List of members of NATO
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NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 30 European and North American countries. Th ...
(North Atlantic Treaty Organization) is an international alliance that consists of 30
member states A member state is a state that is a member of an international organization ''International Organization'' is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal that covers the entire field of international relations, international affairs. It was establi ...
from
North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be described as the northern subcontinent of the Americas. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to ...

North America
and
Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the westernmost peninsulas of the of Eurasia, it shares the continental landmass of with both and , and is bordered by the to the ...

Europe
. It was established at the signing of the
North Atlantic Treaty The North Atlantic Treaty, also referred to as the Washington Treaty, is the treaty A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law International law, also known as public international law and ...
on 4 April 1949. North Atlantic Treaty#Article 5, Article Five of the treaty states that if an armed attack occurs against one of the member states, it shall be Collective defense, considered an attack against all members, and other members shall assist the attacked member, with armed forces if necessary. Of the 30 member countries, two are located in
North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be described as the northern subcontinent of the Americas. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to ...

North America
(Canada and the United States), 28 are in
Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the westernmost peninsulas of the of Eurasia, it shares the continental landmass of with both and , and is bordered by the to the ...

Europe
, one of which (Turkey) is in both Europe and Asia. All members have militaries, except for Iceland, which does Military of Iceland, not have a typical army (but it does have a coast guard and a small unit of civilian specialists for NATO operations). Three of NATO's members are List of states with nuclear weapons, nuclear weapons states: France, the United Kingdom, and the United States. NATO has 12 original founding member nation states, and from 18 February 1952 to 6 May 1955, it added three more member nations, and a fourth on 30 May 1982. After the end of the Cold War, NATO added 14 more member nations (10 former Warsaw Pact members and four former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Yugoslav republics) from 12 March 1999 to 27 March 2020.


Founding and changes in membership

NATO has added new members eight times since its foundation, in 1949, with a current total of 30 members. Twelve countries took part in the founding of NATO: Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, the United Kingdom, and the United States. In 1952, Greece and Turkey became members of the Alliance, joined later by West Germany (in 1955) and Spain (in 1982). In 1990, with the German reunification, reunification of Germany, NATO grew to include the former country of East Germany. Between 1994 and 1997, wider forums for regional cooperation between NATO and its neighbours were set up, including the Partnership for Peace, the Mediterranean Dialogue initiative and the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council. In 1997, three former Warsaw Pact countries, Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Poland, were invited to join NATO. After this fourth enlargement in 1999, the Vilnius group of the Baltics and seven East European countries formed in May 2000 to cooperate and lobby for further NATO membership. Seven of these countries joined in the fifth enlargement in 2004. The Adriatic Sea, Adriatic States Albania and Croatia joined in the sixth enlargement in 2009, Montenegro in 2017 and North Macedonia in 2020.


Member countries


Military personnel

The following list is sourced from the 2018 edition of "The Military Balance" published annually by the International Institute for Strategic Studies.


Military expenditures

The United States has a larger defence expenditure than all other members combined. Criticism of the organization by US president Donald Trump caused various reactions from American and European political figures, ranging from ridicule to panic. Pew Research Center's 2016 survey among its member states showed that while most countries viewed NATO positively, most NATO members preferred keeping their military spending the same. The response to whether their country should militarily aid another NATO country if it were to get into a serious military conflict with Russia was also mixed. Only in the US and Canada did more than 50% of the people answer that they should.U.S. would defend NATO despite Trump's criticism, Europeans believe: study
''Reuters''


Notes


References

;Citations ;Bibliography * {{North Atlantic Treaty Organization Member states of NATO, NATO, * Countries by international organization, NATO