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LITTLE LEVER is a large village within the Metropolitan Borough of Bolton
Bolton
in Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
, England. Historically in Lancashire
Lancashire
, it is 2.4 miles (3.9 km) southeast of Bolton
Bolton
, 1.9 miles (3.1 km) west of Radcliffe and 4 miles (6.4 km) west-southwest of Bury
Bury
. During the 19th century the population was employed in cotton mills, paper mills, bleach works, terracotta works, a rope works and in numerous collieries.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Toponymy * 1.2 Manor * 1.3 Industry

* 2 Geography * 3 Governance * 4 Demography * 5 Transport * 6 Economy * 7 Infrastructure * 8 Education * 9 Sports and leisure * 10 Religion * 11 Notable people * 12 See also * 13 References * 14 Bibliography * 15 External links

HISTORY

TOPONYMY

Lever is derived from the Old English
Old English
laefre, which means place where the rushes grow. The township was recorded as Parua Lefre in 1212, from the Latin, parva meaning little. The name was recorded in several ways, Lethre in 1221, Leuere in 1278, Leuir in 1282, Leuer in 1291 and Leyver in 1550.

MANOR

The manor of Little Lever
Little Lever
was part of the barony of Manchester
Manchester
and during the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
was governed by the manorial land holder, the Baron of Manchester. Records show that in the time of Henry II , a parcel of land within the manor, consisting of one moiety was rented to Alexander son of Uvieth for a ½ mark and a hawk (12d).

In 1212, the village was assessed as four oxgangs of land and was held in moieties, but the name of the tenant is not listed. In 1227 Adam de Radcliffe was called upon by Robert Grelley, the Baron of Manchester
Manchester
to perform suit every two weeks at his court of Manchester regarding the village of Little Lever. In 1246 the lord of the manor was recorded as Leising de Lever.

During the next hundred years the de Lever family took control of the moieties. In around 1320, the manor was jointly controlled in homage by William de Ratcliffe and William de Lever. This homage each year amounted to 4d and a fee of 6s 8d and 1s for provision of puture for the sergeant and foresters, a total of 8s . Several cases were brought before courts by family members trying to take control of the manor. A settlement in 1331, found in favour of Adam, son of Ellis de Lever and the family line was settled. There are no records about the ownership until 1448, when Henry Lever the elder owed rent of 25s (£1.25p) on the village.

In 1623 the Bubonic Plague killed a third of the village population.

By 1666, the village had sixty hearths liable to tax . Records show the land used for agriculture and the main landowner was John Andrews, who had the only large house in the village which contained 9 hearths. The manor house, Little Lever
Little Lever
Hall, built of wood and plaster was destroyed in the 18th century. It was a seat of the Levers in 1567 and after that the Andrews who inherited the Lever's estate in Rivington
Rivington
.

INDUSTRY

There is a record of a coal pit in 1320.

Records show there were fulling-mills in Little Lever
Little Lever
before 1559. The holding of Adam Byrom of Salford who died in 1559 was described as "an estate of eight messuages , a moiety of two fulling-mills etc., in Little Lever", his three-year-old grandson Ralph, was his heir. Adam's greatgrandson Ralph Byrom, died in 1599 without issue, leaving his fourteen-year-old brother Adam as heir to twelve messuages, half a water-mill and fulling-mill in Little Lever
Little Lever
(or possibly Darcy Lever).

In the 1800s the coal mining industry was spread throughout the area including Kearsley
Kearsley
, Outwood, Radcliffe and Little Lever. In 1880 there were ten working pits listed for Little Lever: Bally, Harpurfold, Middle Bents and Stopes, owned by Thomas Fletcher and Sons, Ladyshore, Owl Hole and Victoria owned by John Fletcher and Dingle, Farnworth
Farnworth
Bridge and New Rivin, owned by Andrew Knowles and Sons .

The Manchester, Bolton
Bolton
and Bury
Bury
Canal passed alongside the village, where two basins were used to load coal from the Ladyshore Colliery (originally named, Back o' th' Barn, opened 1830). The pit closed in 1949 and the colliery offices (now a house) and the stables survive.

Bricks and tiles were made along Stopes Road. The industry today is much smaller but Tarmac Topblock still run Crowthers Brickworks. Originally the site of a much larger traditional clay brick works, it is currently used for the production of building materials and produces lightweight blocks for the construction industry. The manufacture of terracotta in the North of England
England
was pioneered by Colonel John Fletcher at his Ladyshore Terracotta
Terracotta
Works. The Ladyshore Coal and Terracotta
Terracotta
Company supplied the terracotta used in the building in St Stephen and All Martyrs\' Church, Lever Bridge .

There were several paper mills situated in the area, two located in Little Lever. Creams Mill, founded by James Crompton 1677 and Grundy's Mill, founded by James Grundy in 1760. The name Creams was given by Adam Crompton II who said it described the paper being made.

The three arms of the Manchester, Bolton
Bolton
and Bury
Bury
Canal meet at Nob End which is approximately 0.5 miles (0.8 km), south west of the village, making Little Lever
Little Lever
a convenient place for lodging and refreshment in the days when the canal was in operation. The proximity of the canal and the coal industry led to the establishment of a small boat-building industry for coal transportation. In part 2 of his book, Waterson (the last of 5 generations of boat builders) describes working on the canal.

There was a small chemical works on the outskirts of the village and major chemical works along the canal at Nob End, Farnworth. Bridson, Thomas Ridgeway & Sons, operated the Lever Bank Bleach Works , (later becoming Smith, J. Junior & Company). Wilson Edward & Company operated the Prestolee Alkali Works between 1875 and 1884. The largest and longest lasting chemical works in Little Lever
Little Lever
was in Church Street, located on land between the canal and Lever Hall Farm. It was established in 1868 by F.W. Graham, but failed and was rescued by a partnership of Crompton and Potter. Edmund Peel Potter became the sole owner and expanded the business, manufacturing acid and alkali for the cloth bleaching industry. However, it was the production of sodium and potassium bichromate that made Potter's a world leader and by about 1900 the firm had become a limited company. In 1951 Potter's amalgamated with the Eaglescliffe Chemical Company. The company closed in 1969 when it was owned by Albright & Wilson. Until closure Potter family members remained in senior management positions. Edmund Peel Potter was prominent in the local community and endowed a hospital on Chorley New Road, Bolton
Bolton
in pre-NHS years. His son Colonel Colin Kynaston Potter served with distinction in the Boer and First World Wars .(Ref.Papers in Little Lever
Little Lever
library reference section)

GEOGRAPHY

Little Lever
Little Lever
was a hamlet , bounded on three sides, by the water courses, the River Irwell
River Irwell
, the River Croal and Blackbrook. In 1901 it covered 808 acres (3.27 km2) including 37 of inland waterway. In the 2001 Census it is listed as having 1,188 acres (481 hectares ).

GOVERNANCE

Historically a part of the hundred of Salford in the county of Lancashire
Lancashire
, until the 19th century, Little Lever
Little Lever
was a township and chapelry in the ecclesiastical parish of Deane , in Lancashire.

The Bolton
Bolton
Poor Law Union was established in 1837 under the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834 and was administered as the Board of Guardians. It took responsibility for the administration and funding of the Poor Law in Little Lever
Little Lever
and neighbouring townships and chapelries. The Guardians made use of the workhouses at Fletcher Street in Great Bolton
Bolton
and Goose Cote Hill in Turton until in 1861, when a purpose built union workhouse was opened at Fishpool in Farnworth
Farnworth
.

In 1872, the village was governed by a local board of health until 1894 when Little Lever Urban District was formed. The council consisted of twelve members elected from the four wards, Church, Ladyshore, Stopes and West.

In 1974, local government reorganisation made Little Lever
Little Lever
a part of the Metropolitan Borough of Bolton, Greater Manchester, and is represented on the borough council by three councillors as part of a ward which also covers Darcy Lever
Darcy Lever
.The population of this ward at the 2011 Census was 12,799.

It is represented in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Parliament as part of the Bolton
Bolton
South East constituency and at the European Parliament
European Parliament
as part of the North West England
North West England
constituency. In 2015, the Member of Parliament for the constituency was Yasmin Qureshi . The Councillors for the ward in 2015 were Councillor Rees Gibbon (UKIP), Councillor Sean Hornby (UKIP) and Councillor Paul Richardson (UKIP)

DEMOGRAPHY

The last UK Census in 2001, gives the population as 11,505, with a population density of 25 persons per hectare. This figure is significantly higher than Bolton
Bolton
(18.7 per hectare) and is almost six times the average population density of England
England
and Wales (3.5 per hectare). The Census also shows that the population has a population split of almost equal numbers of males and females which is uncommon in the area.

The population has changed dramatically since the turn of the 20th century, at that time the majority of the population was employed in the labour-intensive areas of coal mining, canal working and the other mill/factory industries. Today the population is more sedentary, employed in other sectors, as Little Lever
Little Lever
has little left in the way of industry. Many people today commute out of Little Lever
Little Lever
to nearby Bolton, Radcliffe and Manchester
Manchester
to carry on employment. The main employer within the village is the wholesale/retail sector.

The 2001 census shows approximately 8,000 persons have employment (the majority of the others are children or retired persons), it shows how the main areas of employment break down in terms of socio/economic grouping and employment sector (three top groups only shown).

CLASSIFICATION NUMBER

WORKPLACE SOCIAL POPULATION - CODE UV50

Managerial/administrative (Classes AB border:solid #aaa 1px">

* Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
portal

* Listed buildings in Little Lever

REFERENCES

* ^ Mills 1998 , p. 220 * ^ A B C D E Farrer, William; Brownbill, J., eds. (1911). Little and Darcy Lever. A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 5. British History Online. * ^ "Old historic families of Manchester". Retrieved 2008-01-13. * ^ Manchester
Manchester
Assize Records (1331). Assize R. 423, m. 1 d. * ^ A B "Little and Darcy Lever". Retrieved 2007-12-18. * ^ A B Lewis, Samuel, ed. (1848). Lever, Little. A Topographical Dictionary of England. British History Online. pp. 74–78. Retrieved 2010-10-01 * ^ Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xi, no. 65. * ^ Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m.xvii, no. 39. * ^ Report of HM Inspector of Mines 1880 * ^ "Mine Inspectors Reports". Retrieved 2008-01-14. * ^ Bolton
Bolton
Archive and Local Studies Service, Catalogue Ref. ZLA: Ladyshore Colliery, Little Lever * ^ Swallow, P.G. (1994). "Our Architectural Ceramic Heritage". Journal: Structural Survey. 12 (12,2): 20–23. ISSN 0263-080X . * ^ Bolton
Bolton
Archive and Local Studies Service, Catalogue Ref. ZLA: The Ladyshore Coal and TerraCotta Company. * ^ "Creams Paper Mill". Retrieved 2008-01-14. * ^ Waterson, Alec (May 1985). On the Manchester, Bolton
Bolton
and Bury Canal. Neil Richardson. p. 82. ISBN 0-907511-79-1 . * ^ Bolton
Bolton
Archive and Local Studies Service, Catalogue Ref. ZLB: Lever Bank Bleachworks, Little Lever * ^ Bolton
Bolton
Archive and Local Studies Service, Catalogue Ref. ZLA: Prestolee Alkali Works, Little Lever * ^ HM Government (1901). UK Census : Land Usage. HM Government. * ^ "BoltonPLU". workhouses.org.uk. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 2010-10-01 * ^ Connor, Betty (1995). Little Lever. Neil Richardson. p. 43. ISBN 0-85427-043-4 . * ^ " Little Lever
Little Lever
UD". Retrieved 2007-12-20. * ^ " Bolton
Bolton
Ward population 2011". Retrieved 3 January 2015. * ^ " Bolton
Bolton
MBC web site - Political". Bolton
Bolton
Metropolitan Borough Council. Retrieved 13 January 2016. * ^ "UK Census data". Retrieved 2008-01-14. * ^ HM Government (2001). UK Census , Key Statistics Table KS01, Usual Resident Population. HM Government. * ^ Lyddon, Dennis (1975). Paper in Bolton: A Papermakers Tale. Sherrat for Trinity Paper Mills Ltd. ISBN 0-85427-043-4 . * ^ Bolton
Bolton
Archive and Local Studies Service, Catalogue Ref. UWJ: Irwell Valley Water Board * ^ " Bolton
Bolton
Sports Federation Ladies\' Rounders
Rounders
League". Retrieved 2008-01-14. * ^ "History of the Seddon Family". Retrieved 2007-01-16. * ^ Nicholson, Cecil R. Little Lever
Little Lever
Congregational Church Fiftieth Anniversary 1957–1907. * ^ A B " Little Lever
Little Lever
Churches". Retrieved 2007-12-20. * ^ > Venn, J.; Venn, J. A., eds. (1922–1958). "Lever, Thomas". Alumni Cantabrigienses (10 volumes) Cambridge University Press

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Mills, A. D. (1998). Dictionary of English Place-Names. Oxford. ISBN 0-19-280074-4

EXTERNAL