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The following is a list of monarchs of Persia, who ruled over the area of modern-day Iran
Iran
from the establishment of the Achaemenid dynasty by Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great
in 550 BCE until the deposition of the Pahlavi dynasty in 1979. Earlier monarchs in the area of modern-day Iran
Iran
are listed in:

List of rulers of Pre-Achaemenid kingdoms of Iran

Minor dynasties and vassal monarchs can be found in:

List of rulers of Parthian sub-kingdoms Muslim dynasties of Iran

Contents

1 Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
(559–334/327 BCE) 2 Macedonian Empire
Macedonian Empire
(336–306 BCE) 3 Seleucid Empire
Seleucid Empire
(311–129 BCE) 4 Parthian Empire
Parthian Empire
(247 BCE – CE 228) 5 Sasanian Empire
Sasanian Empire
(224–651) 6 Dabuyid Kingdom (642–760) 7 Rashidun Caliphate
Rashidun Caliphate
(632–661) 8 Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliphate (661–750) 9 Abbasid Caliphate
Abbasid Caliphate
(750–946) 10 Samanid Kingdom (819–999) 11 Saffarid Kingdom (861–1003) 12 Ghurid Kingdom (879–1215) 13 Buyid Kingdom (934–1062) 14 Ziyarid Kingdom (928–1043) 15 Seljuk Empire
Seljuk Empire
(1029–1194) 16 Khwarezmian Empire (1153–1220) 17 Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
(1220–1256) 18 Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
and successor kingdoms (1256–1501)

18.1 Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
(1256–1357) 18.2 Sarbadars
Sarbadars
(1332–1386) 18.3 Chupanids
Chupanids
(1335–1357) 18.4 Jalayirids
Jalayirids
(1335–1432) 18.5 Injuids
Injuids
(1335–1357) 18.6 Muzaffarids (1314–1393) 18.7 Kara Koyunlu
Kara Koyunlu
(1375–1468) 18.8 Ak Koyunlu
Ak Koyunlu
(1378–1497)

19 Timurid Empire
Timurid Empire
(1370–1507) 20 Safavid Empire
Safavid Empire
(1501–1736) 21 Afsharid Empire
Afsharid Empire
(1736–1796) 22 Zand Kingdom (1751–1794) 23 Qajar Empire
Qajar Empire
(1794–1925) 24 Pahlavi Kingdom (1925–1979) 25 See also 26 Notes and references 27 Bibliography

Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
(559–334/327 BCE)[edit]

Extent of the first Persian Empire, the Achaemenid Empire

Main article: Achaemenid Empire

Portrait Titles Regnal name Personal name Birth Family relations Reign Death Notes

Achaemenid dynasty (559–334/327 BCE)

The Great King, King of Kings, King of Anshan, King of Media, King of Babylon, King of Sumer and Akkad, King of the Four Corners of the World Cyrus the Great – 600 BCE Son of Cambyses I king of Anshan and Mandana daughter of Astyages 559–530 BCE 530 BCE King of Anshan from 559 BCE. Killed in battle with Massagetes

The Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt Cambyses II – ? Son of Cyrus the Great 530–522 BCE 521 BCE Died while en route to put down a rebellion. Pharaonic titulary: Horus: Smatawy, Nswbty: Mesutire[1]

The Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt Bardiya Gaumata (?) ? Son of Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great
(possibly an imposter claiming to be Bardiya) 522 BCE 522 BCE Killed by Persian aristocrats

The Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt Darius I – 550 BCE Son of Hystaspes 522–486 BCE 486 BCE Pharaonic titulary: Horus: Menkhib Nswbty: Stutre[2]

The Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt Xerxes I – 519 BCE Son of Darius I 485–465 BCE 465 BCE Most likely is the King Ahasuerus
Ahasuerus
of the Book of Esther[3]

The Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt Artaxerxes I Arses ? Son of Xerxes I 465–424 BCE 424 BCE Believed by some to be the King Ahaseurus
Ahaseurus
of the Book of Esther

The Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt Xerxes II Artaxerxes ? Son of Artaxerxes I 424 BCE 424 BCE Only recognised in Persia itself, killed by Sogdianus

The Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt ? Sogdianus ? Son of Artaxerxes I 424–423 BCE 423 BCE Only recognised in Persia and Elam, killed by Darius II

The Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt Darius II Ochus ? Son of Artaxerxes I 424–404 BCE 404 BCE

The Great King, King of Kings Artaxerxes II Arsaces 436 Son of Darius II 404–358 BCE 358 BCE

The Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt Artaxerxes III Ochus ? Son of Artaxerxes II 358–338 BCE 338 BCE Killed

The Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt Artaxerxes IV Arses ? Son of Artaxerxes III 338–336 BCE 336 BCE Killed

The Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt Darius III Artashata 380 Son of Arsames son of Ostanes son of Darius II 336–330 BCE 330 BCE Killed by Artaxerxes V

The Great King, King of Kings Artaxerxes V Bessus ? Probably a descendant of Artaxerxes II 330–329 BCE 329 BCE Killed by Alexander III

Note: Ancient Persia is generally agreed to have ended with the collapse of the Achaemenid dynasty as a result of the Wars of Alexander the Great. Macedonian Empire
Macedonian Empire
(336–306 BCE)[edit]

The Macedonian Empire
Macedonian Empire
at its greatest extent

Main article: Macedonian Empire

Portrait Title Name Birth Family relations Reign Death Notes

Argead dynasty
Argead dynasty
(336–306 BCE)

King Alexander the Great 356 BCE Son of Philip II of Macedonia 336–323 BCE 13 June 323 BCE King of Macedonia from 336 BCE as Alexander III

King Philip III of Macedon c. 359 BCE Son of Philip II of Macedonia June 323– 317 BCE 317 BCE Killed by Olympias

King Alexander IV of Macedon Sept. 323 BCE Son of Alexander III Sept. 323–309 BCE 309 BCE King of Macedonia as Alexander IV until 309 BC. Killed by Cassander son of Antipater

Regent Perdiccas ?

June 323–321 BCE 321 BCE Regent for Alexander IV & Philip III, Prince of Orestis

Regent Antipater 398 BCE Son of Iollas 321–319 BCE 319 BCE Regent for Alexander IV & Philip III

Regent Polyperchon 394 BCE Son of Simmias 319–316 BCE 303 BCE Regent for Alexander IV & Philip III. Exercised no actual power in Persia.

Regent Cassander c. 350 Son of Antipater 316–309 BCE 297 BCE Regent for and murderer of Alexander IV. Exercised no actual power in Persia.

Seleucid Empire
Seleucid Empire
(311–129 BCE)[edit]

The Seleucid Empire
Seleucid Empire
at its greatest extent

Main article: Seleucid Empire

Portrait Title Regnal name Personal name Birth Family relations Reign Death Notes

Seleucid dynasty
Seleucid dynasty
(311–129 BCE)

King Seleucus I Nicator – c. 358 BCE Son of Antiochus son of Seleucus 311–281 BCE 281 BCE Assumed title of "King" from 306 BCE.

King Antiochus I Soter – ? Son of Seleucus I 281–261 BCE 261 BCE Co-ruler from 291

King Antiochus II Theos – 286 BCE Son of Antiochus I 261–246 BCE 246 BCE

King Seleucus II Callinicus – ? Son of Antiochus II 246–225 BCE 225 BCE

King Seleucus III Ceraunus Alexander c. 243 BCE Son of Seleucus II 225–223 BCE 223 BCE

Great King Antiochus III the Great – c. 241 BCE Son of Seleucus II 223–187 BCE 187 BCE

King Seleucus IV Philopator – ? Son of Antiochus III 187–175 BCE 175 BCE

King Antiochus IV Epiphanes Mithridates c. 215 BCE Son of Antiochus III 175–163 BCE 163 BCE Killed in Elymais

King Antiochus V Eupator – c. 172 BCE Son of Antiochus IV 163–161 BCE 161 BCE

King Demetrius I Soter – 185 BCE Son of Seleucus IV 161–150 BCE 150 BCE

King Alexander Balas – ? Purported son of Antiochus IV 150–146 BCE 146 BCE

King Demetrius II Nicator – ? Son of Demetrius I 146–139 BCE 139 BCE Defeated and captured by Parthians. He married Rhodogune daughter of Mithridates I

King Antiochus VI Dionysus – 148 BCE Son of Alexander III. 145–142 BCE 138 BCE In competition with Demetrius II.

King Antiochus VII Sidetes – ? Son of Demetrius I 139–129 BC 129 BC Killed in battle with Phraates II

Parthian Empire
Parthian Empire
(247 BCE – CE 228)[edit] Main article: Parthian Empire

The Parthian Empire
Parthian Empire
at its greatest extent

The Seleucid dynasty
Seleucid dynasty
gradually lost control of Persia. In 253, the Arsacid dynasty established itself in Parthia. The Parthians gradually expanded their control, until by the mid-2nd century BCE, the Seleucids had completely lost control of Persia. Control of eastern territories was permanently lost by Antiochus VII in 129 BCE. For more comprehensive lists of kings, queens, sub-kings and sub-queens of this Era see:

List of rulers of Parthian sub-kingdoms

Portrait Title Regnal name Personal name Birth Family relations Reign Death Notes

Arsacid dynasty (247 BC – 228 AD)

King, Karen, Autocrator Arsaces I Tiridates I or Arsaces ? A descendant of Arsaces son of Phriapatius who was probably son of Artaxerxes II 247–211 BCE 211 BCE

? Arsaces II Artabanus I or Arsaces ? Son of Arsaces I 211–185 BCE[4] 185 BCE

? Arsaces III Phriapatius ? Grandson of Tiridates I 185–170 BCE[4] 170 BCE

? Arsaces IV Phraates I ? Son of Phriapatius 170–167 BCE[5] 167 BCE

The Great King, Theos, Theopator, Philhellene Arsaces V Mithridates I ? Son of Phriapatius 167[5] –132 BCE[6] 132 BCE

The Great King, Philopator, Theopator, Nikephoros Arsaces VI Phraates II ? Son of Mithridates I 132–127 BCE[6] 127 BCE Killed in battle with Scythians

King Arsaces VII Artabanus II ? Son of Phriapatius 127–126 BCE[6] 126 BCE Killed in battle with Tocharians

The Great King, Theopator, Philadelphos, Philhellene, Epiphanes Arsaces VIII Vologases(?)[6] ? Son of Phriapatius 126–122 BCE[6] 122 BCE He was the first Arsacid king of Media, Arran and Iberia

The Great King, King of kings, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsaces IX Artabanus(?)[6] ? Son of Artabanus II 122–121 BCE 121 BCE Killed in battle with Medians

The Great King, The Great King of Kings, Epiphanes, Soter Arsaces X Mithridates II ? Son of Artabanus II 121[7]–91 BCE 91 BCE

The Great King, Epiphanes, Philhellene, Euergetes, Autocrator Arsaces XI Gotarzes I ? Son of Mithridates II 91–87 BCE 87 BCE

The Great King, Theopator, Nicator Arsaces XII Artabanus(?)[5] ? Probably son of Arsaces VIII Vologases(?) 91–77? BCE 77? BCE

The Great King, The Great King of Kings, Dikaios, Euergetes, Philhellene, Autocrator, Philopator, Epiphanes Arsaces XIII Mithridates[6] ? Probably son of Mithridates II 88–67 BCE 67 BCE

The Great King, Euergetes, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsaces XIV Orodes I ? Probably son of Mithridates II 80–75 BCE 75 BCE

The Great King, Theopator, Euergetes, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsaces XV Sanatruces 157 BCE Probably son of Arsaces VIII Vologases(?)[5] 77–70 BCE 70 BCE

The Great King, Theopator, Euergetes, Epiphanes, Philhellene, Eusebes Arsaces XVI[5] Arsaces(?) or Vardanes(?) or Vonones(?) ? ? 77–66 BCE 66 BCE The most obscure major monarch of the first millennium BC. Nothing about him is currently known.

The Great King, Theos, Euergetes, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsaces XVII Phraates III ? Son of Sanatruces 70–57 BCE 57 BCE Killed by Orodes II

The Great King, Philopator, Euergetes, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsaces XVIII[5] ? ? probably son of Arsaces XVI 66–63 BCE 63 BCE The second most obscure monarch of the first millennium BC, nothing about him is known.

The Great King, The Great King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Theos, Eupator, Theopator, Philhellene Arsaces XIX Mithridates III ? Son of Phraates III 65[5] –54 BCE 54 BCE Killed by Orodes II

King of Kings, Philopator, Eupator, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene, Ktistes Arsaces XX Orodes II ? Son of Phraates III 57–38 BCE 38 BCE Killed by Phraates IV

King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsaces XXI Pacorus I ? Son of Orodes II 50–38 BCE 38 BCE Killed in battle with Romans

King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsaces XXII Phraates IV ? Son of Orodes II 38–2 BCE 2 BCE Killed by Musa

King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene, Autocrator, Philoromaeos Arsaces XXIII Tiridates II ? Probably a descendant of Arsaces XIII Mithridates 30–25 BCE after 23 BCE Deposed and went to Rome

? Arsaces XXIV Mithridates[8] ? Probably a descendant of Arsaces XIII Mithridates 12–9 BCE ?

Queen of Queens, Thea, Urania Musa Musa ? Queen of Phraates IV 2 BCE – 4 CE 4? CE

King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsaces XXV Phraates V ? Son of Phraates IV & Musa 2 BCE – 4 CE 4 CE Deposed and went to Rome

King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsaces XXVI Orodes III ? Probably a descendant of Arsaces XIII Mithridates 4–6 6 Killed by Parthian aristocrats

The Great King, King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene, Nikephorus Arsaces XXVII Vonones I ? Son of Phraates IV 8–12 19 Deposed and went to Rome. Later, He was killed by Romans.

King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsaces XXVIII Artabanus III ? Probably a descendant of Arsaces XIII Mithridates 10–40 40

? Arsaces XXIX Tiridates III ? Probably a descendant of Tiridates II 35–36 ? Deposed and went to Rome

? Arsaces XXX Cinnamus ? Son of Artabanus III 37 ? Abdicated

King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsaces XXXI Gotarzes II 11 Son of Artabanus III 40–51 51

King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsaces XXXII Vardanes I ? Son of Artabanus III 40–46 46 Killed by Gotarzes II

King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsaces XXXIII Vonones II ? Probably son of Artabanus III c. 45–51 51

? Arsaces XXXIV Mithridates[9] ? Son of Vonones I 49–50 ? Deposed and mutilated by Gotarzes II

King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene, The Lord Arsaces XXXV Vologases I ? Son of Vonones II 51–77 77

King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsaces XXXVI Vardanes II ? Son of Vologases I 55–58 ? Deposed

King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsaces XXXVII Vologases II ? Probably the eldest son of Vologases I 77–89/90 ?

King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsaces XXXVIII Pacorus II ? Probably the younger son of Vologases I 77–115 115

King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsaces XXXIX Artabanus IV ? Probably son of Vologases I or Artabanus III 80–81 ?

King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsaces XL Osroes I ? brother of Pacorus II 89/90–130 130

King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsaces XLI Vologases III ? Probably son of Sanatruces I king of Armenia 89–109 who was brother of Osroes I 105–148 148 He was also king of Armenia as Vologases I

King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsaces XLII Parthamaspates ? Son of Osroes I 116–117 after 123 Deposed and went to Rome

King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsaces XLIII Mithridates IV ? Probably son of Osroes I c. 130 – c. 145 c. 145

King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsaces XLIV[10] ? ? ? c. 140 – c. 140 c. 140

King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsaces XLV Vologases IV ? Son of Mithridates IV 148–191 191

King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsaces XLVI Vologases V ? Son of Vologases IV 191–208 208

King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsaces XLVII Osroes II ? Probably son of Vologases IV c. 190 – c. 195 ?

King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsaces XLVIII Vologases VI 181 Son of Vologases V 208–228 228 Killed by Ardashir I

King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsaces XLIX Artabanus V ? Son of Vologases V 213–226 226 Killed by Ardashir I

King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene Arsaces L Tiridates IV[11] ? Son of Vologases IV 217–222 ? He was also king of Armenia

Sasanian Empire
Sasanian Empire
(224–651)[edit]

The Sasanian Empire
Sasanian Empire
at its greatest extent

Main article: Sasanian Empire

Portrait Title Regnal name Personal name Birth Family relations Reign Death Notes

House of Sasan

Shahanshah[12] Ardashir I – 180 Son of Papak, who was son of Sasan 28 April 224 – February 242 February 242

Shahanshah Shapur I – 215 Son of Ardashir I 12 April 240 – May 270 May 270

Shahanshah, Wuzurg Armananshah[13] Hormizd I Hormozd-Ardashir ? Son of Shapur I May 270 – June 271 June 271

Shahanshah, Gilanshah Bahram I – ? Son of Shapur I June 271 – September 274 September 274

Shahanshah Bahram II – ? Son of Bahram I September 274 – 293 293

Shahanshah, Sakanshah Bahram III – ? Son of Bahram II 293 293 Deposed

Shahanshah, Wuzurg Armananshah Narseh
Narseh
I – ? Son of Shapur I 293–302 302

Shahanshah Hormizd II – ? Son of Narseh
Narseh
I 302–309 309 Killed by Iranian aristocrats

Shahanshah Adhur Narseh – ? Son of Hormizd II 309 309 Killed by Iranian aristocrats

Shahanshah, Dhū al-aktāf[14] Shapur II – 309 Son of Hormizd II 309–379 379

Shahanshah Ardashir II – ? Son of Shapur II 379–383 383

Shahanshah Shapur III – ? Son of Shapur II 383 – December 388 December 388 Killed by Iranian aristocrats

Shahanshah, Kirmanshah Bahram IV – ? Son of Shapur II December 388 – 399 399

Shahanshah Yazdegerd I – 363 Son of Shapur III 399 – 21 January 420 21 January 420 Killed by Iranian aristocrats

Shahanshah Bahram V – 406 Son of Yazdegerd I 21 January 420 – 20 June 438 20 June 438

Shahanshah Yazdegerd II – ? Son of Bahram V 20 June 438 – 15 December 457 15 December 457

Shahanshah Hormizd III – 399 Son of Yazdegerd II 457–459 459 Killed by Peroz I

Shahanshah Peroz I – 459 Son of Yazdegerd II 457 – January 484 January 484 Killed in battle with Hephthalites

Shahanshah Balash – ? Son of Yazdegerd II February 484 – 488 488

Shahanshah Kavadh I – 449 Son of Peroz I 488–496 13 September 531 Deposed

Shahanshah Djamasp – ? Son of Peroz I 496–498 502 Deposed

Shahanshah Kavadh I – 449 Son of Peroz I 498 – 13 September 531 13 September 531

Shahanshah, Anushiravan, The Just Khosrau I – 500 Son of Kavadh I 13 September 531 – 31 January 579 31 January 579

Shahanshah Hormizd IV – 540 Son of Khosrau I 31 January 579 – 5 September 590 5 September 590 Killed by Vistahm

Shahanshah, Aparviz Khosrau II – 570 Son of Hormizd IV September 590 – September 590 February 28, 628 Deposed and went to Byzantine territory

House of Mihran

Shahanshah, Chubineh Bahram VI Mehrbandak ? Son of Bahram Gushnasp from House of Mihran September – 590 January 591 591 Assassinated under the order of Khosrau II

House of Sasan

Shahanshah, Aparviz Khosrau II – 570 Son of Hormizd IV January 591 – 25 February 628 February 28, 628 Executed by Mihr Hormozd under the orders of Kavadh II

House of Ispahbudhan

Shahanshah Vistahm – ? Son of Shapur from the House of Ispahbudhan. He was the uncle of Khosrau II
Khosrau II
and husband of Gorduya, sister of Bahram VI 591 – 596 or 600 596 or 600 Killed by his wife Gorduya or by his general Pariowk

House of Sasan

Shahanshah Kavadh II Shiruyah ? Son of Khosrau II 25 February 628 – 15 September 628 15 September 628 Died from plague

Shahanshah Ardashir III – 621 Son of Kavadh II 15 September 628 – 27 April 629 27 April 629 Killed by Shahrbaraz

House of Mihran

Shahanshah, Shahrvaraz Shahrbaraz – ? Sasanian general from the House of Mihran 27 April 629 – 17 June 629 17 June 629 Killed by Farrokh Hormizd
Farrokh Hormizd
under the orders of Borandukht

House of Sasan

Shahanshah Khosrau III – ? Nephew of Khosrau II 630 630 Killed after a few days reign

Shahbanu[15] Borandukht – 590 Daughter of Khosrau II 17 June 629 – 16 June 630 (First reign) 631 – 632 (Second reign)

632 Deposed by Iranian aristocrats and replaced by Shapur-i Shahrvaraz Restored to the Sasanian throne, and later strangled to death by Piruz Khosrow

Shahanshah Shapur-i Shahrvaraz – ? Son of Shahrbaraz
Shahrbaraz
and an unknown sister of Khosrau II 630 ? Deposed by Iranian aristocrats and replaced by Azarmidokht

Shahanshah Peroz II Gushnasp-Bandeh ? Son of Mihran-Goshnasp & Chaharbakht who was daughter of Yazdandad son of Khosrau I. 630 630 Killed by Iranian aristocrats

Shahbanu Azarmidokht – ? Daughter of Khosrau II 630–631 631 Killed by Iranian aristocrats

Shahanshah Khosrau IV Khurrazadh ? Son of Khosrau II 631 631 Killed by Iranian aristocrats

House of Ispahbudhan

Shahanshah Farrokh Hormizd – ? Son of Sasanian general Vinduyih, the brother of Vistahm 630–631 631 Killed by Siyavakhsh
Siyavakhsh
under the orders of Azarmidokht

House of Sasan

Shahanshah Hormizd VI – ? Grandson of Khosrau II 630–631 631 Killed by Iranian aristocrats

Shahanshah Yazdegerd III – 624 Son of Shahryar the son of Khosrau II 16 June 632–651 651 Killed by a miller

Note: Classical Persia is generally agreed to have ended with the collapse of the Sasanian Empire
Sasanian Empire
as a result of the Muslim conquest of Persia. Dabuyid Kingdom (642–760)[edit] Main article: Dabuyids

Dabuyids
Dabuyids
(c. 720)

A Zoroastrian Persian dynasty that held power in the north for over a century before finally falling to the Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliphate.

Portrait Title Name Birth Family relations Reign Death Notes

Dabuyid dynasty
Dabuyid dynasty
(642–760)

Ispahbadh Gil Gavbara ? Son of Piruz 642–660 660

Ispahbadh, Gil-Gilan, Padashwargarshah Dabuya ? Son of Gil Gavbara 660–676 676

Ispahbadh, Gil-Gilan, Padashwargarshah Farrukhan I the Great ? Son of Dabuya 712–728 728

Ispahbadh, Gil-Gilan, Padashwargarshah Dadhburzmihr ? Son of Farrukhan the Great 728–740/741 740/741

Ispahbadh, Gil-Gilan, Padashwargarshah Farrukhan II the Little ? Son of Farrukhan the Great 740/741–747/48 747/48 Regent for Khurshid of Tabaristan

Ispahbadh, Gil-Gilan, Padashwargarshah Khurshid of Tabaristan 734 Son of Dadhburzmihr 740/741–760 761 Committed suicide

Rashidun Caliphate
Rashidun Caliphate
(632–661)[edit] Main article: Rashidun Caliphate

The Rashidun Empire reached its greatest extent under Caliph Uthman, in 654

For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

Muslim dynasties of Iran

Portrait Title Name Kunya Birth Family relations Reign Death Notes

Al-Faruq, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Umar ibn Al-Khattab Abu Hafs 583 Son of Khattab ibn Nufayl. 642–644 644 Umar became Caliph in 634 and his forces conquered Persia in 642. Killed by Piruz Nahavandi

Zonnurain, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Uthman ibn Affan Abu Amr 579 Son of Affan, of the Umayyad
Umayyad
clan. 644–656 656 Killed by Kharijites

Al-Mortaza, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin, Great Imam Ali Ibn Abi Talib Abul-Hasan 598 Son of Abu Talib, of the Hashemite
Hashemite
clan. Son-in-law of Muhammad. 656–661 661 Killed by Kharijites

Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliphate (661–750)[edit] Main article: Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliphate

Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliphate at its greatest extent (c. 750)

For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

Muslim dynasties of Iran

Portrait Title Name Kunya Birth Family relations Reign Death Notes

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Muawiyah I Abu Abdullah ? Son of Abu Sufyan ibn Harb, cousin of Uthman ibn Affan
Uthman ibn Affan
and distant cousin of Muhammad 661–680 680

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Yazid I Abu Khalid ? Son of Muawiyah I 680–683 683

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Muawiyah II Abu Abd ur-Rahman ? Son of Yazid I 683–684 ? Abdicated (?)

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Marwan I Abu Abd al-Malik ? Son of Hakam cousin of Muawiyah I 684–685 685 Killed by his wife

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Abd al-Malik Abu'l-Walid ? Son of Marwan I 685–705 705

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Walid I Abu'l-Abbas ? Son of Abd al-Malik 705–715 715

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Sulayman Abu Ayyub ? Son of Abd al-Malik 715–717 717

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Umar II Abu Hafṣ ? Son of Abd al-Aziz son of Marwan I 717–720 720

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Yazid II Abu Khalid ? Son of Abd al-Malik 720–724 724

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Hisham Abu'l-Walid ? Son of Abd al-Malik 724–743 743

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Walid II Abu'l-Abbas ? Son of Yazid II 743–744 744

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Yazid III Abu Khalid ? Son of Al-Walid I
Al-Walid I
and Shahfarand daughter of Peroz III 744–744 744 Killed

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Ibrahim Abu Ishaq ? Son of Al-Walid I 744–744 744 Killed

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Marwan II Abu Abd al-Malik ? Son of Muhammad
Muhammad
son of Marwan I 744–750 750 Ruled from Harran
Harran
in the Jazira. Killed by Saffah

Abbasid Caliphate
Abbasid Caliphate
(750–946)[edit] Main article: Abbasid Caliphate

Abbasid Caliphate
Abbasid Caliphate
at its greatest extent (c. 850)

For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

Muslim dynasties of Iran

Portrait Title Regnal name Personal name Birth Family relations Reign Death Notes

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin As-Saffah Abu'l-Abbas Abdullah 721 Son of Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Ali ibn Abdallah who was Muhammad's paternal uncle 750–754 754

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Mansur Abu Ja'far Abdullah 714 Brother of As-Saffah 754–775 775

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Mahdi Abu Abdullah Muhammad 744/745 Son of Al-Mansur 775–785 785

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Hadi Abu Mohammad Musa 764 Son of Al-Mahdi 785–786 786

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Ar-Rashid Abu Ja'far Harun 763/766 Son of Al-Mahdi 786–809 809

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Amin Abu Abdullah Muhammad 787 Son of Harun al-Rashid 809–813 813 Killed by Al-Ma'mun

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Ma'mun Abu'l-Abbas Abdullah 786 Son of Harun al-Rashid 813–833 833

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Mu'tasim Abu Ishaq Muhammad 795 Son of Harun al-Rashid 833–842 842

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Wathiq Abu Ja'far Harun 816 Son of Al-Mu'tasim 842–847 847

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Mutawakkil Abu'l-Fazl Ja'far 821 Son of Al-Mu'tasim 847–861 861 Killed by Al-Muntasir

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Muntasir Abu Ja'far Muhammad 837 Son of Al-Mutawakkil 861–862 862

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Musta'in Abu'l-Abbas Ahmad 836 Son of Muhammad
Muhammad
son of Al-Mu'tasim 862–866 866 Deposed and later killed

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Mu'tazz Abu Abdullah Zubayr 847 Son of Al-Mutawakkil 866–869 869 Deposed and later killed

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Muhtadi Abu Ishaq Muhammad ? Son of Al-Wathiq 869–870 870

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Mu'tamid Abu'l-Abbas Ahmad 844 Son of Al-Mutawakkil 870–892 892

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Mu'tadid Abu'l-Abbas Ahmad 854/861 Son of Talha al-Muwaffaq son of Al-Mutawakkil 892–902 902

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Muktafi Abu Mohammad Ali 877/878 Son of Al-Mu'tadid 902–908 908

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Muqtadir Abul-Fazl Ja'far 895 Son of Al-Mu'tadid 908–929 and 929–932

929 Briefly deposed.

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Qahir Abu Mansur Muhammad 899 Son of Al-Mu'tadid 929 and 932–934

929 Forced to resign the throne in the face of public protest, later deposed and blinded.

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Abu'l-Abbas Ar-Radi Muhammad 907 Son of Al-Muqtadir 934–940 940 De facto power in the hands of Ibn Ra'iq
Ibn Ra'iq
936-938

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Muttaqi Abu Ishaq Ibrahim 908 Son of Al-Muqtadir 940–944 944 De facto power in the hands of Bajkam
Bajkam
940-941, Ibn Ra'iq
Ibn Ra'iq
941-942, Nasir al-Dawla
Nasir al-Dawla
942-943 & Tuzun 943-944, who deposed and blinded him.

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin Al-Mustakfi Abu'l-Qasim Abdullah 905 Son of Al-Muktafi 944–946 946 De facto power in the hands of Tuzun 944-945 & Abu Jafar 945-946. Deposed and blinded by Mu'izz al-Dawla

Samanid Kingdom (819–999)[edit] Main article: Samanid dynasty

Samanid Empire
Samanid Empire
at its greatest extent

For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

Muslim dynasties of Iran

Portrait Title Regnal name Personal name Birth Family relations Reign Death Notes

Samanid dynasty
Samanid dynasty
(819–1005)

Ahmad I ? ?

819–864/865 864/5

Nasr I ? ?

864/865–892 892

Adel Isma'il I ? ?

892–907 907

Shaheed Ahmad II ? ?

907–914 914

Saeed Nasr II ? ?

914–942 943

Hamid Nuh I ? ?

942–954 954

Rashid 'Abd al-Malik I ? ?

954–961 961

Mo'ayyed Mansur I ? ?

961–976 976

Radhi Nuh II ? ?

976–996 997

Abol Hareth Mansur II ? ?

996–999 999

Abol Favares 'Abd al-Malik II ? ?

999 999

Montaser Isma'il II ? ?

1000–1005 1005

Saffarid Kingdom (861–1003)[edit] Main article: Saffarid dynasty

Saffarid Empire at its greatest extent

For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

Muslim dynasties of Iran

Portrait Title Name Kunya Birth Family relations Reign Death Note

Saffarid Dynasty
Saffarid Dynasty
(861–1003)

Emir Ya'qub as-Saffar – 840 Son of al-Layth 861–879 879 Died of sickness

Emir Amr – ? Son of al-Layth 879–901 902 Captured by the Samanids, later executed on 20 April 902 in Baghdad

Emir Tahir Abu'l-Hasan ? Son of Muhammad, son of Amr 901–908 ? Imprisoned in Baghdad

Emir Al-Layth – ? Son of Ali, son of al-Layth 909–910 928 Dies of natural causes as a prisoner in Baghdad
Baghdad
in 928

Emir Muhammad – ? Son of Ali, son of al-Layth 910–911 ? Imprisoned in Baghdad

Emir Amr Abu Hafs 902 Son of Ya'qub 912–913 ? Overthrown by the Samanids

Emir Ahmad Abu Ja'far June 21, 906 Son of Muhammad, son of Amr 923–963 March 31, 963 Killed by Abu’l-‘Abbas and a Turkic Ghilman

Emir Khalaf Abu Ahmad November 937 Son of Ahmad ibn Muhammad 963–1003 March 1009 Overthrown by the Ghaznavids
Ghaznavids
in 1003, dies as exile in 1009

Ghurid Kingdom (879–1215)[edit] Main article: Ghurid dynasty

Map of the Ghurid dynasty
Ghurid dynasty
at its greatest extent by the year 1202

For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

Muslim dynasties of Iran

Portrait Title Name Birth Family relations Reign Death Note

Ghurid dynasty
Ghurid dynasty
(879–1215)

Malik Amir Suri ? Father of Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Suri[16] ?–? ? was the first Malik of the Ghurid dynasty

Malik Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Suri ? Son of Amir Suri ?–1011 1011 Poisoned himself

Malik Abu Ali ibn Muhammad ? Son of Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Suri 1011–1035 1035 Overthrown and killed by his nephew Abbas ibn Shith

Malik Abbas ibn Shith ?

1035–1060 1060 Deposed and killed by the Ghaznavids, replaced by his son Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abbas

Malik Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abbas ? Son of Abbas ibn Shith 1060–1080 1080

Malik Qutb al-din Hasan ? Son of Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abbas 1080–1100 1100

Malik Izz al-Din Husayn ? Son of Qutb al-din Hasan 1100–1146 1146

Malik Sayf al-Din Suri ? Son of Izz al-Din Husayn 1146–1149 1149

Malik Baha al-Din Sam I ? Son of Izz al-Din Husayn 1149 1149

Malik Ala al-Din Husayn ? Son of Izz al-Din Husayn 1149–1161 1161

Malik Sayf al-Din Muhammad ? Son of Ala al-Din Husayn 1161–1163 1163

Sultan Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad 1139 Son of Baha al-Din Sam I 1163–1202 1202

Sultan Mu'izz al-Din 1149 Son of Baha al-Din Sam I 1173–1206 1206

Sultan Ghiyath al-Din Mahmud ? Son of Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad 1206–1212 1212

Sultan Baha al-Din Sam III ? Son of Ghiyath al-Din Mahmud 1212–1213 1213

Sultan Ala al-Din Atsiz 1159 Son of Ala al-Din Husayn 1213–1214 1214

Sultan Ala al-Din Ali ? Son of Shuja al-Din Muhammad 1214–1215 1215

Buyid Kingdom (934–1062)[edit] Main article: Buyid dynasty

Buyid Dynasty at its greatest extent

The Buyid Kingdom was divided into a number of separate emirates, of which the most important were Fars, Ray, and Iraq. Generally, one of the emirs held a sort of primus inter pares supremacy over the rest, which would be marked by titles like Amir al-umara
Amir al-umara
and Shahanshah. For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

Muslim dynasties of Iran

Portrait Title Regnal name Personal name Birth Family relations Reign Death Note

Buyids of Fars (933–1062)

Emir, Amir al-umara Imad al-Dawla Abu'l-Hasan Ali 891 Son of Buya 934–949 949 Also Senior Buyid Emir
Emir
(934-949)

Emir, Shahanshah Adud al-Dawla Fanna Khusraw 936 Son of Rukn al-Dawla
Rukn al-Dawla
and nephew of Imad al-Dawla 949–983 983 Senior Buyid Emir
Emir
(976-983) and Emir
Emir
of Iraq
Iraq
(978-983)

Emir, Amir al-umara Sharaf al-Dawla Abu'l-Fawaris Shirdil 962 Son of Adud al-Dawla 983–989 989 Also Senior Buyid Emir
Emir
and Emir
Emir
of Iraq
Iraq
(987-989)

Emir, King Samsam al-Dawla Abu Kalijar
Abu Kalijar
Marzuban 964 son of Adud al-Dawla 989–998 998 Also Emir
Emir
of Iraq
Iraq
and self-proclaimed Senior Buyid Emir
Emir
(983-986)

Emir, King, Shahanshah Baha' al-Dawla Abu Nasr Firuz 971 Son of Adud al-Dawla 998–1012 1012 Also Emir
Emir
of Iraq
Iraq
(988-1012) and Senior Buyid Emir
Emir
(997-1012)

Emir Sultan
Sultan
al-Dawla Abu Shuja 992 Son of Baha' al-Dawla 1012–1024 1024 Also Emir
Emir
of Iraq
Iraq
and Senior Buyid Emir
Emir
(1012-1021)

Emir, Shahanshah Abu Kalijar Marzuban 1011 Son of Sultan
Sultan
al-Dawla 1024–1048 1048 Also Emir
Emir
of Kerman (1028-1048), Senior Buyid Emir
Emir
(1037-1048) and Emir
Emir
of Iraq
Iraq
(1044-1048)

Emir Abu Mansur Fulad Sutun

? Son of Abu Kalijar 1048–1054 1062 Lost Fars to Abu Sa'd Khusrau Shah

Emir Abu Sa'd Khusrau Shah

? Son of Abu Kalijar 1051–1054 ? Lost Fars to Abu Mansur Fulad Sutun

Emir Abu Mansur Fulad Sutun

? Son of Abu Kalijar 1054–1062 1062 Killed by the Shabankara
Shabankara
tribal chief Fadluya

Buyids of Rey, Isfahan, and Hamadan (935–1038)

Emir, Amir al-umara Rukn al-Dawla Abu Ali Hasan 898 Son of Buya 935–976 976 Also Senior Buyid Emir
Emir
(949-976)

Emir Fakhr al-Dawla Abu'l-Hasan Ali 952 Son of Rukn al-Dawla 976–980 and 983–997

980 Also Emir
Emir
of Hamadan & Tabaristan (984-997) and Senior Buyid Emir (991-997)

Emir Mu'ayyad al-Dawla Abu Mansur 941 Son of Rukn al-Dawla 976–983 983 Also Emir
Emir
of Hamadan (976–983), Jibal (977–983), Tabaristan (980–983), and Gorgan (981–983)

Emir Majd al-Dawla Abu Taleb Rostam 993 Son of Fakhr al-Dawla 997–1029 1029 Only in Rey, briefly self-proclaimed Senior Buyid Emir

Emir Shams al-Dawla Abu Taher ? Son of Fakhr al-Dawla 997–1021 1021 Only in Isfahan and Hamaedan, briefly self-proclaimed Senior Buyid Emir

Emir Sama' al-Dawla Abu'l-Hasan Ali ? Son of Shams al-Dawla 1021–1023 1023 Only in Hamadan, Deposed by Kakuyids

Buyids of Iraq
Iraq
and Khuzistan (945–1055)

Emir, Amir al-umara Mu'izz al-Dawla Abu'l-Husayn Ahmad 915 Son of Buya 945–966 966

Emir, Amir al-umara Izz al-Dawla Abu Mansur Bakhtiyar 943 Son of Mu'izz al-Dawla 966–979 979 Self-proclaimed Senior Buyid Emir
Emir
(976-978)

Emir, Shahanshah Adud al-Dawla Fanna Khusraw 937 Son of Rukn al-Dawla 977–983 983 Also Emir
Emir
of Fars (949-983) and Senior Buyid Emir
Emir
(976-983)

Emir, King Samsam al-Dawla Abu Kalijar
Abu Kalijar
Marzban 964 Son of Adud al-Dawla 983–987 998 Also self-proclaimed Senior Buyid Emir
Emir
(983-986) and Emir
Emir
of Fars & Kerman (989-998)

Emir, Amir al-umara Sharaf al-Dawla Abu'l-Fawaris Shirdil 962 Son of Adud al-Dawla 987–989 989 Also Emir
Emir
of Fars (983-989) and Senior Buyid Emir
Emir
(987-989)

Emir Baha' al-Dawla Abu Nasr Firuz 970 Son of Adud al-Dawla 989–1012 1012 Also Senior Buyid Emir
Emir
(997-1012) and Emir
Emir
of Fars (999-1012)

Emir Sultan
Sultan
al-Dawla Abu Shuja 992 Son of Baha' al-Dawla 1012–1021 1024 Also Senior Buyid Emir
Emir
(1012-1021) and Emir
Emir
of Fars (1012-1024)

Emir, Shahanshah, King Musharrif al-Dawla Abu 'Ali 1002 Son of Baha' al-Dawla 1021–1025 1025 Closest thing to Senior Buyid Emir
Emir
(1024-1025)

Emir Jalal al-Dawla Abu Tahir Jalal al-Dawla 994 Son of Baha' al-Dawla 1027–1043 1043

Emir, Shahanshah Abu Kalijar Marzuban 1011 Son of Sultan
Sultan
al-Dawla 1043–1048 1048 Also Emir
Emir
of Fars (1024-1048), Emir
Emir
of Kerman (1028-1048) and Senior Buyid Emir
Emir
(1037-1048)

Emir Al-Malik al-Rahim Abu Nasr Khusrau Firuz ? Son of Abu Kalijar 1048–1055 1058 Also Senior Buyid Emir
Emir
(1051-1055). Deposed by Tughril
Tughril
of the Seljuqs

Ziyarid Kingdom (928–1043)[edit] Main article: Ziyarid dynasty

Portrait Title Regnal name Personal Name Birth Family relations Reign Death Notes

Ziyarid dynasty
Ziyarid dynasty
(928–1043)

Abolhajjaj, Emir Mardavij

? son of Ziyar 928–934 934

Abutaher Voshmgir

? son of Ziyar 934–967 967

Zahir od-Dowleh Bisotoon

? son of Voshmgir 967–976 976

Shams ol-Ma'ali, Abolhasan Qabus

? son of Voshmgir 976–1012 1012

Falak ol-Ma'ali Manuchehr

? son of Qabus 1012–1031 1031

Sharaf ol-Ma'ali Anushiravan

? son of Manuchehr 1031–1043 1043

Onsor ol-Ma'ali Keikavus

? son of Eskandar son of Qabus ? ?

Gilanshah

? son of Keykavous ? ?

Seljuk Empire
Seljuk Empire
(1029–1194)[edit] Main article: Seljuk Empire

A map showing the Great Seljuk Empire
Seljuk Empire
at its height, upon the death of Malik Shah I
Malik Shah I
in 1092

For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

Muslim dynasties of Iran

Portrait Title Regnal name Personal name Birth Family relations Reign Death Notes

Seljuqs (1029–1191)

Beg, Sultan Rukn ad-Dunya wa'd-Din Toğrül I Abu Talib Mohammad 995 Son of Mikha'il son of Seljuq 1029–1063 1063

Sultan ʿAdud ad-Dawla Alp Arslan
Alp Arslan
Abu Shujaʿ Mohammad 1039 Son of Chaghri Beg Dawud brother of Toğrül I 1063–1072 1072

Sultan Jalal ad-Dawla wa'd-Din Malik Shah I
Malik Shah I
Abu'l-Fath Hasan 1055 Son of Alp Arslan 1072–1092 1092 Killed by Assassins

Sultan Nasir ad-Dawla wa'd-Din Abu'l-Qasim Mahmud I 1086 Son of Malik Shah
Shah
I 1092–1094 1094

Sultan Rukn ad-Dunya wa'd-Din Abu'l-Muzaffar Barkiyaruq 1080 Son of Malik Shah
Shah
I 1094–1105 1105

Sultan Ghiyath ad-Dunya wa'd-Din Abu Shuja Muhammad
Muhammad
I Tapar 1082 Son of Malik Shah
Shah
I 1105–1118 1118

Sultan Muglith ad-Dunya wa'd-Din Mahmud II 1104 Son of Muhammad
Muhammad
I 1118–1131 1131 Dominated by his uncle Sanjar and killed in a rebellion against him.

Sultan Rukn ad-Dunya wa'd-Din Abu Talib Toghrul II 1109 Son of Muhammad
Muhammad
I 1132–1134 1134 Ruled only in Iraq, dominated by his uncle Ahmed Sanjar

Sultan As-Salatin Muʿizz ad-Dunyā wa'd-Dīn Abu'l-Harith Ahmed Sanjar 1087 Son of Malik Shah
Shah
I 1097–1157 1157 Ruled in Khorasan, dominating a series of nephews in Iraq.

Sultan Ghiyath ad-Dawla wa'd-Din Abu'l-Fath Mas'ud 1109 Son of Muhammad
Muhammad
I 1134–1152 1152 Ruled over the western portion of the empire. Preoccupations in the east meant Sanjar was unable to dominate him.

Sultan Mugith ad-Dunya wa'd-Din Malik Shah
Shah
II 1128 Son of Mahmud II 1152–1153 and 1160

1153 Deposed by Khass Bey Regained throne but then deposed by the people of Isfahan after 16 days.

Sultan Ghiyath ad-Dunya wa'd-Din Abu Shuja Muhammad
Muhammad
II 1128 Son of Mahmud II 1153–1160 1160 Rule contested with his uncle Sulayman Shah
Shah
(1153-1155)

Sultan Mu'izz ad-Dunya wa'd-Din Abu'l-Harith Sulayman Shah 1118 Son of Muhammad
Muhammad
I 1153–1155 and 1160–1161

1162 Rule contested with his nephew Muhammad
Muhammad
II Deposed by Inanj, Lord of Reyy and the court officials

Sultan Rukn ad-Dunya wa'd-Din Arslan 1134 Son of Toghrul II 1161–1176 1176 De facto power in the hands of Ildeniz
Ildeniz
(1160-1174) and his son Pahlavan (1174-1176)

Sultan Rukn ad-Dunya wa'd-Din Abu Talib Toghrul III ? Son of Arslan 1176–1194 1194 De facto power in the hands of Pahlavan (1176-1186) and Qizil Arslan (1186-1188). Deposed by Qizil Arslan in 1191. Killed by Khwarazm Shah
Shah
Tekish

Sultan

Sanjar II ? Son of Sulayman Shah 1189–1191 1191 De facto power in the hands of Qizil Arslan (1189-1191). Deposed by Qizil Arslan in 1191.

Eldiguzids
Eldiguzids
(1191)

Sultan

Qizil Arslan ? Son of Ildeniz 1191 1191 Held de facto power (1186-1188). Deposed Qizil Arslan in 1191, declared himself Sultan
Sultan
and died an hour before his coronation.

Khwarezmian Empire (1153–1220)[edit] Main article: Khwarazmian Empire

Khwarazmian Empire
Khwarazmian Empire
at its greatest extent

An empire built from Khwarezm, covering part of Iran
Iran
and neighbouring Central Asia. For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

Muslim dynasties of Iran

Portrait Title Regnal name Personal name Birth Family Relations Reign Death Note

Khwarezmid Empire
Khwarezmid Empire
(1153–1220)

Sultan Ala ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Abul-Muzaffar Atsiz 1097/1105 son of Muhammad
Muhammad
I of Khwarazm 1153–1156 1156 Ruling in Khwārazm from 1127

Sultan Taj ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Abul-Fath Il-Arslan ? son of Atsiz 1156–1172 1172

Sultan Ala ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Abul-Muzaffar Tekish ? son of Il-Arslan 1172–1200 1200 With opposition from Sultan
Sultan
shah

Shah Ala ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Abul-Fath Muhammad
Muhammad
Sanjar ? son of Tekish 1200–1220 1220 Eliminated by the Mongols

Jalal od-Din, Sultan Jalal ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Abul-Muzaffar Mingburnu ? son of Muhammad 1220–1231 1231 Reign largely guerilla warfare against the Mongol conquerors

Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
(1220–1256)[edit] Main article: Mongol Empire

Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
at its greatest extent

For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

Muslim dynasties of Iran

Portrait Title Regnal name Personal name Birth Family relations Reign Death Notes

Great Khans (1220–1251/1256)

Khan Genghis Temujin 1162 Son of Yesugei Baghatur 1220–1227 1227 Ruling in Mongolia from 1206

Khan

Tolui 1192 Son of Genghis 25 August 1227 – 13 September 1229 13 September 1229 Regent

Khan

Ögedei c. 1186 Son of Genghis 13 September 1229 – 11 December 1241 1232

Khatun

Töregene ? Wife of Ögedei 1242 – March 1246 ? Regent

Khan

Güyük c. 1206 Son of Ögedei and Töregene 1246–1248 1248

Khatun

Oghul Qaimish ? Wife of Güyük 1248–1251 1251 Regent

Khan

Möngke 10 January 1209 Son of Tolui 1 July 1251 – 11 August 1259 11 August 1259

Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
and successor kingdoms (1256–1501)[edit] Main article: Ilkhanate

Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
at its greatest extent

For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

Muslim dynasties of Iran

Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
(1256–1357)[edit]

Portrait Title Throne name Personal name Birth Family relations Reign Death Notes

Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
(1256–1357)

Khan, Ilkhan

Hulagu c. 1217 Son of Tolui 1256 – 8 February 1265 8 February 1265

Khan, Ilkhan

Abaqa 1234 Son of Hulagu 1265 – 1 April 1282 1 April 1282

Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan Ahmad Nicholas Tekuder ? Son of Hulagu 1282–1284 1284 Killed by Arghun

Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan

Arghun c. 1258 Son of Abaqa 1284 – 7 March 1291 7 March 1291

Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan

Gaykhatu ? Son of Abaqa 1291–1295 1295 Killed by general Taghachar

Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan

Baydu ? Son of Taraqai son of Hulagu 1295 1295 Executed by Ghazan

Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan Mahmud Ghazan 5 November 1271 Son of Arghun 1295–1304 1304

Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan, Muhammad
Muhammad
Khodabandeh Öljaitü 1280 Son of Arghun 1304 – 16 December 1316 16 December 1316

Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan Abu Sa'id Ala' ad-Din Bahadur 2 June 1305 Son of Öljaitü 1316 – 1 December 1335 1 December 1335

Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan Arpa Ke'un Mu'izz ad-Din Mahmud ? Son of Suseh son of Munkqan son of Malik-Temur son of Ariq Böke
Ariq Böke
son of Tolui 1335 – 10 April 1336 10 April 1336 Killed in battle by Ali Padshah

Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan Nasir ad-Din Musa ? Son of Ali son of Baydu 12 April 1336 – 1337 1337 Puppet of Ali Padshah, fled after being defeated by the Jalayirid Hasan Buzurg

Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan

Togha Temür ? Son of Sudi son of Bababahathor son of Abokan son of Amakan son of Tur son of Jujiqisar son of Yesugei Baghatur 1335–1353 1353 In opposition to Jalayirid
Jalayirid
and Chupanid
Chupanid
candidates, killed by the Sarbadar Yahya Karawi

Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan, Muzaffar ad-Din Muhammad ? Son of Yul Qotloq son of Il Temur son of Ambarji son of Mengu Temur son of Hulagu 1336–1338 1338 Puppet of Hasan Buzurg, executed by the Chupanid
Chupanid
Hasan Kucek

Khatun

Sati beg c. 1300 Daughter of Öljaitü 1338–1339 After 1345 Puppet of Hasan Kucek, who deposed her.

Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan, Izz ad-Din Jahan Temür ? Son of Ala-Fireng son of Gaykhatu 1339–1340 ? Puppet of Hasan Buzurg, who deposed him for Togha Temür.

Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan

Suleiman ? Husband of Sati beg and son of Yusef Shah
Shah
son of Soga son of Yeshmut son of Hulagu May 1339–1345 ? Puppet of Hasan Kucek, fled to Diyarbakr
Diyarbakr
in the disorder after his death.

Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan

Anushirwan ? ? 1344–1356 ? Puppet of the Chupanid
Chupanid
Malek Ashraf

Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan

Luqman ? Son of Togha Temür 1353–1388 ? Puppet of Timur

Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan

Ghazan
Ghazan
II ? ? 1356–1357 ? Puppet of Malek Ashraf

Sarbadars
Sarbadars
(1332–1386)[edit]

Sarbadars
Sarbadars
in 1345

Portrait Title Name Birth Family relations Reign Death Notes

Sarbadars
Sarbadars
(1332–1386)

Amir Abd al-Razzaq ibn Fazlullah ?

1337–1338 1338 Revolted against Togha Temür, stabbed to death by his brother

Amir Wajih ad-Din Masud ibn Fazlullah ? brother of Abd al-Razzaq 1338–1344 1344 Captured by the Paduspanids
Paduspanids
and executed.

Amir Muhammad
Muhammad
Aytimur (1343–1346) ? Unrelated to predecessors 1344–1346 1346 Overthrown and executed

Amir Kulu Isfendiyar ? Unrelated to predecessors 1346–c. 1347 c. 1347

Amir Shams al-Din ibn Fazl Allah ? brother of Abd al-Razzaq c. 1347 ? Forced to abdicate by successor

Amir Khwaja Shams al-Din 'Ali ? Unrelated to predecessors 1347–1351/1352 1351/1352 Assassinated by a disgruntled official

Amir Yahya Karawi ? Unrelated to predecessors 1351/1352–1355/1356 1355/1356 Eliminated Togha Temür, assassinated.

Amir Zahir al-Din Karawi ? Nephew of Yahya Karawi 1355/1356 1355/1356 Deposed by vizier

Amir Haidar Qassab ? Unrelated to predecessors 1355/1356 1356 Assassinated by a Turkish slave

Amir Lutf Allah ? Son of Wajih ad-Din Masud 1356–1357/1358 or 1361 1357/1358 or 1361 Deposed and executed by his vizier

Amir Hasan al-Damghani ? Unrelated to predecessors 1357/1358 or 1361–1361/1362 1361/1362 Overthrown by Dervish
Dervish
rebels

Amir Khwaja 'Ali-yi Mu'ayyad ibn Masud ? Unrelated to predecessors 1361/1362–1376/1377 and 1376/1377–1381

? Restored, became vassal of Tamerlane
Tamerlane
in 1381

Amir Rukn ad-Din ? Unrelated to predecessors 1376/1377 ? Installed by Dervish
Dervish
rebels.

Chupanids
Chupanids
(1335–1357)[edit]

Chupanids
Chupanids
at their greatest extent

Portrait Title Name Birth Family relations Reign Death Notes

Chupanids
Chupanids
(1335–1357)

Amir Hassan Kuchak c. 1319 Son of Timurtash son of Chupan July 16, 1338 – December 15, 1343 December 15, 1343 Ruled on behalf of his Il-Khanate puppets Sati Beg and Suleiman Khan.

Amir Yagi Basti ? Son of Chupan 1343–1344 1344 Assassinated by his co-ruler Malek Ashraf.

Amir Surgan c. 1320 Son of Chupan and Sati Beg 1343–1345 1345 Driven out by his co-ruler Malek Ashraf.

Amir Malek Ashraf ? Brother of Hassan Kuchak 1343–1357 1357 Ruled on behalf of his Il-Khanate puppets Anushirwan. Hung by Jani Beg of the Golden Horde.

Amir Temürtas ? Son of Malek Ashraf 1360 1360 Short-lived puppet of the Golden Horde.

Jalayirids
Jalayirids
(1335–1432)[edit]

Jalayirids
Jalayirids
at their greatest extent

Portrait Title Regnal name Personal name Birth Family relations Reign Death Notes

Jalayirids
Jalayirids
(1335–1432)

Ulus Beg Taj-ud-Din Hasan Buzurg ? Son-in-law of Chupan 1336–1356 1356 Ruled through Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
puppets Muhammad
Muhammad
Khan and Jahan Temür.

Bahadur Khan Mu'izz-ud-dunya wa'd-Din Shaikh Uvais c. 1337-1374 Son of Hasan Buzurg 1356–1374 1374

Shaikh

Hasan ? Son of Shaikh Uvais 1374–1374 1374 Killed by the Amirs

Shaikh Jalal-ud-Din Husain I (1374–1382) ? Son of Shaikh Uvais 1374–1382 1382 Executed by his rebellious brother Ahmed

Shaikh

Bayazid ? Son of Shaikh Uvais 1382–1384 1384 In opposition to Husain and Ahmed

Sultan Ghiyath ud-Din Ahmad ? Son of Shaikh Uvais 1383–1410 1410 In exile 1393-4, 1400-2, 1403-5. Killed in battle by Qara Yusuf

Sultan Ala ud-Dunya Shah
Shah
Walad ? Son of Ali, son of Uvais 1410–1411 1411

Sultan

Mahmud ? Son of Shah
Shah
Walad 1411 1425 Under regency of Tandu Khatun

Sultan

Uvais ? Son of Shah
Shah
Walad 1415–1421 1421

Sultan

Muhammad ? Son of Shah
Shah
Walad 1421 1421

Sultan

Mahmud ? Son of Shah
Shah
Walad 1421–1425 1425 Second reign

Hussain ? Son of Ala-ud-Dawlah, son of Ahmed 1425–1432 1432 Defeated by Kara Koyunlu

Injuids
Injuids
(1335–1357)[edit]

Injuids
Injuids
at their greatest extent

Portrait Title Name Birth Family relations Reign Death Notes

Injuids
Injuids
(1335–1357)

Sharaf ad-Din Mahmud Shah ?

1304–1335 1335 Highly autonomous master of the Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
royal estates (the injü), removed by Abu Sa'id, executed by Arpa Ke'un.

Amir Ghiyath ad-Din Kai-Khusrau ? Son of Mahmud Shah 1335–1338/9 1338/9

Amir Jalal ad-Din Mas'ud Shah ? Son of Mahmud Shah 1338–1342 1342 In opposition to Kai-Khusrau. Jalayirid
Jalayirid
partisan. Assassinated by Chupanids.

Amir Shams ad-Din Muhammad ? Son of Mahmud Shah 1339/40 1339/40 In opposition to Mas'ud Shah. Murdered by his Chupanid
Chupanid
supporter.

Amir Shaikh Abu Ishaq ? Son of Mahmud Shah 1343–1357 ? Defeated & executed by the Muzaffarids

Muzaffarids (1314–1393)[edit]

Muzaffarids at its greatest extent

Portrait Title Name Birth Family relations Reign Death Notes

Muzaffarids (1335–1357)

Emir Mubariz ad-Din Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn al-Muzaffar 1301

1314–1358 1368 Founder of the Muzaffarid dynasty

Emir Shah
Shah
Shuja ?

1358–1384 1384

Emir Zain al-Abidin ?

1384–1387 1387

Emir Shah
Shah
Yahya ?

1387–1391 1391 Only ruled in Shiraz

Emir Shah
Shah
Mansur ?

1391–1393 1393

Kara Koyunlu
Kara Koyunlu
(1375–1468)[edit]

Kara Koyunlu
Kara Koyunlu
at its greatest extent

Portrait Title Regnal Name Personal Name Birth Reign Death Family relations Notes

Kara Koyunlu
Kara Koyunlu
(1375-1468)

Bey Qara Muhammad Qara Muhammad
Muhammad
Turmush ibn Bairam Khwaja ? 1378–1388 1388 First Bey of Kara Koynulu

Bey Qara Yusuf Abu Nasr Qara Yusuf Nuyan ibn Muhammad ? 1388–1420 1420

Reign ended by Timurid invasion

Bey Qara Iskander Qara Iskander ibn Yusuf ? 1420–1436 1436

Killed

Bey Jahan Shah Muzaffar al-Din Jahan Shah
Shah
ibn Yusuf 1397 1438 – 11 November 1467 11 November 1467 Son of Qara Yusuf Killed by Uzun Hasan of the Ak Koyunlu

Bey Hasan Ali Hasan Ali ibn Jahan Shah ? 11 November 1467 – 1468 1468 Son of Jahan Shah Killed by Uzun Hasan of the Ak Koyunlu

Ak Koyunlu
Ak Koyunlu
(1378–1497)[edit]

Ak Koyunlu
Ak Koyunlu
at the year of Uzun Hasan's death, 1478

Portrait Title Throne Name Original Name Birth Family relations Reign Death Notes

Aq Koyunlu[17][18] (1378-1497)

Bey Qara Osman Qara Yuluk (Nickname) ?

1378–1435 1435 For aiding Timur, he was given Diyarbakir in 1402

Bey Ali Nur al-Din Ali ibn Qara Yülük ? Son of Qara Osman 1435–1438 1438

Bey Hamza

?

1403–1435 1444

Bey Jahangir M‘uizz al-Din Jahangir ibn Ali ibn Qara Yülük ? Son of Qara Osman 1444–1453 1453

Bey Uzun Hassan Uzun Hassan ibn Jahangir ? Son of Jahangir 1453 – January 6, 1478 January 6, 1478

Bey Khalil Khalil ibn Uzun Hasan ? Son of Uzun Hasan 1478–1479 1479

Bey Yaqub Yaqub ibn Uzun Hasan ? Son of Uzun Hasan 1479–1490 1490

Bey Baysongur Baysongur ibn Yaqub ? Son of Yaqub 1490–1491 1491

Bey Rostam Rostam ibn Maqsud ? Son of Maqsud 1491–1497 1497

Bey Ahmad Govde Ahmad Govde ibn Muhammad ? Son of Muhammad 1497 1497

Timurid Empire
Timurid Empire
(1370–1507)[edit] Main article: Timurid Empire

Locator map of the Timurid Empire, c. 1400

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Birth–Death Reign began Reign ended Family Relations Note

Timurid Empire
Timurid Empire
(1370–1449)

Timur Tarmashirin Khan Barlas

Emir, Beg, Khan, Mirza, Gurkani 9 April 1336 – 18 February 1405 1370 18 February 1405 Son of Muhammad
Muhammad
Taraghai

Pir Muhammad Pir Muhammad
Muhammad
Khan bin Jahangir

Emir, Khan c. 1374 – 22 February 1407 18 February 1405 22 February 1407 Grandson of Timur

Khalil Sultan Khalil Sultan
Khalil Sultan
bin Miran Shah

Emir, Sultan, Shah c. 1384 – 4 November 1411 18 February 1405 13 May 1409 Grandson of Timur

Shahrukh Mirza Shahrukh Mirza

Mirza 30 August 1377 – 12 March 1447 18 February 1405 12 March 1447 Son of Timur

Ulugh Beg Mirza
Mirza
Muhammad
Muhammad
Tāraghay

Mirza, Sultan 22 March 1394 – 27 October 1449 12 March 1447 27 October 1449 Son of Shahrukh Mirza Deposed and murdered by his successor

Rulers in Transoxiana
Transoxiana
(1449-1469):

Abdal-Latif Padarkush

Mirza, Sultan c. 1429 – 9 May 1450 27 October 1449 9 May 1450 Son of Ulugh Beg Murdered by Amirs

'Abdullah

Mirza c. 1410 – June 1451 9 May 1450 June 1451 Grandson of Shah
Shah
Rukh Deposed and executed by his successor

Abu Sa'id

Mirza 1424–1469 June 1451 17 February 1469 Nephew of Ulugh Beg
Ulugh Beg
and great-grandson of Timur Conquered Khurasan in 1459, realm disintegrates at his death.

Rulers in Khurasan (1449-1459, 1459-1507):

Abul-Qasim Babur

Mirza ?-1457 1449 1457 Grandson of Shah
Shah
Rukh

Shah
Shah
Mahmud

Mirza c. 1446 – 1460s 1457 1457 Son of Babur Expelled by successor

Ibrahim

Mirza ? – March 1459 1457 March 1459 Nephew of Babur Died at Battle of Sarakhs

Interregnum (1459-1469)

Husayn Bayqarah

Mirza, Sultan June/July 1438 – 4 May 1506 24 March 1469 4 May 1506 Great-grandson of Timur

Badi' al-Zaman

Mirza ? – 1517 4 May 1506 1507 Son of Husayn Driven out by Uzbeks

Uzbeks (1507-1510)

Shaybani Khan Abul Fath Muhammad

Khan c. 1451 – 2 December 1510 1507 2 December 1510

Died at the Battle of Marv

Safavid Empire
Safavid Empire
(1501–1736)[edit] Main article: Safavid Empire

The maximum extent of the Safavid Empire
Safavid Empire
under Shah
Shah
Abbas I

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Birth–Death Entered office Left office Family Relations Note

Safavid dynasty
Safavid dynasty
(1501–1736)

Ismail I

Shah, Sultan, Kagan-i Suleyman shan, Turk-Tajdar 1487–1524 7 November 1502 23 May 1524 son of Sultan
Sultan
Heidar

Tahmasp I

Shah, Sahib-i-Qiran, Sultan
Sultan
bar Salatin, Kagan-i Suleyman shan 1514–1576 23 May 1525 25 May 1576 son of Ismail I

Ismail II

Shah 1537–1577 25 May 1576 24 November 1577 son of Tahmasp I Poisoned (?)

Mohammad I

Khodabandeh, Ashraf, Soltan 1532–1596 25 May 1576 1 October 1587 son of Tahmasp I Deposed

Abbas I

Shahanshah, Sultan, Great 1571–1629 1 October 1587 19 January 1629 son of Mohammad I

Safi Sam Mirza

Shah, Mirza 1611–1642 19 January 1629 12 May 1642 son of Mohammd Baqer (Safi) Mirza
Mirza
son of Abbas I

Abbas II

Shah 1632–1666 12 May 1642 26 October 1666 son of Safi

Suleiman I Safi Mirza

Shah, Hakem-ol Hokama 1645–1694 26 October 1666 29 July 1694 son of Abbas II

Sultan
Sultan
Husayn

Shah, Sultan, Sadr-ol Hakem 1668–1726 29 July 1694 11 September 1722 son of Suleiman I Deposed & then killed by Ashraf Hotak

Afghan Rebellion

Mahmud Hotak

Shah 1697?–1725 23 October 1722 22 April 1725 son-in-law of Sultan
Sultan
Husayn son of Mirwais Khan Hotak Recognised as Shah
Shah
of Persia after the Siege of Isfahan

Ashraf Hotak

Shah ?–1730 22 April 1725 5 October 1729 cousin of Mahmud Hotak Ruled in opposition to Tahmasp II
Tahmasp II
and lost control of Persia after the Battle of Damghan

Safavid restoration

Tahmasp II

Shah 1704–1740 11 September 1722 16 April 1732 son of Sultan
Sultan
Husayn Ruled in opposition to Mahmud Hotak, later deposed & then killed by Nader

Abbas III

Shah 1730–1739 16 April 1732 22 January 1736 son of Tahmasp II Under control of Nader. Deposed & then killed by Nader

Afsharid Empire
Afsharid Empire
(1736–1796)[edit] Main article: Afsharid Empire

Afsharid dynasty
Afsharid dynasty
at its greatest extent

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Birth–Death Entered office Left office Family Relations Note

Afsharid dynasty[19] (1736–1796)

Nader Shah Nadhar Qoli Khan

Shah, Sultan, Hakem-ol Hokama, Hazrat-e Ashraf 1698–1747 22 January 1736 19 June 1747 son of Imam Qoli Beig Afshar Before crowning his title was Tahmasp Qoli Khan. Killed

Adil Shah Ali Qoli Beig

Shah 1719/20–1749 19 June 1747 29 July 1748 son of Mohammad Ebrahim Khan brother of Nader Deposed, blinded & then killed by Ebrahim

Ebrahim Afshar Mohammd Ali Beig

Shah 1724–1749 29 July 1748 3 September 1748 son of Mohammad Ebrahim Khan brother of Nader Deposed & then killed by Shahrukh Afshar

Shahrukh Afshar

Shah 1734–1796 3 September 1748 1796 son of Reza Qoli Mirza
Mirza
son of Nader. His mother was Fatemeh Soltan Beigom daughter of Sultan
Sultan
Husayn I Safavi Deposed & blinded by Suleiman II (1749), restored (1750)

Brief Safavid control[20] (1749-1750)

Suleiman II of Persia Mir Sayyed Mohammad Marashi

Shah ?-? 1749 1750 Pretender to the Safavid throne Removed and blinded

Afsharid restoration[21] (1750-1796)

Shahrukh Afshar

Shah 1734–1796 3 September 1748 1796 son of Reza Qoli Mirza
Mirza
son of Nader. His mother was Fatemeh Soltan Beigom daughter of Sultan
Sultan
Husayn I Safavi Deposed & blinded by Suleiman II (1749), restored (1750)

Zand Kingdom (1751–1794)[edit] Main article: Zand dynasty

Map of the Zand dynasty
Zand dynasty
at Lotf Ali Khan
Lotf Ali Khan
time

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Birth–Death Entered office Left office Family Relations Note

Zand dynasty[22] (1751–1794)

Karim Khan Mohammad Karim

Khan, Vakil e-Ra'aayaa 1705–1779 1751 6 March 1779 son of Inaq Khan & Bay Agha

Mohammad Ali Khan

Khan 1760–1779 6 March 1779 19 June 1779 son of Karim

Abol Fath Khan

Khan 1755–1787 6 March 1779 22 August 1779 son of Karim

Zaki Khan

Khan ?–22 August 1779 6 March 1779 22 August 1779 son of Budaq Khan & Bay Agha

Sadiq Khan Zand Mohammad Sadeq

Khan ?–1782 22 August 1779 14 March 1781 son of Inaq Khan & Bay Agha

Ali Murad Khan

Khan 1720–1785 14 March 1781 11 February 1785 son of Allah Morad (Qeytas) Khan Zand Hazareh

Jafar Khan

Khan ?–1789 18 February 1785 23 January 1789 son of Sadeq

Sayed Murad Khan

Khan ?–1789 23 January 1789 10 May 1789 son of Khoda Morad Khan Zand Hazareh

Lotf Ali Khan

Khan 1769–1794 23 January 1789 20 March 1794 son of Ja'far Deposed, blinded & then killed by Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar

Qajar Empire
Qajar Empire
(1794–1925)[edit] Main article: Qajar Empire

Map of the Qajar dynasty
Qajar dynasty
at Mohammad Khan time

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Birth–Death Entered office Left office Family Relations Note

Qajar dynasty[23] (1794–1925)

Mohammad Khan Qajar Agha Mohammad Khan

Khan, Shahanshah, Khaqan 1742–1797 20 March 1794 17 June 1797 son of Mohammad Hassan Khan Qajar Gelded prior to accession. Assassinated

Fat′h-Ali Shah
Shah
Qajar Baba Khan

Shahanshah, Khaqan, Soltane Saheb Qaran 1772–1834 17 June 1797 23 October 1834 son of Hosein Qoli Khan Jahansuz brother of Mohammad

Mohammad Shah
Shah
Qajar

Shahanshah, Khaqan 1808–1848 23 October 1834 5 September 1848 son of Abbas Mirza
Mirza
Nayeb os-Saltaneh son of Fat'h Ali

Naser al-Din Shah
Shah
Qajar

Shahanshah, Khaqan, Soltane Saheb Qaran, Qebleye alam 1831–1896 5 September 1848 1 May 1896 son of Mohammad and Mahd-e Olia Assassinated at Shah-Abdol-Azim
Shah-Abdol-Azim
by Mirza
Mirza
Reza Kermani

Mozaffar al-Din Shah
Shah
Qajar

Shahanshah, Khaqan 1853–1907 1 May 1896 3 January 1907 son of Naser ed-Din

Mohammad Ali Shah
Shah
Qajar

Shahanshah 1872–1925 3 January 1907 16 July 1909 son of Mozaffar ed-Din Deposed

Ahmad Shah
Shah
Qajar

Shahanshah 1898–1930 16 July 1909 15 December 1925 son of Mohammd Ali Deposed

Pahlavi Kingdom (1925–1979)[edit] Main article: Pahlavi dynasty

Map of the Pahlavi dynasty

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Birth–Death Entered office Left office Family Relations Note

Pahlavi dynasty
Pahlavi dynasty
(1925–1979)

Reza Shah Reza Khan (later Pahlavi)

Alahazrat, Homayoun, Shahanshah, Sardar Sepah 1878–1944 15 December 1925 16 September 1941 son of Abbas Ali Deposed during the Anglo-Soviet invasion

Mohammad Reza Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi

Alahazrat, Homayoun, Shahanshah, Ariamehr, Bozorg Arteshtaran, Khodaygan 1919–1980 16 September 1941 11 February 1979 son of Reza Shah Deposed during the Iranian Revolution

See also[edit]

Iranian monarchy Monarchism in Iran Supreme Leader of Iran History of Iran Persian Empire List of ancient Persians Shah Shahbanu

Notes and references[edit]

^ G. Posener, La première domination perse en Égypte, Cairo, 1936, pp. 30-36. ^ Jürgen von Beckerath, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (= Münchner ägyptologische Studien, vol 46), Mainz am Rhein: Verlag Philipp von Zabern, 1999. ISBN 3-8053-2310-7, pp. 220–21. ^ "Ahasuerus". JewishEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2014-07-25.  ^ a b Assar, 2004.Assar, 2005. Assar, "Moses of Choren & the Early Parthian Chronology", 2006. ^ a b c d e f g Qashqai, H., "The successors of Mithridates II" ^ a b c d e f g Assar, G.R.F., "A Revised Parthian Chronology of the Period 165-91 BCE" Qashqai, H., "The successors of Mithridates II" ^ Assar, G.R.F., "A Revised Parthian Chronology of the Period 165-91 BCE" ^ Josephus Flavius, Antiquities of the Jews, Book XVI, Ch.8.4 ^ Tacitus, The Annals, 11.10 ^ See: Unknown King (III) (c. AD 140) ^ See: Tiridates III (c. AD 224 – 228?) ^ In Persian it means "King of Kings" ^ "The great king of Armenians" ^ "The penetrator of the shoulders" ^ "Queen" ^ In arabic, ibn means son of. so muhammad ibn suri means: muhammad son of suri (so suri is his father) ^ Muʾayyid S̲ābitī, ʻAlī (1967). Asnad va Namahha-yi Tarikhi (Historical documents and letters from early Islamic period towards the end of Shah
Shah
Ismaʻil Safavi's reign.). Iranian culture & literature (46). Kitābkhānah-ʾi Ṭahūrī., pp. 193, 274, 315, 330, 332, 422 and 430. See also: Abdul Hussein Navai, Asnaad o Mokatebaat Tarikhi Iran
Iran
(Historical sources and letters of Iran), Tehran, Bongaah Tarjomeh and Nashr-e-Ketab, 2536, pages 578,657, 701-702 and 707 ^ H.R. Roemer, "The Safavid Period", in Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. VI, Cambridge University Press 1986, p. 339: "Further evidence of a desire to follow in the line of Turkmen rulers is Ismail's assumption of the title 'Padishah-i-Iran', previously held by Uzun Hasan." ^ The Cambridge History of Iran, vol. 7, 1991, p. 960. ^ http://www.san.beck.org/1-11-Ottoman1730-1875.html ^ Lang, David Marshall (1957), The Last Years of the Georgian Monarchy, 1658-1832, p. 148. Columbia University Press ^ The Cambridge History of Iran, vol. 7, 1991, p. 961. ^ The Cambridge History of Iran, vol. 7, 1991, p. 962.

Bibliography[edit]

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