This is a list of the monarchs of Finland until it became a republic in 1919; that is, the Kings of Sweden with Regents and Viceroys of the Kalmar Union, the Grand Dukes of Finland (identical with the Tsars of Russia), up to the two-year Regent period following the independence in 1917, with a brief flirtation with a truly domestic monarchy.
Part of the Kingdom of Sweden, from the Middle Ages until 1809
Finland as an integral part of Sweden under the King of Sweden (Ruotsin kuningas).
Some texts suggest the Swedish rule of Finland started as early as during the Houses of Sverker and Eric (Sverker I of Sweden 1130–1156 and Eric the Saint 1156–1160). But the first historic documents suggesting rule by Swedish kings in Finland not limited to sparse crusades and conquests are dated at around 1249.
Rulers of the Kalmar Union and Regents (Valtionhoitaja, Riksföreståndare)
- 1389–1412 : Margaret I of Denmark (Margareeta), widow of King Haakon of Sweden, mother of Olav IV, and heiress of Estonia, a Danish dominion
- 1412–1439 : Eric II (Eerik XIII Pommerilainen, died 1459), a first cousin twice removed of Haakon I of Sweden
- 1438–1440 : Carl Knutsson Bonde, Regent (Kaarle Knuutinpoika)
- 1441–1448 : Christopher of Bavaria (Kristoffer Baijerilainen)
- 1448–1448 : Regents Bengt and Nils Jönsson Oxenstierna ((Pentti Jönsinpoika Häräntähti and Niilo Jönsinpoika Häräntähti))
- 1448–1457 : Charles I (Kaarle I Knuutinpoika), he had been 1442–48 chatelain and margrave of Viipuri county
- 1457–1457 : Regents Jöns Bengtsson Oxenstierna the archbishop and Eric Axelsson Tott ((arkkipiispa Jöns Pentinpoika and herra Eerik Akselinpoika))
- 1457–1464 : Christian I of Sweden (Kristian I)
- 1464–1470 : Charles I (restored)
- 1470–1497 : Regent Sten Sture the elder (Sten Sture vanhempi) - also, 1483–1501 chatelain and margrave of Viipuri county
- 1497–1501 : John I (Juhana I)
- 1501–1503 : Regent Sten Sture the elder (Sten Sture vanhempi)
- 1504–1511 : Regent Svante Nisson (Svante Niilonpoika, Ekesiön herra, he did not use the name of Sture)
- 1512–1512 : Regent Eric Trolle
- 1512–1520 : Regent Sten Sture the younger (Sten Sture nuorempi, he took the name of Sture of his great-grandmother's family, for image reasons and for its prestige)
- 1520–1521 : Christian II of Sweden (Kristian II)
- 1654–1660 : Charles II Gustav (Kaarle II Kustaa), also titled Grand Prince of Finland
- 1660–1697 : Charles III (Kaarle III), also titled Grand Prince of Finland
- 1697–1718 : Charles IV (Kaarle IV), also titled Grand Prince of Finland
- 1719–1720 : Ulrika Eleonora of Sweden (Ulriika Eleonoora), also titled Grand Princess of Finland
The House of Hesse
Grand Principality of Finland in Russian Empire 1809–1917
The Grand Principality of Finland in the Russian Empire (1809–1917) with the Emperor of Russia as the Grand Prince of Finland (Suomen suuriruhtinas).
Interim period 1917–19
During the interregnum from the fall of Nicholas II to the end of the Finnish Civil War in spring 1918, sovereignty in Finland was exercised by the Finnish Parliament and, until the October Revolution and the declaration of independence, the Russian interim government. After the civil war, regents (valtionhoitaja) were appointed by the parliament and a new king elected.
Regents appointed by parliament
The House of Hesse
For later heads of state after the proclamation of the republic, see List of Presidents of Finland.
- ^ During Svinhufvud's regency, Prince Frederick Charles of Hesse was elected as the King of Finland on 9 October 1918. He never took office and renounced the throne on 14 December 1918.