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During the civil unrest that followed the killing of George Floyd in May 2020, a number of monuments and memorials associated with racial injustice were vandalized, destroyed or removed, or commitments to remove them were announced. This occurred mainly in the
United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., federal di ...
, but also in several other countries. Some of the monuments in question had been the subject of lengthy, years-long efforts to remove them, sometimes involving legislation and/or court proceedings. In some cases the removal was legal and official; in others, most notably in
Alabama (We dare defend our rights) , anthem = "Alabama (state song), Alabama" , image_map = Alabama in United States.svg , seat = Montgomery, Alabama, Montgomery , LargestCity = Birming ...
and
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, laws prohibiting the removal of monuments were deliberately broken. Initially, activists targeted monuments to the
Confederate States of America The Confederate States of America (CSA), commonly referred to as the Confederate States or the Confederacy, was an List of historical unrecognized states and dependencies, unrecognized Secession, breakaway state in existence from February 8, ...

Confederate States of America
, its leaders and its military. As the scope of the protests broadened to include other forms of systemic racism, many statues of Christopher Columbus in the United States were removed, as he participated in abuses against Native Americans and his arrival in the Americas was the beginning of the Genocide of indigenous peoples#Native American Genocide, genocide of Native American people. Statues of Junípero Serra, Juan de Oñate and Kit Carson, also involved in mistreatment of Native Americans, were also torn down or removed. Monuments to many other local figures connected with racism were also removed. Several statues of American slaveowners were also vandalized or removed, including Thomas Jefferson, George Washington, Ulysses S. Grant, and Francis Scott Key. Some pro-Union (American Civil War), Union or anti-slavery monuments were also targeted, as they were seen to embody disrespectful attitudes towards Native Americans or the enslaved. In one case, a statue of Hans Christian Heg, statue of abolitionist Hans Christian Heg was torn down. By October 2020, over a hundred Confederate symbols had been "removed, relocated or renamed," as the ''Huffington Post'' put it, based on data from the Southern Poverty Law Center. In the United Kingdom, removal efforts and vandalism focused on memorials to figures involved in the Atlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, British Empire, British colonialism, and eugenics. In Belgium, sculptures of King Leopold II, King of the Belgians, Leopold II were targeted due to his rule during the Atrocities in the Congo Free State, atrocities in the Congo Free State. In New Zealand, a statue of a British military officer John Fane Charles Hamilton, John Hamilton was removed, and in India another colonial-era statue was relocated. In South Africa a bust of Cecil Rhodes was decapitated, and a statue of the last president of the Orange Free State was taken down. Some observers, including Cardinal Timothy M. Dolan, have compared the vandalism and destruction of monuments and memorials to the period of iconoclasm#Iconoclasm in Eastern Europe, iconoclasm in the former Soviet Union, or the Cultural Revolution in the People's Republic of China. U.S. president Donald Trump denounced the actions against statues as part of a "left-wing cultural revolution" to "wipe out our history", and proposed the creation of a National Garden of American Heroes. Other observers, such as former Mayor Mitch Landrieu and American Civil War historian Adam Domby, have noted that monuments can reflect society's values and removal of monuments can be a form of recognizing a history of racial injustice. This list is limited to successful removals, and instances in which a person or body with authority has committed itself to removal. It does not include the many works that have been the subject of petitions, protests, defacement, or attempted removals, such as the Emancipation Memorial in Washington, D.C., and many statues of Leopold II in Belgium.


Sculptures and other monuments

The following monuments and memorials were removed during the George Floyd protests, mainly due to their connections to racism. The majority are in the
United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., federal di ...
and mostly commemorate the
Confederate States of America The Confederate States of America (CSA), commonly referred to as the Confederate States or the Confederacy, was an List of historical unrecognized states and dependencies, unrecognized Secession, breakaway state in existence from February 8, ...

Confederate States of America
(CSA), but some monuments were also Actions against memorials in the United Kingdom during the George Floyd protests, removed in other countries, for example the statues of slave traders in the United Kingdom. Notes: * * * Dates are in 2020 unless otherwise specified.


United States

The following monuments and memorials were removed during the George Floyd protests due to their association with racism in the United States. Most commemorated people involved in the Lost Cause of the Confederacy, with others linked to the genocide of Native Americans, segregation in the United States, and related issues. In a few instances, like the Montgomery County Confederate Soldiers Monument and the Statue of John Mason, the monuments had already been moved from their original location, sometimes more than once, as different venues objected.


Confederate monuments

The
Confederate States of America The Confederate States of America (CSA), commonly referred to as the Confederate States or the Confederacy, was an List of historical unrecognized states and dependencies, unrecognized Secession, breakaway state in existence from February 8, ...

Confederate States of America
fought a four-year war (the American Civil War) to preserve the institution of slavery. After its defeat, all enslaved African Americans were freed and became citizens with the right to vote and hold office. Confederate monuments commemorate politicians, Confederate States Army, Army officers, and soldiers of the Confederacy. Most are in the former CSA states. There are 106 entries in this table, as of March 6, 2021. It does not include Virginia, which is in a second table that follows. This is a ''sortable table''. Click on the top of the column you want the table sorted by. {, class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:left" ! colspan="2" , Monument/memorial ! City ! State ! Removal announced ! Removed ! Means of removal ! class="unsortable" , Notes ! class="unsortable" ,


=Virginia

= Virginia, where the CSA had its capital in Richmond, Virginia, Richmond, has the most Confederate monuments of any U.S. state. A March 2020 change in the law of Virginia had already essentially repealed the statute preventing removal of historical monuments, effective from July 1, 2020. This change became possible when voters, after electing the Democrat Ralph Northam as Governor in 2017, gave the Democratic Party (United States), Democrats control of both houses of the Virginia General Assembly from January 2020, for the first time in a generation. {, class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:left" ! colspan="2" , Monument/memorial ! City ! State ! Removal announced ! Removed ! Means of removal ! class="unsortable" , Notes ! class="unsortable" ,


Genocide of indigenous peoples

Monuments dedicated to individuals accused of involvement in the Genocide of indigenous peoples#Spanish colonization of the Americas, genocide of indigenous peoples in the Americas have been removed. Juan de Oñate, when List of Spanish governors of New Mexico, governor of Santa Fe de Nuevo México, was responsible for the 1599 Acoma Massacre. Junípero Serra, a Franciscans, Franciscan friar, was involved in enslaving Chumash people in the 18th century for the building and supplying of the Spanish missions in California. Diego de Vargas, also governor of Santa Fe de Nuevo México, led the reconquest of the territory in 1692, after the Pueblo Revolt of 1680. A handful of towns in Spain have offered to receive statues of Spaniards unwanted in the U.S. {, class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:left" ! colspan="2" , Monument/memorial ! City ! State ! Removal announced ! Removed ! Means of removal ! class="unsortable" , Notes ! class="unsortable" ,


=Christopher Columbus

= Several statues of Christopher Columbus, the initiator of the European colonization of the Americas, have been removed because of his alleged enslavement of and systemic violence against the indigenous peoples of the Caribbean, including the genocide of the Taíno people. {, class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:left" ! colspan="2" , Monument/memorial ! City ! State ! Removal announced ! Removed ! Means of removal ! class="unsortable" , Notes ! class="unsortable" ,


Others

{, class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:left" ! colspan="2" , Monument/memorial ! City ! State ! Removal announced ! Removed ! Means of removal ! class="unsortable" , Notes ! class="unsortable" , * Nazi POW Gravestones. San Antonio, Texas. Announced June 1. Removed December 23. Removed by Fort Sam Houston National Cemetery employees. Source.


Great Britain


Atlantic slave trade

The Royal African Company, which engaged in Atlantic slave trade, African slave trading between 1662 and 1731, enslaved and shipped more Africans to the Americas than any other institution in the history of the Atlantic slave trade. {, class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:left" ! colspan="2" , Monument/memorial ! Location ! Removal announced ! Removed ! Means of removal ! class="unsortable" , Notes ! class="unsortable" ,


Others

{, class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:left" ! colspan="2" , Monument/memorial ! Location ! Removal announced ! Removed ! Means of removal ! class="unsortable" , Notes ! class="unsortable" ,


Belgium

King Leopold II of Belgium personally ruled the Congo Free State from 1885 to 1908, treating it as his personal property. During this period, atrocities in the Congo Free State, many well-documented atrocities were perpetrated against the population, including the severing of hands of workers unable to meet a production quota for rubber, and the destruction of entire villages that were unwilling to participate in the forced labour regime. These acts contributed to a genocide during this period, Atrocities in the Congo Free State#Estimates, often estimated at between five million and ten million. {, class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:left" ! colspan="2" , Monument/memorial ! Location ! Removal announced ! Removed ! Means of removal ! class="unsortable" , Notes ! class="unsortable" ,


New Zealand

Royal Navy officer John Fane Charles Hamilton, after whom the city of Hamilton, New Zealand, Hamilton is named, played a prominent part in the Tauranga campaign of the New Zealand Wars. {, class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:left" ! colspan="2" , Monument/memorial ! Location ! Removal announced ! Removed ! Means of removal ! class="unsortable" , Notes ! class="unsortable" ,


South Africa

{, class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:left" ! colspan="2" , Monument/memorial ! Location ! Removal announced ! Removed ! Means of removal ! class="unsortable" , Notes ! class="unsortable" ,


India

{, class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:left" ! colspan="2" , Monument/memorial ! Location ! Removal announced ! Removed ! Means of removal ! class="unsortable" , Notes ! class="unsortable" ,


Barbados

{, class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:left" ! colspan="2" , Monument/memorial ! Location ! Removal announced ! Removed ! Means of removal ! class="unsortable" , Notes ! class="unsortable" , , -


Cambodia

{, class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:left" ! colspan="2" , Monument/memorial ! Location ! Removal announced ! Removed ! Means of removal ! class="unsortable" , Notes ! class="unsortable" , , -


Canada

{, class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:left" ! colspan="2" , Monument/memorial ! Location ! Province ! Removal announced ! Removed ! Means of removal ! class="unsortable" , Notes ! class="unsortable" , , -


Ireland

{, class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:left" ! colspan="2" , Monument/memorial ! Location ! Removal announced ! Removed ! Means of removal ! class="unsortable" , Notes ! class="unsortable" ,


Colombia

{, class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:left" ! colspan="2" , Monument/memorial ! Location ! Department ! Removal announced ! Removed ! Means of removal ! class="unsortable" , Notes ! class="unsortable" , , -


Removals under consideration

Some officials have announced their decisions to remove monuments under their jurisdiction, and are currently working to push through whatever legislative or permission barriers they need to accomplish their goals. * Alaska: Anchorage, Alaska, Anchorage Mayor Ethan Berkowitz announced on June 24, 2020 that he will leave the decision about removal of the Statue of James Cook (Anchorage, Alaska), statue of James Cook in downtown Anchorage up to the Eklutna, Anchorage, Native Village of Eklutna and other area Denaʼina tribes. * Florida: Protesters at Florida State University, Tallahassee, call for removal of the Eppes Statue, at the original entrance to the campus; he was a slaveowner who was influential in the founding of Florida State. The building of the College of Criminology and Criminal Justice is also named for him. Protesters are also calling for renaming of Doak Campbell Stadium (see under List of name changes due to the George Floyd protests#United States). * Louisiana: East Feliciana Parish, Louisiana, East Feliciana Parish Police Jury announced June 15, 2020 that they will revisit in two weeks the issue of a possible removal of a Confederate statue that sits outside their courthouse. * Louisiana: City of Alexandria, Louisiana, Alexandria voted to have Confederate Monument in front of Rapides Parish Courthouse. However, there is an ongoing court case to determine who owns the statue: the City of Alexandria, Rapides Parish, or the UDC. * Kentucky: Murray, Kentucky, Murray City Council passed a unanimous vote to remove the Confederate Monument (Murray, Kentucky), Confederate Monument of Robert E. Lee from in front of their courthouse. The County Attorney isn't sure if the county has authority to move the statue, which is on the National Register of Historic Places, and so is conducting further research. Public feedback is expected. * Mississippi: Forrest County, Mississippi, Forrest County Supervisors passed a measure on June 15, 2020. In November, voters will decide about the removal of a Confederate monument in front of their courthouse. * Ohio: Cincinnati, Ohio, Cincinnati city council member is making a motion to remove an Equestrian statue of William Henry Harrison, equestrian statue of President William Henry Harrison from Piatt Park. June 14, 2020 * Texas: Weatherford, Texas, Weatherford: The United Daughters of the Confederacy asked for the removal of the United Confederate Veterans of Parker County monument in front of the Parker County Courthouse. * Virginia: Virginia Beach, Virginia, Virginia Beach City Council announced on June 12, 2020 that they covered and fenced the Confederate monument sitting at the Old Princess Anne County, Virginia, Princess Anne County Courthouse until after July 1, 2020 when the city will have the authority to make decisions about the monument. A public hearing will be scheduled in July 2020. * Washington, D.C.: In July the House voted to remove 11 Confederate statues and statues of three others – Charles Aycock, John C. Calhoun, and James Paul Clarke – from the United States Capitol. The statues are part of the National Statuary Hall Collection, a set of 100, with two supplied by each state. Senate Republican leader Mitch McConnell said replacement decisions should be up to the individual states and the bill would need to pass the GOP-controlled Senate.


Other works of art


United States

{, class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:left" ! colspan="2" , Artwork ! City ! State ! Removal announced ! Removed ! Means of removal ! class="unsortable" , Notes ! class="unsortable" ,


Great Britain

{, class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:left" ! colspan="2" , Artwork ! Location ! Removal announced ! Removed ! Means of removal ! class="unsortable" , Notes ! class="unsortable" ,


France

In France, where slavers gave their names to streets but have very few physical monuments, the only work concerned is a mural that is instead a tribute to George Floyd and Adama Traoré, whose deaths caused respectively the 2020 Black Lives Matter protests and Justice pour Adama, a movement in France against racism and police violence begun in 2016 and reactivated in 2020 by the movement in the United States. {, class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:left" ! , Artwork ! City ! Département ! Removal announced ! Removed ! Means of removal ! class="unsortable" , Notes ! class="unsortable" ,


Plaques and signs


United States

{, class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:left" ! Plaque ! City ! State ! Removal announced ! Removed ! Means of removal ! class="unsortable" , Notes ! class="unsortable" ,


Great Britain

{, class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:left" ! colspan="2" , Plaque ! Location ! Removal announced ! Removed ! Means of removal ! class="unsortable" , Notes ! class="unsortable" ,


Buildings

The following buildings were destroyed, torn down, or heavily damaged during the George Floyd protests due to their perceived racist heritage: {, class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:left" ! colspan="2" , Building ! City ! State ! Date of incident ! class="unsortable" , Notes ! class="unsortable" ,


See also

* Actions against memorials in the United Kingdom during the George Floyd protests * List of monument and memorial controversies in the United States * List of public statues of individuals linked to the Atlantic slave trade * Removal of Confederate monuments and memorials * Rhodes Must Fall


Notes


References


Further reading

* * * Greenfield, Nathan M. (July 14, 2020)
"Western Culture Has a Hallowed Tradition of Felling Offensive Statues"
''Times of San Diego.'' * * Stour, James (June 15, 2020)
"How to Topple a Statue Using Science"
''Popular Mechanics.'' * * * * Morris, Phillip. (June 29, 2020)
"As monuments fall, how does the world reckon with a racist past?"
''National Geographic.'' *Kalen Goodluck''.'' (January 6, 2021)
Indigenous symbols rise as colonial monuments fall in New Mexico
''National Geographic.'' *


External links

*
Confederate monuments coming down amid protests

''When they came down'' (photograph collection)Objection to the misrepresentation of Junípero Serra, who advocated for indigenous people
{{George Floyd protests Monuments and memorials removed during the George Floyd protests, * May 2020 events in the United States June 2020 events in the United States George Floyd protests Iconoclasm Lists of monuments and memorials by subject, Floyd Removed Confederate States of America monuments and memorials