou District Longxu District Cenxi City Cangwu County Teng County Mengshan County

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merged into the Shiziyang

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Dong River

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Huicheng

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merged into the Shiziyang

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Gui→Li

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Wuzhou

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merged into the Xi

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Yong→Yu

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merged into the Yong→Yu

You

Baise

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Guiping merged into the Xun

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Liu

Long

Hechi

Jinchengjiang

Yizhou merged into the Liu

Rong

Liuzhou

Liubei Liunan Chengzhong Yufeng

merged into the Liu

tributaries of Long & Rong merged into the Qian

Hongshui

Beipan

Xuanwei Liupanshui

Liuzhi

merged into the Hongshui

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Qujing

Qilin

merged into the Hongshui

tributaries of Beipan & Nanpan Heshan Laibin

Xingbin

merged into the Qian

tributaries of Liu & Hongshui Guiping merged into the Xun

tributaries of Yong→Yu & Qian Wuzhou

Changzhou Longxu Wanxiu

merged into the Xi

tributaries of Gui→Li & Xun Wuzhou

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Pearl tributary of Dong Dongguan Guangzhou

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