List of monarchs in Britain by length of reign
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The following is a list, ordered by length of reign, of the monarchs of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (1927–present), the
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was a sovereign state in the British Isles that existed between 1801 and 1922, when it included all of Ireland. It was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the Kingdom of Gre ...
(1801–1927), the
Kingdom of Great Britain The Kingdom of Great Britain (officially Great Britain) was a sovereign country in Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe Europe is a large peninsula conventionally considered a continent in its own right ...
(1707–1800), the
Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England (, ) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean The Atlantic Ocean is the second-largest of the world's five oceans, with an area of a ...
(871–1707), the Kingdom of Scotland (878–1707), the Kingdom of Ireland (1542–1800), and the Principality of Wales (1216–1542). Queen
Elizabeth II Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; 21 April 1926 – 8 September 2022) was Queen of the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms from 6 February 1952 until her death in 2022. She was queen regnant of 32 sovereign states durin ...
became the longest-reigning monarch in British history on 9 September 2015 when she surpassed the reign of her great-great-grandmother
Queen Victoria Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death in 1901. Her reign of 63 years and 216 days was longer than that of any previ ...
. On 6 February 2017 she became the first British monarch to celebrate a Sapphire Jubilee, commemorating 65 years on the throne. On 6 February 2022,
Elizabeth II Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; 21 April 1926 – 8 September 2022) was Queen of the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms from 6 February 1952 until her death in 2022. She was queen regnant of 32 sovereign states durin ...
became the first British monarch to reign for 70 years, and large-scale celebrations for her Platinum Jubilee occurred on 2 to 5 June.
Elizabeth II Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; 21 April 1926 – 8 September 2022) was Queen of the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms from 6 February 1952 until her death in 2022. She was queen regnant of 32 sovereign states durin ...
died on 8 September 2022, at the age of 96 years and 140 days, after reigning for 70 years and 214 days.


Elizabeth II: the longest-reigning monarch

On 9 September 2015,
Elizabeth II Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; 21 April 1926 – 8 September 2022) was Queen of the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms from 6 February 1952 until her death in 2022. She was queen regnant of 32 sovereign states durin ...
became the longest-reigning British monarch and the longest-reigning female monarch in world history. On 23 May 2016, her reign surpassed the claimed reign of James Francis Edward Stuart (nicknamed "the Old Pretender"). On 6 February 2022 (at the age of ), she became the first British monarch to reign for 70 years and celebrate a platinum jubilee.


Ten longest-reigning British monarchs

These are the ten longest-reigning monarchs in the British Isles for whom there is reliable recorded evidence.


Complete list of the unitary monarchy


Great Britain

On 1 May 1707, under the Acts of Union 1707, the
Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England (, ) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean The Atlantic Ocean is the second-largest of the world's five oceans, with an area of a ...
united with the Kingdom of Scotland as the
Kingdom of Great Britain The Kingdom of Great Britain (officially Great Britain) was a sovereign country in Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe Europe is a large peninsula conventionally considered a continent in its own right ...
.


United Kingdom

On 1 January 1801 the
Kingdom of Great Britain The Kingdom of Great Britain (officially Great Britain) was a sovereign country in Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe Europe is a large peninsula conventionally considered a continent in its own right ...
united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was a sovereign state in the British Isles that existed between 1801 and 1922, when it included all of Ireland. It was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the Kingdom of Gre ...
, becoming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland by Act of Parliament in 1927 following the creation of the
Irish Free State The Irish Free State ( ga, Saorstát Éireann, , ; 6 December 192229 December 1937) was a state established in December 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 1921. The treaty ended the three-year Irish War of Independence between ...
in 1922.


Complete list of the kingdoms


England

Includes English monarchs from the installation of
Alfred the Great Alfred the Great (alt. Ælfred 848/849 – 26 October 899) was King of the West Saxons from 871 to 886, and King of the Anglo-Saxons from 886 until his death in 899. He was the youngest son of King Æthelwulf and his first wife Osburh, who ...
as King of Wessex in 871 to Anne ( House of Stuart) and the Acts of Union on 1 May 1707, when the crown became part of the
Kingdom of Great Britain The Kingdom of Great Britain (officially Great Britain) was a sovereign country in Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe Europe is a large peninsula conventionally considered a continent in its own right ...
.


Scotland

Includes Scottish monarchs from the installation of Kenneth I ( House of Alpin) in 848 to Anne ( House of Stuart) and the Acts of Union on 1 May 1707, when the crown became part of the
Kingdom of Great Britain The Kingdom of Great Britain (officially Great Britain) was a sovereign country in Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe Europe is a large peninsula conventionally considered a continent in its own right ...
.


Ireland

The High King of Ireland (846–1198) was primarily a titular ruler (with the exception of
Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair Ruaidrí mac Tairrdelbach Ua Conchobair ( Modern Irish: Ruairí Ó Conchúir; anglicized as Rory O'Conor) ( – 2 December 1198) was King of Connacht from 1156 to 1186, and High King of Ireland from 1166 to 1198. He was the last High King o ...
who was regarded as the first "King of Ireland"). The later Kingdom of Ireland (1542–1800) came into being under the Crown of Ireland Act 1542, the long title of which was "An Act that the King of England, his Heirs and Successors, be Kings of Ireland". In 1801 the Irish crown became part of the
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was a sovereign state in the British Isles that existed between 1801 and 1922, when it included all of Ireland. It was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the Kingdom of Gre ...
.


List of the Principalities


Gwynedd (incomplete list)

The Principality (or Kingdom) of Gwynedd (5th century–1216) was based in northwest
Wales Wales ( cy, Cymru ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It is bordered by England to the Wales–England border, east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, the Celtic Sea to the south west and the ...
, its rulers were repeatedly acclaimed as " King of the Britons" before losing their power in civil wars or Saxon and Norman invasions. In 1216 it was superseded by the title Principality of Wales, although the new title was not first used until the 1240s.


Wales (complete list)

The Principality of Wales (1216–1542) was a client state of England for much of its history, except for brief periods when it was ''
de facto ''De facto'' ( ; , "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, whether or not they are officially recognized by laws or other formal norms. It is commonly used to refer to what happens in practice, in contrast with '' de jure'' ("by l ...
'' independent under a Welsh Prince of Wales (see House of Aberffraw). From 1301 it was first used as a title of the English (and later British) heir apparent. The Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542 formally incorporated all of Wales within the
Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England (, ) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean The Atlantic Ocean is the second-largest of the world's five oceans, with an area of a ...
.
Charles III Charles III (Charles Philip Arthur George; born 14 November 1948) is King of the United Kingdom and the 14 other Commonwealth realms. He was the longest-serving heir apparent and Prince of Wales and, at age 73, became the oldest person to a ...
was the longest-serving Prince of Wales, with a tenure of 64 years and 44 days since his proclamation as such on 26 July 1958 until his accession to the throne on 8 September 2022.


See also

*
Monarchy of the United Kingdom The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional form of government by which a hereditary sovereign reigns as the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the pub ...
* List of British monarchs * List of British monarchy records * List of longest-reigning monarchs * Family tree of the British royal family


Notes


References

{{Reflist Longest-reigning British Longest reigning British monarchs