A LISTED BUILDING or LISTED STRUCTURE, in the
The statutory bodies maintaining the list are
Historic England in
The term has also been used in the Republic of Ireland , where buildings are surveyed for the National Inventory of Architectural Heritage in accordance with the country's obligations under the Granada Convention . However, the preferred term in Ireland is _protected structure_.
A listed building may not be demolished, extended, or altered without
special permission from the local planning authority, which typically
consults the relevant central government agency, particularly for
significant alterations to the more notable listed buildings. In
Exemption from secular listed building control is provided for some buildings in current use for worship, but only in cases where the relevant religious organisation operates its own equivalent permissions procedure. Owners of listed buildings are, in some circumstances, compelled to repair and maintain them and can face criminal prosecution if they fail to do so or if they perform unauthorised alterations. When alterations are permitted, or when listed buildings are repaired or maintained, the owners are often compelled to use specific materials or techniques.
Although most structures appearing on the lists are buildings, other
structures such as bridges , monuments , sculptures , war memorials ,
and even milestones and mileposts and The Beatles' Abbey Road
pedestrian crossing are also listed. Ancient, military, and
uninhabited structures, such as
* 1 Background
* 1.1 Heritage protection
* 2 What can be listed
* 2.1 Procedure for listing or delisting
* 3.1 The legislation relevant to listing
* 3.2 Heritage protection reform legislation in
* 4.1 Examples of Grade A listed buildings * 4.2 Examples of Grade B+ listed buildings * 4.3 Examples of Grade B1 listed buildings
* 6 Records of listed buildings
* 7 Equivalent status outside the
Although a limited number of 'ancient monuments' were given
protection under the
Ancient Monuments Protection Act 1882 , there
was reluctance to restrict the owners of occupied buildings in what
they could do to their property. It was the damage to buildings caused
by German bombing during
World War II
The basis of the current more comprehensive listing process was
developed from the wartime system and was enacted by a provision in
Town and Country Planning Act 1947 covering
In the UK, the process of protecting the built historic environment (i.e. getting a heritage asset legally protected) is called ‘designation’. To complicate things, several different terms are used because the processes use separate legislation: buildings are ‘listed’; ancient monuments are ‘scheduled’, wrecks are ‘protected’, and battlefields, gardens and parks are ‘registered’. A heritage asset is a part of the historic environment that is valued because of its historic, archaeological, architectural or artistic interest.
Only some of these are judged to be important enough to have extra legal protection through designation. However, buildings that are not formally listed but still judged as being of heritage interest are still regarded as being a material consideration in the planning process.
As a very rough guide, listed buildings are structures considered of special architectural and historical importance whereas ancient monuments are of 'national importance' containing evidential values and can on many occasions also relate to below ground and/or unoccupied sites and buildings.
WHAT CAN BE LISTED
Almost anything can be listed – it does not have to be a building. Buildings and structures of special historic interest come in a wide variety of forms and types, ranging from telephone boxes and road signs, to castles. Historic England has created twenty broad categories of structures, and published selection guides for each one to aid with assessing buildings and structures. These include historical overviews and describe the special considerations for listing each category. Both Historic Scotland and Cadw produce guidance for owners.
PROCEDURE FOR LISTING OR DELISTING
In England, to have a building considered for listing or delisting, the process is to apply to the secretary of state; this can be done by submitting an application form online to Historic England . The applicant does not need to be the owner of the building to apply for it to be listed. Full information including application form guidance notes are on the Historic England website. Historic England assesses buildings put forward for listing or delisting and provides advice to the Secretary of State on the architectural and historic interest. The Secretary of State, who may seek additional advice from others, then decides whether or not to list or delist the building.
ENGLAND AND WALES
THE LEGISLATION RELEVANT TO LISTING
In 1980 there was public outcry at the sudden destruction of the art deco Firestone Tyre Factory ( Wallis, Gilbert and Partners , 1928–29), which was demolished over the August bank holiday weekend by its owners Trafalgar House who had been told that it was likely to be 'spot-listed' a few days later, and the Government undertook to review arrangements for listing buildings. After the Firestone demolition, the Secretary of State for the Environment Michael Heseltine also initiated a complete re-survey of buildings to ensure that everything that merited preservation was on the lists.
In England, the
Department for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) works
Historic England (an agency of the DCMS), and other government
Department for Communities and Local Government
(DCLG) and the Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs
(DEFRA) to deliver the government policy on the protection to historic
buildings and other heritage assets. The decision about whether or not
to list a building is made by the Secretary of State, although the
process is administered in
HERITAGE PROTECTION REFORM LEGISLATION IN ENGLAND
There have been several attempts to simplify the heritage planning process for listed buildings in England, which has still (at the time of writing in May 2011) to reach a conclusion.
The review process was started in 2000 by Alan Howarth , then minister at the Department for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS). The outcome was the paper 'The Power of Place' in 2000 followed by the subsequent policy document 'The Historic Environment: A Force for Our Future' published by the DCMS and the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions (DTLR) in December 2001. The launch of the Government’s Heritage Protection Reform (HPR) report in July 2003 by the DCMS entitled: 'Protecting our historic environment: Making the system work better', asked questions about how the current designation systems could be improved. The HPR decision report 'Review of Heritage Protection: The Way Forward' green paper published in June 2004 by the DCMS committed the UK government and English Heritage to a process of reform including a review of the criteria used for listing buildings.
The Government also began a process of consultation on changes to Planning Policy Guidance 15 ( PPG 15 ) relating to the principles of selection for listing buildings in England. After several years of consultation with heritage groups, charities, planning authorities and English Heritage, this eventually resulted in the publication of Planning Publication Statement 5 'Planning for the Historic Environment' in March 2010 by the DCLG . This replaced PPG15 and sets out the government's national policies on the conservation of the historic environment for the England. PPS5 is supported by a Practice Guide, endorsed by the DCLG, the DCMS, and English Heritage, which describes how to apply the policies stated in PPS5.
The government's White Paper 'Heritage Protection for the 21st Century' published on 8 March 2007 offered a commitment to sharing the understanding of the historic environment and more openness in the process of designation.
In 2008, a draft Heritage Protection Bill was subject to
pre-legislative scrutiny before its passage through UK Parliament. The
legislation was abandoned despite strong cross-party support, to make
room in the parliamentary legislative programme for measures to deal
with the credit crunch, though it may be revived in future. The
proposal was that the existing registers of buildings, parks and
gardens, archaeology and battlefields, maritime wrecks, and World
Heritage Sites be merged into a single online register that will
"explain what is special and why".
English Heritage would become
directly responsible for identifying historic assets in
CATEGORIES OF LISTED BUILDING
There are three types of listed status for buildings in
* GRADE I: buildings of exceptional interest. * GRADE II*: particularly important buildings of more than special interest. * GRADE II: buildings that are of special interest, warranting every effort to preserve them.
There was formerly a non-statutory Grade III, which was abolished in 1970. Additionally, Grades A, B and C were used mainly for Anglican churches in use – these correspond approximately to Grades I, II* and II. These grades were used mainly before 1977, although a few buildings are still listed using these grades.
Listed buildings account for about 2% of English building stock. In
March 2010, there were about 374,000 list entries of which 92% were
Grade II, 5.5% were Grade II*, and 2.5% were Grade I. Places of
worship play an important role in the UK’s architectural heritage.
There are estimated to be about 500,000 actual buildings listed, as listing entries can apply to more than one building.
STATUTORY CRITERIA FOR LISTING
The criteria for listing include architectural interest, historic interest and close historical associations with significant people or events. Buildings not individually noteworthy may still be listed if they form part of a group that is—for example, all the buildings in a square. This is called 'group value'. Sometimes large areas comprising many buildings may not justify listing but receive the looser protection of designation as a conservation area .
The specific criteria include:
* AGE AND RARITY: The older a building is, the more likely it is to be listed. All buildings erected before 1700 that "contain a significant proportion of their original fabric" will be listed. Most buildings built between 1700 and 1840 are listed. After 1840 more selection is exercised and "particularly careful selection" is applied after 1945. Buildings less than 30 years old are rarely listed unless they are of outstanding quality and under threat. * AESTHETIC MERITS: i.e. the appearance of a building. However, buildings that have little visual appeal may be listed on grounds of representing particular aspects of social or economic history. * SELECTIVITY: where a large number of buildings of a similar type survive, the policy is only to list the most representative or significant examples. * NATIONAL INTEREST: significant or distinctive regional buildings; e.g. those that represent a nationally important but localised industry.
The state of repair of a building is _not_ deemed to be a relevant consideration for listing.
* Any buildings or structures constructed before 1 July 1948 that fall within the curtilage of a listed building are treated as part of the listed building. * The effect of a proposed development on the setting of a listed building is a material consideration in determining a planning application. Setting is defined as "the surroundings in which a heritage is experienced".
Although the decision to list a building may be made on the basis of the architectural or historic interest of one small part of the building, the listing protection nevertheless applies to the whole building. Listing applies not just to the exterior fabric of the building itself, but also to the interior, fixtures, fittings, and objects within the curtilage of the building even if they are not fixed.
In an emergency, the local planning authority can serve a temporary listed "building preservation notice", if a building is in danger of demolition or alteration in such a way that might affect its historic character. This remains in force for 6 months until the Secretary of State decides whether or not to formally list the building.
CERTIFICATES OF IMMUNITY
Until the passing of the Enterprise and Regulatory Reform Act in 2013 an application for a Certificate of Immunity from Listing could only be made If planning permission was being sought or had been obtained in England. However, the changes brought about by the Act means that now anyone can ask the Secretary of State to issue a Certificate of Immunity (CoI) in respect of a particular building at any time.
ALTERING A LISTED BUILDING
In Wales, applications are made using a form obtained from the relevant local authority. There is no provision for consent to be granted in outline. When a local authority is disposed to grant listed building consent, it must first notify the National Assembly (_i.e._ Cadw ) of the application. If the planning authority decides to refuse consent, it may do so without any reference to Cadw.
In Scotland, applications are made on a form obtained from Historic Scotland. After consulting the local planning authority, the owner, where possible, and an independent third party, Historic Scotland makes a recommendation on behalf of the Scottish Ministers.
Carrying out unauthorised works to a listed building is a criminal offence and owners can be prosecuted. A planning authority can also insist that all work undertaken without consent be reversed at the owner’s expense.
EXAMPLES OF GRADE I LISTED BUILDINGS
* Clifton Suspension
EXAMPLES OF GRADE II* LISTED BUILDINGS
The Bank Hall mansion house is a Grade II* listed building, due to the 17th-century clock tower, which features an original oak cantilevered staircase. The Johnny Haynes stand at Craven Cottage is a Grade II* listed building.
_See also Category:Grade II* listed buildings for examples of such
Rise Hall , East Riding of Yorkshire
Battersea Power Station , London
Capel Manor House
EXAMPLES OF GRADE II LISTED BUILDINGS
_See also Category:Grade II listed buildings for examples of such
* In 2002, there were 80 seaside piers in
LOCALLY LISTED BUILDINGS
Many councils, for example, Birmingham City Council and Crawley Borough Council , maintain a list of _LOCALLY LISTED BUILDINGS_ as separate to the statutory list (and in addition to it). There is no statutory protection of a building or object on the local list but many receive a degree of protection from loss through being in a Conservation Area and/or through planning policy. Councils hope that owners will recognise the merits of their properties and keep them unaltered if at all possible.
These grades are used by Birmingham: Grade A This is of statutory list quality. To be the subject of notification to Historic England and/or the serving of a Building Preservation Notice if imminently threatened. Grade B Important in the citywide architectural or local street scene context, warranting positive efforts to ensure retention. Grade C Of significance in the local historical/vernacular context, including industrial archaeological features, and worthy of retention.
Crawley Borough Council judges buildings on five criteria: historic interest, architectural interest, group and townscape value, intactness and communal value. As of November 2010, there were 59 buildings on its local list .
Listing began later in
Following the introduction of listing, an initial survey of Northern
Ireland's building stock was begun in 1974. By the time of the
completion of this First Survey in 1994, the listing process had
developed considerably, and it was therefore decided to embark upon a
Second Survey, which is still ongoing, to update and cross-check the
original information. Information gathered during this survey,
relating to both listed and unlisted buildings, is entered into the
A range of listing criteria, which aim to define architectural and
historic interest, are used to determine whether or not to list a
* GRADE A: "buildings of greatest importance to Northern Ireland including both outstanding architectural set-pieces and the least altered examples of each representative style, period and type." * GRADE B+: "high quality buildings that because of exceptional features, interiors or environmental qualities are clearly above the general standard set by grade B1 buildings. Also buildings which might have merited Grade A status but for detracting features such as an incomplete design, lower quality additions or alterations." * GRADE B1: "good examples of a particular period or style. A degree of alteration or imperfection of design may be acceptable. Generally B1 is chosen for buildings that qualify for listing by virtue of a relatively wide selection of attributes. Usually these will include interior features or where one or more features are of exceptional quality and/or interest." * GRADE B2: "special buildings which meet the test of the legislation. A degree of alteration or imperfection of design may be acceptable. B2 is chosen for buildings that qualify for listing by virtue of only a few attributes. An example would be a building sited within a conservation area where the quality of its architectural appearance or interior raises it appreciably above the general standard of buildings within the conservation area."
EXAMPLES OF GRADE A LISTED BUILDINGS
See also: Category:Grade A listed buildings
* Gosford Castle , County Armagh * Grand Opera House , Belfast
EXAMPLES OF GRADE B+ LISTED BUILDINGS
See also: Category:Grade B+ listed buildings
EXAMPLES OF GRADE B1 LISTED BUILDINGS
See also: Category:Grade B1 listed buildings
For lists of buildings, see Listed buildings in
In Scotland, listing was begun by a provision in the Town and Country
Planning (Scotland) Act 1947, and the current legislative basis for
listing is the Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas)
(Scotland) Act 1997. As with other matters regarding planning,
conservation is a power devolved to the
The scheme for classifying buildings is:
* CATEGORY A: "buildings of national or international importance, either architectural or historic, or fine little-altered examples of some particular period, style or building type." * CATEGORY B: "buildings of regional or more than local importance, or major examples of some particular period, style or building type which may have been altered." * CATEGORY C: "buildings of local importance, lesser examples of any period, style, or building type, as originally constructed or moderately altered; and simple traditional buildings which group well with others in categories A and B."
There are about 47,400 listed buildings in Scotland. Of these, around
8 percent (some 3,800) are
EXAMPLES OF CATEGORY A LISTED BUILDINGS
EXAMPLES OF CATEGORY B LISTED BUILDINGS
EXAMPLES OF CATEGORY C LISTED BUILDINGS
RECORDS OF LISTED BUILDINGS
Although the 2008 draft legislation was abandoned, English Heritage
published a single list of all designated heritage assets within
In Scotland, the national dataset of listed buildings and other heritage assets can be searched online via Historic Scotland, or through the map database Pastmap.
To find a listed building in Wales, it is necessary to contact the
appropriate local authority or
Cadw . Also British Listed Buildings
(website) has sections on England,
A photographic library of English listed buildings was started in
1999 as a snapshot of buildings listed at the turn of the millennium.
This is not an up-to-date record of all listed buildings in England
– the listing status and descriptions are only correct as at
February 2001. The photographs were taken between 1999 and 2008. It
is maintained by the
Historic England archive at the Images of England
project website. The National Heritage List for
Listed buildings in danger of being lost through damage or decay in
In Scotland, a buildings at risk register was started in 1990 by
Historic Scotland in response to similar concerns at the number of
listed buildings that were vacant and in disrepair.
In Wales, at risk registers of listed buildings are compiled by local planning authorities, and Cadw produced a report in 2009. The Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales's (RCAHMW) Emergency Buildings Recording team is responsible for surveying historic buildings threatened with destruction, substantial alteration, or serious decay.
EQUIVALENT STATUS OUTSIDE THE UNITED KINGDOM
For other countries' equivalents see List of heritage registers .
Historic England Archive
* ^ "Buildings of Ireland". Retrieved 14 August 2012.
* ^ "Arrangements for handling heritage applications Direction 2015
- Publications - GOV.UK".
* ^ "Listing FAQs". 1st Associated Ltd. Retrieved 2 June 2016.
* ^ "The unusual buildings granted listed status". _The Daily
Telegraph _. 8 June 2011. Retrieved 9 June 2011.
* ^ "Preserving historic sites and buildings". Parliament.uk.
Retrieved 27 August 2010.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Listed buildings - The Victorian Society".
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Targets of enemy bombers and our own demolition men".
28 August 1995.
* ^ National Dictionary of Scottish Architects
* ^ "Protecting the Historic Environment". Department of Culture,
Media and Sport . Retrieved 7 June 2011.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ "Planning policy Statement 5 ‘Planning
for the Historic Environment’". Department of Communities and Local
Government . March 2010. Archived from the original on 2017-01-18.
Retrieved 9 August 2012.
* ^ "Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) Act 1990".
HM Government. June 1990. Retrieved 7 June 2011.
* ^ "Selection Guildlines". English Heritage. Retrieved 8 June
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Listed Buildings FAQs". Wiltshire Council. Retrieved 8
* ^ John Witherow, "No listing of Hoover factory", _The Times_, 1
September 1980, p. 4.
* ^ John Young, "A notable dozen are added to the nation's listed
buildings", _The Times_, 15 October 1980, p. 4.
* ^ Charles Knevitt, "Protecting palaces and pillarboxes", _The
Times_, 3 June 1985, p. 8.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Listing Buildings". Department of Culture, Media and
Sport. Retrieved 6 June 2011.
* ^ "Listed Buildings in Wales". Cadw. Retrieved 7 June 2011.
* ^ "The Listing Process". Historic Scotland. Retrieved 7 June
* ^ John Sharland (2006). "Listed Buildings and the Historic
Environment – A Critique of the Government’s Review of Heritage
Policy’". Retrieved 23 May 2011.
* ^ "The Power of Place" (.pdf). 2000. Retrieved 23 May 2011.
* ^ "The Historic Environment: A Force for our Future". 2001.
Archived from the original on 12 May 2010. Retrieved 7 June 2011.
* ^ "Protecting our Historic Environment: Making the System Work
Better". 2003. Archived from the original on 12 May 2010. Retrieved 7
* ^ "Selection Guidelines". English Heritage. Retrieved 7 June
* ^ "Draft Heritage Protection Bill" (.pdf). Department of Culture,
Media and Sport. April 2009. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
* ^ Roger Mascall (18 December 2009). "The Heritage Protection Bill
Fundamental reform for
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