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This is a list of countries located on more than one continent , known as TRANSCONTINENTAL STATES or INTERCONTINENTAL STATES. While there are many countries with non-contiguous overseas territories fitting this definition, only a limited number of countries have territory straddling an overland continental boundary , most commonly the line that separates Europe
Europe
and Asia
Asia
.

The boundary between Europe
Europe
and Asia
Asia
is purely conventional, and several conventions remained in use well into the 20th century. However, the now-prevalent convention, used for the purposes of this list, follows the Caucasus
Caucasus
northern chain, the Ural River
Ural River
and the Ural Mountains . It has been in use by some cartographers since about 1850. This convention results in several countries finding themselves almost entirely in "Asia", with a few small enclaves or districts technically in "Europe". Notwithstanding these anomalies, this list of transcontinental or intercontinental states respects the convention that Europe
Europe
and Asia
Asia
are full continents rather than subcontinents or component landmasses of the larger Eurasian continent.

Listed further below, separately, are countries with distant non-contiguous parts (overseas territories) on separate continents.

CONTENTS

* 1 Contiguous boundary

* 1.1 Africa
Africa
and Asia
Asia
* 1.2 Asia
Asia
and Europe
Europe

* 2 Non-contiguous

* 2.1 Asia
Asia
and Europe
Europe
* 2.2 Europe
Europe
and North America
North America
* 2.3 Europe
Europe
and South America
South America
* 2.4 Europe, North America, South America, Oceania, and Africa
Africa
* 2.5 Africa
Africa
and Europe
Europe
* 2.6 Asia
Asia
and Africa
Africa
* 2.7 Asia
Asia
and Oceania
Oceania
* 2.8 North America, Oceania
Oceania
and Asia
Asia
* 2.9 North and South America
South America
* 2.10 Other examples * 2.11 Antarctica: claims

* 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links

CONTIGUOUS BOUNDARY

AFRICA AND ASIA

African land part of Egypt
Egypt
Asian land part of Egypt
Egypt
The rest of Africa
Africa
The rest of Asia
Asia
For more details about the geographical border between Africa
Africa
and Asia, see boundaries between continents .

The modern convention for the land boundary between Asia
Asia
and Africa runs along the Isthmus of Suez
Suez
and the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
in Egypt
Egypt
. The border continues through the Gulf of Suez
Gulf of Suez
, Red Sea
Red Sea
and Gulf of Aden
Gulf of Aden
. In antiquity, Egypt
Egypt
had been considered part of Asia, with the Catabathmus Magnus
Catabathmus Magnus
escarpment taken as the boundary with Africa (Libya) .

* Two of 27 governorates of Egypt
Egypt
lie entirely on the Asian Sinai Peninsula and two are transcontinental: Ismailia Governorate
Ismailia Governorate
is nearly equally divided by the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
, and Suez Governorate
Suez Governorate
, which is coterminous with the "transcontinental city" of Suez
Suez
, has a small portion east of the Canal.

ASIA AND EUROPE

For more details about the geographical border between Europe
Europe
and Asia, see boundaries between continents § Europe
Europe
and Asia
Asia
. See also: Geographic criteria for EU membership Conventions used for the boundary between Europe
Europe
and Asia
Asia
during the 18th and 19th centuries. The red line shows the modern convention, in use since c. 1850. Europe
Europe
Asia
Asia
historically placed in either continent

The conventional Europe- Asia
Asia
boundary was subject to considerable variation during the 18th and 19th centuries, indicated anywhere between the Don River and the Caucasus
Caucasus
to the south or the Ural Mountains to the east. Since the later 19th century, the Caucasus-Urals boundary has become almost universally accepted. According to this now-standard convention, the boundary follows the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
, the Turkish Straits
Turkish Straits
, the Black Sea
Black Sea
, along the watershed of the Greater Caucasus
Caucasus
, the northwestern portion of the Caspian Sea and along the Ural River
Ural River
and Ural Mountains
Ural Mountains
to the Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean
.

According to this convention, the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
, the Republic of Turkey , Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and Georgia have territory both in Europe
Europe
and in Asia.

* The Russian Federation
Russian Federation
includes substantial territory in Northern Asia
Asia
, historically incorporated into the Tsardom of Russia
Tsardom of Russia
in the 17th century. European Russia
European Russia
has a population of about 110 million, or some 75% of the country's total population. * The territory of the Republic of Turkey
Republic of Turkey
is predominantly in Asia, with European Turkey (East Thrace) accounting for about 11 million people, or some 14% of the country's population. The territory of Turkey is a remnant of that of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
, which had replaced the transcontinental Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
with the Sack of Constantinople in 1453. The Turkish city Istanbul
Istanbul
(ancient Constantinople
Constantinople
) lies on both sides of the Bosporus
Bosporus
, making it a "transcontinental city". Çanakkale
Çanakkale
is also a Turkish city situated on two continents. * Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
's physical, cultural, and geographic characteristics are Central Asian, but its West Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and Atyrau provinces extend on either side of the Ural River, placing a population of less than one million (out of 15 million) geographically in Europe. * Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
's Qusar , Shabran , Siazan , Khachmaz and Quba districts are north of the Greater Caucasus
Caucasus
watershed and thus geographically in Europe, placing a population of about half a million (or ca. 5% of the country's total population) in Europe. * Georgia is in Transcaucasia
Transcaucasia
, and thus geographically in Asia, except for a small area in the upper reaches of the Terek River
Terek River
, corresponding to Kazbegi Municipality (population 3,800 as of 2014, ca. 0.1% of the country's population).

NON-CONTIGUOUS

ASIA AND EUROPE

For more details about the geographical border between Europe
Europe
and Asia, see borders of the continents .

* Greece: The territory of Greece
Greece
includes a number of islands just off the coast of Asia
Asia
Minor, such as Rhodes
Rhodes
, Samos
Samos
, Chios
Chios
and Kastellorizo
Kastellorizo
.

EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA

* Greenland: Greenland
Greenland
is a country within the Kingdom of Denmark
Denmark
, fully located on the North American tectonic plate and close to the mainland, and is considered to be geographically part of North America. Although it is politically associated with Europe
Europe
and internationally represented by a European country (including in the Council of Europe), it is autonomous. Historically and ethnically, its native population is of American tradition, although it also shares cultural links with other native peoples bordering the Arctic Sea
Arctic Sea
in Northern Europe
Europe
and Asia
Asia
(today in Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia), as well as in North America
North America
(Alaska in the U.S., Northwest Territories and Nunavut in Canada). Greenland
Greenland
was part of the Danish territory and within the territory of the European Union, but voted for a larger autonomy and is now excluded from it. * Portugal: Continental Portugal is in Europe, while the Azores archipelago (also associated with Europe) has two islands (Corvo and Flores ) that are part of the American plate. This might make Portugal a tricontinental country (with Madeira
Madeira
on the African plate) except that continents, as already noted, are not defined by tectonic plates.

EUROPE AND SOUTH AMERICA

* The Netherlands: Though most of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Kingdom of the Netherlands
' land-mass is in Europe, it also includes six island territories in the Lesser Antilles
Lesser Antilles
archipelago of the Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
: the Dutch Caribbean . Since the dissolution of the Dutch Antilles in 2010, the sovereign Kingdom of the Netherlands
Kingdom of the Netherlands
has been administratively divided into four non-sovereign constituent "countries": Aruba
Aruba
, Curaçao
Curaçao
, Sint Maarten and The Netherlands
Netherlands
— the last of which includes the islands of Bonaire, St. Eustatius and Saba
Saba
(collectively known as the BES islands ) in the Caribbean
Caribbean
area as "special municipalities", making it a non-sovereign transcontinental country within the kingdom.

EUROPE, NORTH AMERICA, SOUTH AMERICA, OCEANIA, AND AFRICA

* France: Metropolitan France
Metropolitan France
is in Europe, while the five Overseas Departments and six Overseas Collectivities are in other continents. Guadeloupe
Guadeloupe
, Martinique
Martinique
, Saint-Martin
Saint-Martin
, Saint-Barthélemy
Saint-Barthélemy
, and Saint-Pierre and Miquelon
Saint-Pierre and Miquelon
are in North America, French Guiana
French Guiana
is in South America, Mayotte
Mayotte
and Réunion
Réunion
are in Africa, and New Caledonia
New Caledonia
, French Polynesia
French Polynesia
, and Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna
are in Oceania. These Overseas Departments and Collectivities are integral parts of France
France
, as are the uninhabited French Southern and Antarctic Lands
French Southern and Antarctic Lands
and Clipperton Island
Clipperton Island
.

AFRICA AND EUROPE

For more details about the geographical border between Africa
Africa
and Europe, see borders of the continents .

* Italy: Italy has a number of small islands south of Sicily which, geographically can be considered part of the African continent, due to their proximity to Tunisia. The closest land to Pantelleria
Pantelleria
and the Pelagie Islands
Pelagie Islands
( Lampedusa
Lampedusa
, Linosa
Linosa
and Lampione
Lampione
) is Tunisia
Tunisia
on the African mainland. Nevertheless, Pantelleria
Pantelleria
and Linosa
Linosa
are considered part of Europe, Lampedusa
Lampedusa
and Lampione
Lampione
part of Africa. * Portugal: Continental Portugal is in Europe, while the archipelago of Madeira
Madeira
, an autonomous region of Portugal (including Porto Santo Island , the Desertas Islands
Desertas Islands
and the Savage Islands
Savage Islands
), is associated with Africa. If we consider that the Azores
Azores
autonomous region of Portugal has two islands (Flores and Corvo ) that are part of North American tectonic plate (see Europe
Europe
and North America
North America
section above), Portugal would be a transcontinental country except for the fact these plates are not defined as continents. * Spain: Although its mainland is in Europe, Spain
Spain
has territory including two provinces and two autonomous cities in Africa. Close to 5% of Spain's population live on the African continent. Territories include the Canary Islands
Canary Islands
in the Atlantic, the cities of Ceuta
Ceuta
and Melilla
Melilla
on mainland North Africa
Africa
and its Plazas de soberanía
Plazas de soberanía
close to those cities) that are geographically part of Africa. The Canary Islands, Ceuta
Ceuta
and Melilla
Melilla
are three of the 19 autonomous communities and cities that form Spain, while the Plazas de Soberanía are under different military status. The African Mediterranean island of Isla de Alborán belongs to the transcontinental city of Almería
Almería
and the transcontinental province of Almería
Almería
.

ASIA AND AFRICA

* Yemen: Although mainland Yemen
Yemen
is in the southern Arabian Peninsula and thus part of Asia
Asia
, and its Hanish Islands
Hanish Islands
and Perim
Perim
in the Red Sea
Red Sea
are associated with Asia, Yemen
Yemen
controls the archipelago of Socotra
Socotra
, which lies east of the horn of Somalia
Somalia
and is much closer to Africa
Africa
than to Asia. Socotra
Socotra
and the Hadramawt region constitute the transcontinental Hadramawt Governorate .

ASIA AND OCEANIA

* Australia
Australia
: The Commonwealth of Australia
Australia
consists of its namesake continent and island possessions associated with Oceania, Asia, and Antarctica
Antarctica
. Its Indian Ocean island possessions of Christmas Island and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
are associated with Asia. The majority of Australia's Asian island residents have Asian ancestry and are Muslim or Buddhist. * Japan
Japan
: All of Japan
Japan
consists of Asian islands except for the remote Bonin Islands
Bonin Islands
, also known as the Ogasawara Islands, which are Pacific islands administered by Ogasawara, Tokyo
Ogasawara, Tokyo
. * Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
: Anthropologically Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
is a part of Melanesia
Melanesia
and is sometimes included in the Malay Archipelago
Archipelago
. It is an observer in ASEAN
ASEAN
and has contemplated full membership. * The Philippines
Philippines
, Malaysia
Malaysia
, Indonesia
Indonesia
, East Timor
East Timor
, Brunei
Brunei
and Singapore
Singapore
comprise the Malay Archipelago
Archipelago
which lies on the border of Oceania
Oceania
and Asia. Depending on the interpretation of the border, the Philippines
Philippines
, Malaysia
Malaysia
and Indonesia
Indonesia
can be considered transcontinental countries and East Timor
East Timor
, Brunei
Brunei
and Singapore
Singapore
can be on either side.

NORTH AMERICA, OCEANIA AND ASIA

* United States: While the territory of the United States
United States
lies overwhelmingly in North America, it includes the state of Hawaii
Hawaii
in Oceania
Oceania
as well as other Oceanian island possessions and Alaskan islands on NE Asia\'s continental shelf .

NORTH AND SOUTH AMERICA

* Aruba, Bonaire, Curaçao
Curaçao
and Trinidad
Trinidad
and Tobago: The sea islands division of South America
South America
and North America
North America
is complicated. All Caribbean
Caribbean
islands are often labeled as North American, but the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Netherlands
countries of Aruba
Aruba
and Curaçao
Curaçao
, and the Dutch special municipality of Bonaire
Bonaire
lie on the continental shelf of South America, and can be considered South American as well. What complicates it even further is that the islands of Trinidad
Trinidad
and Tobago lie on two continental shelves. The southern half of Trinidad
Trinidad
lies in South America
South America
and the northern half of Trinidad, and Tobago
Tobago
, lie on the Caribbean
Caribbean
plate. All these islands have closer cultural ties with North America. * Colombia: Mainland Colombia
Colombia
is in northwestern South America
South America
and Malpelo Island
Malpelo Island
in the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
is also associated with South America, but the nation also controls the San Andrés and Providencia archipelago , 640 kilometres (400 mi) WNW of Colombia's Caribbean coast, near the Caribbean
Caribbean
coast of Nicaragua
Nicaragua
. This archipelago is coterminous with the department of the same name. * Venezuela: Mainland Venezuela
Venezuela
is in South America, but Isla Aves are geographically North American. Isla Aves is one of the federal dependencies of Venezuela
Venezuela
under the administration of the Ministry of Popular Power for Interior, Justice and Peace .

North American Caribbean
Caribbean
islands belonging to South American countries:

San Andrés and Providencia
San Andrés and Providencia

South American Caribbean
Caribbean
islands:

Aruba
Aruba
Curaçao
Curaçao

Bonaire
Bonaire
Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago

OTHER EXAMPLES

* Chile
Chile
is mostly on the South American mainland and includes the Oceanian islands of Easter Island
Easter Island
and Sala y Gómez
Sala y Gómez
Island. They and the outlying South American Juan Fernández Islands
Juan Fernández Islands
and Desventuradas Islands are part of the Valparaíso Region
Valparaíso Region
. * The Danish Realm
Danish Realm
includes Denmark
Denmark
as well as the North American island of Greenland
Greenland
and the Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
associated with Europe. Greenland
Greenland
was integrated into the Danish Realm
Danish Realm
in 1953 and home rule was granted in 1979. * The Kingdom of the Netherlands
Kingdom of the Netherlands
includes the constituent countries of Aruba
Aruba
, Curaçao
Curaçao
, and Sint Maarten
Sint Maarten
. In addition, after the split of the Netherlands Antilles
Netherlands Antilles
the Caribbean
Caribbean
islands of Bonaire
Bonaire
, Sint Eustatius and Saba
Saba
became special municipalities incorporated into the metropolitan Netherlands
Netherlands
.

ANTARCTICA: CLAIMS

Main article: Territorial claims in Antarctica
Antarctica

A number of nations claim ownership over portions of the continent of Antarctica
Antarctica
. Some, including Argentina
Argentina
and Chile
Chile
, consider the Antarctic land they claim to be integral parts of their national territory. Some nations also have sub-Antarctic island possessions north of 60°S latitude and thus recognized by international law under the Antarctic Treaty System
Antarctic Treaty System
, which holds in abeyance land claims south of 60°S latitude.

SEE ALSO

* Borders of the continents * Dependent territory * Historical powers * List of countries by continent * List of transcontinental empires and countries in history * Thalassocracy
Thalassocracy

REFERENCES

* ^ The question was treated as a "controversy" in British geographical literature until at least the 1860s, with Douglas Freshfield advocating the Caucasus
Caucasus
crest boundary as the "best possible", citing support from various "modern geographers" (Journey in the Caucasus, Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society, Volumes 13-14, 1869). In 1958, the Soviet Geographical Society formally recommended that the boundary between Europe
Europe
and Asia
Asia
be drawn in textbooks from Baydaratskaya Bay
Baydaratskaya Bay
, on the Kara Sea
Kara Sea
, along the eastern foot of the Ural Mountains, then the Ural River
Ural River
to the Mugodzhar Hills
Mugodzhar Hills
, the Emba River , and the Kuma–Manych Depression (i.e. passing well north of the Caucasus); "Do we live in Europe
Europe
or in Asia?" (in Russian). ; Orlenok V. (1998). "Physical Geography" (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2011-10-16. . Nevertheless, most Soviet-era geographers continued to favour the boundary along the Caucasus
Caucasus
crest. (E. M. Moores, R. W. Fairbridge, Encyclopedia of European and Asian regional geology, Springer, 1997, ISBN 978-0-412-74040-4 , p. 34: "most Soviet geographers took the watershed of the Main Range of the Greater Caucasus
Caucasus
as the boundary between Europe
Europe
and Asia.") * ^ National Geographic Atlas of the World (9th ed.). Washington, DC: National Geographic . 2011. ISBN 978-1-4262-0634-4 . "Europe" (plate 59); "Asia" (plate 74): "A commonly accepted division between Asia
Asia
and Europe
Europe
... is formed by the Ural Mountains, Ural River, Caspian Sea, Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains, and the Black Sea
Black Sea
with its outlets, the Bosporus
Bosporus
and Dardanelles." * ^ World Factbook. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
. * ^ Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
, Kazakhstan, Retrieved: 8 May 2016 * ^ World Factbook. Washington, D.C.: Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
. Kazakhstan: Geography * ^ " Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
asks RP support for Asean membership bid". GMA News. Retrieved 15 July 2014.

EXTERNAL LINKS

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