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The Info List - List Of Kings Of Persia


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The following is a LIST OF MONARCHS OF PERSIA, who ruled over the area of modern-day Iran
Iran
from the establishment of the Achaemenid dynasty by Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great
in 550 BC until the deposition of the Pahlavi dynasty
Pahlavi dynasty
in 1979.

Earlier monarchs in the area of modern-day Iran
Iran
are listed in:

* List of rulers of Pre-Achaemenid kingdoms of Iran
Iran

Minor dynasties and vassal monarchs can be found in:

* List of rulers of Parthian sub-kingdoms * Muslim dynasties of Iran
Iran

CONTENTS

* 1 Achaemenid dynasty (550–330 BC) * 2 Argead (Macedonian) dynasty (330–309 BC) * 3 Seleucid dynasty
Seleucid dynasty
(311–129 BC) * 4 Parthian or Arsacid dynasty (247 BC – AD 228) * 5 Sasanian dynasty (224–651) * 6 Dabuyid dynasty
Dabuyid dynasty
(642–760) * 7 Rashidun Caliphate
Rashidun Caliphate
(642–661) * 8 Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliphate (661–750) * 9 Abbasid Caliphate
Abbasid Caliphate
(750–946) * 10 Samanid dynasty (819–999) * 11 Saffarid dynasty (861–1003) * 12 Ghurid dynasty
Ghurid dynasty
(879–1215) * 13 Buyid Clan and their dynasty (934–1062) * 14 Ziyarid dynasty
Ziyarid dynasty
(928–1043) * 15 Great Seljuqs
Seljuqs
and their Empire (1029–1194) * 16 Khwarezmid dynasty (1153–1231) * 17 Mongol Empire and Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
(1230–1357)

* 18 Rival dynasties (1332–1501)

* 18.1 Sarbadars
Sarbadars
(1332–1386) * 18.2 Chupanids (1335–1357) * 18.3 Jalayirids (1335–1432) * 18.4 Injuids (1335–1357) * 18.5 Muzaffarids (1314–1393) * 18.6 Kara Koyunlu
Kara Koyunlu
(1375–1468) * 18.7 Ak Koyunlu (1378–1497) * 18.8 Timurid dynasty (1370–1507)

* 19 Safavid dynasty
Safavid dynasty
(1501–1736) * 20 Afsharid dynasty
Afsharid dynasty
(1736–1796) * 21 Zand dynasty
Zand dynasty
(1751–1794) * 22 Qajar dynasty
Qajar dynasty
(1794–1925) * 23 Pahlavi dynasty
Pahlavi dynasty
(1925–1979) * 24 See also * 25 Notes and references * 26 Bibliography

ACHAEMENID DYNASTY (550–330 BC)

Extent of the first Persian Empire, the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
.

THRONE NAME ORIGINAL NAME PORTRAIT TITLE BIRTH–DEATH ENTERED OFFICE LEFT OFFICE FAMILY RELATIONS NOTE

ACHAEMENID EMPIRE (550–330 BC)

Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great

The Great King, King of Kings, King of Anshan, King of Media, King of Babylon, King of Sumer and Akkad, King of the Four Corners of the World 600–530 BC 559 BC 530 BC Son of Cambyses I king of Anshan and Mandana daughter of Astyages King of Anshan from 559 BC. Killed in battle with Massagetes
Massagetes

Cambyses

The Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt ?–521 BC 530 BC 522 BC Son of Cyrus the Great Died while en route to put down a rebellion.

Pharaonic titulary: Horus : Smatawy, Nswbty : Mesutire

Bardiya Gaumata (?)

The Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt ?–522 BC 522 BC 522 BC Son of Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great
(possibly an imposter claiming to be Bardiya) Killed by Persian aristocrats

Darius I

The Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt 550–486 BC 522 BC 486 BC Son of Hystaspes Pharaonic titulary: Horus : Menkhib Nswbty : Stutre

Xerxes I

The Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt 519–465 BC 485 BC 465 BC Son of Darius I Most likely is the King Ahasuerus of the Book of Esther
Book of Esther

Artaxerxes I

The Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt ?–424 BC 465 BC 424 BC Son of Xerxes I Believed by some to be the King Ahaseurus of the Book of Esther
Book of Esther

Xerxes II Artaxerxes

The Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt ?–424 BC 424 BC 424 BC Son of Artaxerxes I Only recognised in Persia itself, killed by Sogdianus

? Sogdianus

The Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt ?–423 BC 424 BC 423 BC Son of Artaxerxes I Only recognised in Persia and Elam, killed by Darius II

Darius II Ochus

The Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt ?–404 BC 424 BC 404 BC Son of Artaxerxes I

Artaxerxes II Arsaces

The Great King, King of Kings 436–358 BC 404 BC 358 BC Son of Darius II

Artaxerxes III
Artaxerxes III
Ochus

The Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt ?–338 BC 358 BC 338 BC Son of Artaxerxes II Killed

Artaxerxes IV Arses

The Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt ?–336 BC 338 BC 336 BC Son of Artaxerxes III Killed

Darius III Artashata

The Great King, King of Kings, Pharaoh of Egypt 380–330 BC 336 BC 330 BC Son of Artaxerxes IV Killed by Artaxerxes V

Artaxerxes V Bessus

The Great King, King of Kings ?–329 BC 330 BC 329 BC Probably a descendant of Artaxerxes II Killed by Alexander III

ARGEAD (MACEDONIAN) DYNASTY (330–309 BC)

Macedonia (ancient kingdom) at its greatest extent.

THRONE NAME ORIGINAL NAME PORTRAIT TITLE BIRTH–DEATH ENTERED OFFICE LEFT OFFICE FAMILY RELATIONS NOTE

MACEDONIAN EMPIRE (330–312 BC)

Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great

King 356 – 13 June 323 BC 330 BC 323 BC Son of Philip II of Macedonia King of Macedonia from 336 BC as Alexander III

Philip III Arrhidaeus

King c. 359 – 317 BC June 323 BC 317 BC Son of Philip II of Macedonia Killed by Olympias
Olympias

Alexander IV

King Sept. 323 – 309 BC Sept. 323 BC 309 BC Son of Alexander III King of Macedonia as Alexander IV until 309 BC. Killed by Cassander son of Antipater

Perdiccas

Regent ?–321 BC June 323 BC 321 BC

Regent for Alexander IV & Philip III, Prince of Orestis

Antipater

Regent 398?–319 BC 321 BC 319 BC Son of Iollas Regent for Alexander IV & Philip III

Polyperchon

Regent 394–303 BC 319 BC 316 BC Son of Simmias Regent for Alexander IV "> Seleucid Empire at its greatest extent.

THRONE NAME ORIGINAL NAME PORTRAIT TITLE BIRTH–DEATH ENTERED OFFICE LEFT OFFICE FAMILY RELATIONS NOTE

SELEUCID DYNASTY (311–129 BC)

Seleucus I Nicator
Seleucus I Nicator

King c. 358–281 BC 311 BC 281 BC Son of Antiochus son of Seleucus Assumed title of "King" from 306 BC.

Antiochus I Soter
Antiochus I Soter

King ?–261 BC 281 BC 261 BC Son of Seleucus I Co-ruler from 291

Antiochus II Theos
Antiochus II Theos

King 286–246 BC 261 BC 246 BC Son of Antiochus I

Seleucus II Callinicus
Seleucus II Callinicus

King ?–225 BC 246 BC 225 BC Son of Antiochus II

Seleucus III Ceraunus
Seleucus III Ceraunus
Alexander

King c. 243–223 BC 225 BC 223 BC Son of Seleucus II

Antiochus III the Great
Antiochus III the Great

Great King c. 241–187 BC 223 BC 187 BC Son of Seleucus II

Seleucus IV Philopator

King ?–175 BC 187 BC 175 BC Son of Antiochus III

Antiochus IV Epiphanes
Antiochus IV Epiphanes

King c. 215–163 BC 175 BC 163 BC Son of Antiochus III Killed in Elymais

Antiochus V Eupator
Antiochus V Eupator

King c. 172–161 BC 163 BC 161 BC Son of Antiochus IV

Demetrius I Soter

King 185–150 BC 161 BC 150 BC Son of Seleucus IV

Alexander Balas
Alexander Balas

King ?–146 BC 150 BC 146 BC Purported son of Antiochus IV

Demetrius II Nicator

King ?–139 BC 146 BC 139 BC Son of Demetrius I Defeated and captured by Parthians. He married Rhodogune daughter of Mithridates I

Antiochus VI Dionysus

King 148–138 BC 145 BC 142 BC Son of Alexander III. In competition with Demetrius II.

Antiochus VII Sidetes

King ?–129 BC 139 BC 129 BC Son of Demetrius I Killed in battle with Phraates II

PARTHIAN OR ARSACID DYNASTY (247 BC – AD 228)

The Parthian Empire at its greatest extent.

The Seleucid dynasty
Seleucid dynasty
gradually lost control of Persia. In 253, the Arsacid dynasty established itself in Parthia
Parthia
. The Parthians gradually expanded their control, until by the mid-2nd century BC, the Seleucids had completely lost control of Persia. Control of eastern territories was permanently lost by Antiochus VII in 129 BC. For more comprehensive lists of kings, queens, sub-kings and sub-queens of this Era see:

* List of rulers of Parthian sub-kingdoms

THRONE NAME ORIGINAL NAME PORTRAIT TITLE BIRTH–DEATH ENTERED OFFICE LEFT OFFICE FAMILY RELATIONS NOTE

ARSACID DYNASTY (247 BC – 228 AD)

Arsaces I Tiridates I or Arsaces

King, Karen, Autocrator ?–211 BC 247 BC 211 BC A descendant of Arsaces son of Phriapatius who was probably son of Artaxerxes II

Arsaces II Arsaces

?–185 BC 211 BC 185 BC Son of Arsaces I

Arsaces III Phriapatius

?–170 BC 185 BC 170 BC Grandson of Tiridates I

Arsaces IV Phraates I

?–167 BC 170 BC 167 BC Son of Phriapatius

Arsaces V Mithridates I

The Great King, Theos, Theopator, Philhellene ?–132 BC 167 BC 132 BC Son of Phriapatius

Arsaces VI Phraates II

The Great King, Philopator, Theopator, Nikephoros ?–127 BC 132 BC 127 BC Son of Mithridates I Killed in battle with Scythians

Arsaces VII Artabanus I

King ?–126 BC 127 BC 126 BC Son of Phriapatius Killed in battle with Tocharians

Arsaces VIII Vologases (I)

The Great King, Theopator, Philadelphos, Philhellene, Epiphanes ?–122 BC 126 BC 122 BC Son of Phriapatius He was the first Arsacid king of Media, Arran and Iberia

Arsaces IX Artabanus (II)

The Great King, King of kings, Epiphanes, Philhellene ?–121 BC 122 BC 121 BC Son of Artabanus I Killed in battle with Medians

Arsaces X Mithridates II

The Great King, The Great King of Kings, Epiphanes, Soter ?–91 BC 121 BC 91 BC Son of Artabanus I

Arsaces XI Gotarzes I

The Great King, Epiphanes, Philhellene, Euergetes, Autocrator ?–87 BC 91 BC 87 BC Son of Mithridates II

Arsaces XII Artabanus (III)

The Great King, Theopator, Nicator ?–77? BC 91 BC 77? BC Son of Vologases (I)

Arsaces XIII Mithridates (III)

The Great King, The Great King of Kings, Dikaios, Euergetes, Philhellene, Autocrator, Philopator, Epiphanes ?–67 BC 88 BC 67 BC Son of Mithridates II

Arsaces XIV Orodes I

The Great King, Euergetes, Epiphanes, Philhellene ?–75 BC 80 BC 75 BC Son of Mithridates II

Arsaces XV Sanatruces I

The Great King, Theopator, Euergetes, Epiphanes, Philhellene 157–70 BC 77 BC 70 BC Son of Vologases (I)

Arsaces XVI ?

The Great King, Theopator, Euergetes, Epiphanes, Philhellene, Eusebes ?–66 BC 77 BC 66 BC ? The most obscure major monarch of the first millennium BC. Nothing about him is currently known.

Arsaces XVII Phraates III

The Great King, Theos, Euergetes, Epiphanes, Philhellene ?–57 BC 70 BC 57 BC Son of Sanatruces I Killed by Orodes II

Arsaces XVIII ?

The Great King, Philopator, Euergetes, Epiphanes, Philhellene ?–63 BC 66 BC 63 BC Son of Arsaces XVI The second most obscure monarch of the first millennium BC, nothing about him is known.

Arsaces XIX Mithridates III (or IV)

The Great King, The Great King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Theos, Eupator, Theopator, Philhellene ?–54 BC 65 BC 54 BC Son of Phraates III Killed by Orodes II

Arsaces XX Orodes II

King of Kings, Philopator, Eupator, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene, Ktistes ?–38 BC 57 BC 38 BC Son of Phraates III Killed by Phraates IV

Arsaces XXI Pacorus I

King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ?–38 BC 50 BC 38 BC Son of Orodes II Killed in battle with Romans

Arsaces XXII Phraates IV

King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ?–2 BC 38 2 BC Son of Orodes II Killed by Musa

Arsaces XXIII Tiridates II

King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene, Autocrator, Philoromaeos ?–after 23 BC 30 BC 25 BC Probably a descendant of Mithridates (III) Deposed and went to Rome

Arsaces XXIV Mithridates (V)

? ?–? BC 12 BC 9 BC Probably a descendant of Mithridates (III)

Musa Musa

Queen of Queens, Thea, Urania ?–4? AD 2 BC 4 AD Queen of Phraates IV

Arsaces XXV Phraates V

King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ?–4 AD 2 BC 4 AD Son of Phraates IV "> Sasanian Empire at its greatest extent.

THRONE NAME ORIGINAL NAME PORTRAIT TITLE BIRTH–DEATH ENTERED OFFICE LEFT OFFICE FAMILY RELATIONS NOTE

HOUSE OF SASAN

Ardashir I
Ardashir I

Shahanshah
Shahanshah
180 – February 242 28 April 224 February 242 Son of Papak, who was son of Sasan

Shapur I

Shahanshah 215 – May 270 12 April 240 May 270 Son of Ardashir I
Ardashir I

Hormizd I Hormozd-Ardashir

Shahanshah, Wuzurg Armananshah ?–June 271 May 270 June 271 Son of Shapur I

Bahram I

Shahanshah, Gilanshah ?–September 274 June 271 September 274 Son of Shapur I

Bahram II

Shahanshah ?–293 September 274 293 Son of Bahram I

Bahram III

Shahanshah, Sakanshah ?–293 293 293 Son of Bahram II Deposed

Narseh I

Shahanshah, Wuzurg Armananshah ?–302 293 302 Son of Shapur I

Hormizd II

Shahanshah ?–309 302 309 Son of Narseh I Killed by Iranian aristocrats

Adhur Narseh

Shahanshah ?–309 309 309 Son of Hormizd II Killed by Iranian aristocrats

Shapur II

Shahanshah, Dhū al-aktāf 309 – 379 309 379 Son of Hormizd II

Ardashir II

Shahanshah ?–383 379 383 Son of Shapur II

Shapur III

Shahanshah ?–Dec. 388 383 Dec. 388 Son of Shapur II Killed by Iranian aristocrats

Bahram IV

Shahanshah, Kirmanshah ?–399 Dec. 388 399 Son of Shapur II

Yazdegerd I

Shahanshah 363 – 21 January 420 399 21 January 420 Son of Shapur III Killed by Iranian aristocrats

Bahram V

Shahanshah 406 – 20 June 438 21 January 420 20 June 438 Son of Yazdegerd I

Yazdegerd II
Yazdegerd II

Shahanshah ?–15 December 457 20 June 438 15 December 457 Son of Bahram V

Hormizd III

Shahanshah 399–459 457 459 Son of Yazdegerd II
Yazdegerd II
Killed by Peroz I
Peroz I

Peroz I
Peroz I

Shahanshah 459 –Jan. 484 457 Jan. 484 Son of Yazdegerd II
Yazdegerd II
Killed in battle with Hephthalites

Balash

Shahanshah ?–488 Feb. 484 488 Son of Yazdegerd II
Yazdegerd II

Kavadh I

Shahanshah 449 – 13 September 531 488 496 Son of Peroz I
Peroz I
Deposed

Djamasp
Djamasp

Shahanshah ?–502 496 498 Son of Peroz I
Peroz I
Deposed

Kavadh I

Shahanshah 449 – 13 September 531 498 13 September 531 Son of Peroz I
Peroz I

Khosrau I

Shahanshah, Anushiravan, The Just 500 – 31 January 579 13 September 531 31 January 579 Son of Kavadh I

Hormizd IV

Shahanshah 540 – 5 September 590 31 January 579 5 September 590 Son of Khosrau I Killed by Vistahm

Khosrau II
Khosrau II

Shahanshah, Aparviz 570 – February 28, 628 Sept. 590 Sept. 590 Son of Hormizd IV Deposed and went to Byzantine territory

HOUSE OF MIHRAN

Bahram VI Mehrbandak

Shahanshah, Chubineh ?–591 Sept. 590 Jan. 591 Son of Bahram Gushnasp from House of Mihran Assassinated under the order of Khosrau II
Khosrau II

HOUSE OF SASAN

Khosrau II
Khosrau II

Shahanshah, Aparviz 570 – February 28, 628 Jan. 591 25 February 628 Son of Hormizd IV Executed by Mihr Hormozd under the orders of Kavadh II

HOUSE OF ISPAHBUDHAN

Vistahm

Shahanshah ?–596 or 600 591 596 or 600 Son of Shapur from the House of Ispahbudhan . He was the uncle of Khosrau II
Khosrau II
and husband of Gorduya, sister of Bahram VI Killed by his wife Gorduya or by his general Pariowk

HOUSE OF SASAN

Kavadh II Shiruyah

Shahanshah ?–15 September 628 25 February 628 15 September 628 Son of Khosrau II
Khosrau II
Died from plague

Ardashir III

Shahanshah 621 – 27 April 629 15 September 628 27 April 629 Son of Kavadh II Killed by Shahrbaraz

HOUSE OF MIHRAN

Shahrbaraz

Shahanshah, Shahrvaraz ?–17 June 629 27 April 629 17 June 629 Sasanian general from the House of Mihran Killed by Farrokh Hormizd under the orders of Borandukht

HOUSE OF SASAN

Khosrau III

Shahanshah ?–630 630 630 Nephew of Khosrau II
Khosrau II
Killed after a few days reign

Borandukht (First reign)

Shahbanu
Shahbanu
590 – 632 17 June 629 16 June 630 Daughter of Khosrau II
Khosrau II
Deposed by Iranian aristocrats and replaced by Shapur-i Shahrvaraz

Shapur-i Shahrvaraz

Shahanshah ?–? 630 630 Son of Shahrbaraz and an unknown sister of Khosrau II
Khosrau II
Deposed by Iranian aristocrats and replaced by Azarmidokht

Peroz II Gushnasp-Bandeh

Shahanshah ?–630 630 630 Son of Mihran-Goshnasp "> Dabuyids, c. 720

NAME PORTRAIT TITLE BIRTH–DEATH ENTERED OFFICE LEFT OFFICE FAMILY RELATIONS NOTE

DABUYID DYNASTY (642–760)

Gil Gavbara

Ispahbadh ?–660 642 660 Son of Piruz

Dabuya

Ispahbadh, Gil-Gilan, Padashwargarshah ?–676 660 676 Son of Gil Gavbara

Farrukhan I the Great

Ispahbadh, Gil-Gilan, Padashwargarshah ?–728 712 728 Son of Dabuya

Dadhburzmihr

Ispahbadh, Gil-Gilan, Padashwargarshah ?–740/741 728 740/741 Son of Farrukhan the Great

Farrukhan II the Little

Ispahbadh, Gil-Gilan, Padashwargarshah ?–747/48 740/741 747/48 Son of Farrukhan the Great Regent for Khurshid of Tabaristan

Khurshid of Tabaristan

Ispahbadh, Gil-Gilan, Padashwargarshah 734 – 761 740/741 760 Son of Dadhburzmihr Committed suicide

beginning of Muslim conquest of Persia
Muslim conquest of Persia

RASHIDUN CALIPHATE (642–661)

The Rashidun Empire reached its greatest extent under Caliph Uthman, in 654.

For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

* Muslim dynasties of Iran
Iran

KUNYA NAME PORTRAIT TITLE BIRTH–DEATH ENTERED OFFICE LEFT OFFICE FAMILY RELATIONS NOTE

RASHIDUN CALIPHATE (632 - 661)

Abu Hafs Umar ibn Al-Khattab

Al-Faruq, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 583–644 642 644 Son of Khattab ibn Nufayl . Umar became Caliph in 634 and his forces conquered Persia in 642. Killed by Piruz Nahavandi

Abu Amr Uthman ibn Affan

Zonnurain, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 579–656 644 656 Son of Affan, of the Umayyad
Umayyad
clan. Killed by Kharijites
Kharijites

Abul-Hasan Ali Ibn Abi Talib
Ali Ibn Abi Talib

Al-Mortaza, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin, Great Imam 598–661 656 661 Son of Abu Talib, of the Hashemite
Hashemite
clan. Son-in-law of Muhammad
Muhammad
. Killed by Kharijites

UMAYYAD CALIPHATE (661–750)

Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliphate at its greatest extent (AD 750).

KUNYA NAME PORTRAIT TITLE BIRTH–DEATH ENTERED OFFICE LEFT OFFICE FAMILY RELATIONS NOTE

UMAYYAD CLAN (661–750)

Abu Abdullah Muawiyah I

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin

661 680 Son of Abu Sufyan ibn Harb , cousin of Uthman ibn Affan and distant cousin of Muhammad
Muhammad

Abu Khalid Yazid I

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin

680 683 Son of Muawiyah I

Abu Abd ur-Rahman Muawiyah II
Muawiyah II

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin

683 684 Son of Yazid I Abdicated (?)

Abu Abd al-Malik Marwan I

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin

684 685 Son of Hakam cousin of Muawiyah I Killed by his wife

Abu'l-Walid Abd al-Malik

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin

685 705 Son of Marwan I

Abu'l-Abbas Al-Walid I

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin

705 715 Son of Abd al-Malik

Abu Ayyub Sulayman

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin

715 717 Son of Abd al-Malik

Abu Hafṣ Umar II
Umar II

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin

717 720 Son of Abd al-Aziz son of Marwan I

Abu Khalid Yazid II

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin

720 724 Son of Abd al-Malik

Abu'l-Walid Hisham

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin

724 743 Son of Abd al-Malik

Abu'l-Abbas Al-Walid II

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin

743 744 Son of Yazid II

Abu Khalid Yazid III

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin

744 744 Son of Al-Walid I and Shahfarand daughter of Peroz III Killed

Abu Ishaq Ibrahim

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin

744 744 Son of Al-Walid I Killed

Abu Abd al-Malik Marwan II

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin

744 750 Son of Muhammad
Muhammad
son of Marwan I Ruled from Harran
Harran
in the Jazira . Killed by Saffah

ABBASID CALIPHATE (750–946)

Abbasid Caliphate
Abbasid Caliphate
at its greatest extent, c. 850.

THRONE NAME ORIGINAL NAME PORTRAIT TITLE BIRTH–DEATH ENTERED OFFICE LEFT OFFICE FAMILY RELATIONS NOTE

ABBASID CLAN (750-946)

As-Saffah Abu'l-Abbas Abdullah

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 721-754 750 754 Son of Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Ali ibn Abdallah who was Muhammad
Muhammad
's paternal uncle

Al-Mansur Abu Ja'far Abdullah

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 714-775 754 775 Brother of As-Saffah

Al-Mahdi
Al-Mahdi
Abu Abdullah Muhammad

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 744/5-785 775 785 Son of Al-Mansur

Al-Hadi Abu Mohammad Musa

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 764-786 785 786 Son of Al-Mahdi
Al-Mahdi

Ar-Rashid Abu Ja'far Harun

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 763/766-809 786 809 Son of Al-Mahdi
Al-Mahdi

Al-Amin Abu Abdullah Muhammad

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 787-813 809 813 Son of Harun al-Rashid
Harun al-Rashid
Killed by Al-Ma\'mun

Al-Ma\'mun Abu'l-Abbas Abdullah

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 786-833 813 833 Son of Harun al-Rashid
Harun al-Rashid

Al-Mu\'tasim Abu Ishaq Muhammad

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 795-842 833 842 Son of Harun al-Rashid
Harun al-Rashid

Al-Wathiq
Al-Wathiq
Abu Ja'far Harun

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 816-847 842 847 Son of Al-Mu\'tasim

Al-Mutawakkil
Al-Mutawakkil
Abu'l-Fazl Ja'far

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 821-861 847 861 Son of Al-Mu\'tasim Killed by Al-Muntasir
Al-Muntasir

Al-Muntasir
Al-Muntasir
Abu Ja'far Muhammad

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 837-862 861 862 Son of Al-Mutawakkil
Al-Mutawakkil

Al-Musta\'in Abu'l-Abbas Ahmad

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 836-866 862 866 Son of Muhammad
Muhammad
son of Al-Mu\'tasim Deposed and later killed

Al-Mu\'tazz Abu Abdullah Zubayr

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 847-869 866 869 Son of Al-Mutawakkil
Al-Mutawakkil
Deposed and later killed

Al-Muhtadi
Al-Muhtadi
Abu Ishaq Muhammad

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin ??-870 869 870 Son of Al-Wathiq
Al-Wathiq

Al-Mu\'tamid Abu'l-Abbas Ahmad

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 844-892 870 892 Son of Al-Mutawakkil
Al-Mutawakkil

Al-Mu\'tadid Abu'l-Abbas Ahmad

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 854/861-902 892 902 Son of Talha al-Muwaffaq son of Al-Mutawakkil
Al-Mutawakkil

Al-Muktafi
Al-Muktafi
Abu Mohammad Ali

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 877/8-908 902 908 Son of Al-Mu\'tadid

Al-Muqtadir (First reign) Abul-Fazl Ja'far

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 895-932 908 929 Son of Al-Mu\'tadid Briefly deposed.

Al-Qahir (First reign) Abu Mansur Muhammad

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 899-950 929 929 Son of Al-Mu\'tadid Forced to resign the throne in the face of public protest

Al-Muqtadir (Second reign) Abul-Fazl Ja'far

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 895-932 929 932 Son of Al-Mu\'tadid

Al-Qahir (Second reign) Abu Mansur Muhammad

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin

932 934 Son of Al-Mu\'tadid Deposed and blinded

Abu'l-Abbas Ar-Radi Muhammad

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 907-940 934 940 Son of Al-Muqtadir De facto power in the hands of Ibn Ra\'iq 936-938

Al-Muttaqi
Al-Muttaqi
Abu Ishaq Ibrahim

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 908-968 940 944 Son of Al-Muqtadir De facto power in the hands of Bajkam 940-941, Ibn Ra\'iq 941-942, Nasir al-Dawla 942-943 & Tuzun 943-944, who deposed and blinded him.

Al-Mustakfi Abu'l-Qasim Abdullah

Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 905-949 944 946 Son of Al-Muktafi
Al-Muktafi
De facto power in the hands of Tuzun 944-945 "> Samanid Empire at its greatest extent.

THRONE NAME ORIGINAL NAME PORTRAIT TITLE BORN-DIED ENTERED OFFICE LEFT OFFICE FAMILY RELATIONS NOTE

SAMANID DYNASTY , 819–1005

1 Ahmad I

?–864/5 819 864/5

2 Nasr I

?–892 864/5 892

3 Isma\'il I

Adel ?–907 892 907

4 Ahmad II

Shaheed ?–914 907 914

5 Nasr II

Saeed ?–943 914 942

6 Nuh I

Hamid ?–954 942 954

7 \'Abd al-Malik I

Rashid ?–? 954 961

8 Mansur I

Mo'ayyed ?–976 961 976

9 Nuh II

Radhi ? –997 976 996

10 Mansur II

Abol Hareth ?–999 996 999

11 \'Abd al-Malik II

Abol Favares ?–? 999 999

12 Isma\'il II

Montaser ?–1005 1000 1005

SAFFARID DYNASTY (861–1003)

Map of the Saffarid Dynasty
Saffarid Dynasty
(861 CE-1003 CE).

For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

* Muslim dynasties of Iran
Iran

KUNYA NAME PORTRAIT TITLE BIRTH–DEATH ENTERED OFFICE LEFT OFFICE FAMILY RELATIONS NOTE

SAFFARID DYNASTY (861–1003)

Ya\'qub as-Saffar

Emir 840 – 879 861 879 Son of al-Layth Died of sickness

Amr

Emir ?–902 879 901 Son of al-Layth Captured by the Samanids , later executed on 20 April 902 in Baghdad
Baghdad

Abu'l-Hasan Tahir

Emir ?–? 901 908 Son of Muhammad, son of Amr Imprisoned in Baghdad
Baghdad

Al-Layth

Emir ?–928 909 910 Son of Ali, son of al-Layth Dies of natural causes as a prisoner in Baghdad
Baghdad
in 928

Muhammad
Muhammad

Emir ?–? 910 911 Son of Ali, son of al-Layth Imprisoned in Baghdad
Baghdad

Abu Hafs Amr

Emir 902 – ? 912 913 Son of Ya\'qub Overthrown by the Samanids

Abu Ja'far Ahmad

Emir June 21, 906 – March 31, 963 923 963 Son of Muhammad, son of Amr Killed by Abu’l-‘Abbas and a Turkic Ghilman

Abu Ahmad Khalaf

Emir November 937 – March 1009 963 1003 Son of Ahmad ibn Muhammad
Muhammad
Overthrown by the Ghaznavids
Ghaznavids
in 1003, dies as exile in 1009

GHURID DYNASTY (879–1215)

Map of the Ghurid dynasty
Ghurid dynasty
at its greatest extent by the year 1202.

For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

* Muslim dynasties of Iran
Iran

THRONE NAME ORIGINAL NAME PORTRAIT TITLE BORN-DIED ENTERED OFFICE LEFT OFFICE FAMILY RELATIONS NOTE

GHURID DYNASTY (879-1215)

Amir Suri

Malik ?-? ? ? Father of Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Suri was the first Malik of the Ghurid dynasty

Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Suri

Malik ?-1011 ? 1011 Son of Amir Suri Poisoned himself

Abu Ali ibn Muhammad
Muhammad

Malik ?-1035 1011 1035 Son of Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Suri Overthrown and killed by his nephew Abbas ibn Shith

Abbas ibn Shith

Malik ?-1060 1035 1060

Deposed and killed by the Ghaznavids, replaced by his son Muhammad ibn Abbas

Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abbas

Malik ?-1080 1060 1080 Son of Abbas ibn Shith

Qutb al-din Hasan

Malik ?-1100 1080 1100 Son of Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abbas

Izz al-Din Husayn

Malik ?-1146 1100 1146 Son of Qutb al-din Hasan

Sayf al-Din Suri

Malik ?-1149 1146 1149 Son of Izz al-Din Husayn

Baha al-Din Sam I

Malik ?-1149 1149 1149 Son of Izz al-Din Husayn

Ala al-Din Husayn

Malik ?-1161 1149 1161 Son of Izz al-Din Husayn

Sayf al-Din Muhammad
Muhammad

Malik ?-1163 1161 1163 Son of Ala al-Din Husayn

Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad
Muhammad

Sultan 1139-1202 1163 1202 Son of Baha al-Din Sam I

Mu\'izz al-Din

Sultan 1149-1206 1173 1206 Son of Baha al-Din Sam I

Ghiyath al-Din Mahmud

Sultan ?-1212 1206 1212 Son of Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad
Muhammad

Baha al-Din Sam III

Sultan ?-1213 1212 1213 Son of Ghiyath al-Din Mahmud

Ala al-Din Atsiz

Sultan 1159-1214 1213 1214 Son of Ala al-Din Husayn

Ala al-Din Ali

Sultan ?-1215 1214 1215 Son of Shuja al-Din Muhammad
Muhammad

BUYID CLAN AND THEIR DYNASTY (934–1062)

Buyid Dynasty at its greatest extent.

The Buyid Empire
Buyid Empire
was divided into a number of separate emirates, of which the most important were Fars , Ray , and Iraq
Iraq
. Generally, one of the emirs held a sort of primus inter pares supremacy over the rest, which would be marked by titles like Amir al-umara and Shahanshah
Shahanshah
. For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

* Muslim dynasties of Iran
Iran

THRONE NAME ORIGINAL NAME PORTRAIT TITLE BIRTH–DEATH ENTERED OFFICE LEFT OFFICE FAMILY RELATIONS NOTE

BUYIDS OF FARS (933–1062)

Imad al-Dawla Abu'l-Hasan Ali

Emir, Amir al-umara 891 – 949 934 949 Son of Buya Also Senior Buyid Emir
Emir
(934-949)

Adud al-Dawla Fanna Khusraw

Emir, Shahanshah 936–983 949 983 Son of Rukn al-Dawla and nephew of Imad al-Dawla Senior Buyid Emir
Emir
(976-983) and Emir
Emir
of Iraq
Iraq
(978-983)

Sharaf al-Dawla Abu'l-Fawaris Shirdil

Emir, Amir al-umara 962–989 983 989 Son of Adud al-Dawla Also Senior Buyid Emir
Emir
and Emir
Emir
of Iraq
Iraq
(987-989)

Samsam al-Dawla Abu Kalijar Marzuban

Emir, King 964–998 989 998 son of Adud al-Dawla Also Emir
Emir
of Iraq
Iraq
and self-proclaimed Senior Buyid Emir
Emir
(983-986)

Baha\' al-Dawla Abu Nasr Firuz

Emir, King, Shahanshah 971–1012 998 1012 Son of Adud al-Dawla Also Emir
Emir
of Iraq
Iraq
(988-1012) and Senior Buyid Emir
Emir
(997-1012)

Sultan al-Dawla Abu Shuja

Emir 992–1024 1012 1024 Son of Baha\' al-Dawla Also Emir
Emir
of Iraq
Iraq
and Senior Buyid Emir
Emir
(1012-1021)

Abu Kalijar Marzuban

Emir, Shahanshah ?1011 – 1048 1024 1048 Son of Sultan al-Dawla Also Emir
Emir
of Kerman (1028-1048), Senior Buyid Emir
Emir
(1037-1048) and Emir
Emir
of Iraq
Iraq
(1044-1048)

Abu Mansur Fulad Sutun

Emir ?–1062 1048 1054 Son of Abu Kalijar Lost Fars to Abu Sa'd Khusrau Shah

Abu Sa\'d Khusrau Shah
Shah

Emir ?–? 1051 1054 Son of Abu Kalijar Lost Fars to Abu Mansur Fulad Sutun

Abu Mansur Fulad Sutun

Emir ?–1062 1054 1062 Son of Abu Kalijar Killed by the Shabankara
Shabankara
tribal chief Fadluya

BUYIDS OF REY, ISFAHAN, AND HAMADAN (935–1038)

Rukn al-Dawla Abu Ali Hasan

Emir, Amir al-umara 898–976 935 976 Son of Buya Also Senior Buyid Emir
Emir
(949-976)

Fakhr al-Dawla (First reign) Abu'l-Hasan Ali

Emir 952–997 976 980 Son of Rukn al-Dawla

Mu\'ayyad al-Dawla Abu Mansur

Emir 941–983 976 983 Son of Rukn al-Dawla Also Emir
Emir
of Hamadan (976–983), Jibal (977–983), Tabaristan (980–983), and Gorgan (981–983)

Fakhr al-Dawla (Second reign) Abu'l-Hasan Ali

Emir, King, Shahanshah 983–997 976 997 Son of Rukn al-Dawla Also Emir
Emir
of Hamadan & Tabaristan (984-997) and Senior Buyid Emir (991-997)

Majd al-Dawla
Majd al-Dawla
Abu Taleb Rostam

Emir 993–1029 997 1029 Son of Fakhr al-Dawla Only in Rey, briefly self-proclaimed Senior Buyid Emir

Shams al-Dawla Abu Taher

Emir ?–1021 997 1021 Son of Fakhr al-Dawla Only in Isfahan and Hamaedan, briefly self-proclaimed Senior Buyid Emir

Sama\' al-Dawla Abu'l-Hasan Ali

Emir ?–1023 1021 1023 Son of Shams al-Dawla Only in Hamadan, Deposed by Kakuyids
Kakuyids

BUYIDS OF IRAQ AND KHUZISTAN (945–1055)

Mu\'izz al-Dawla Abu'l-Husayn Ahmad

Emir, Amir al-umara 915–966 945 966 Son of Buya

Izz al-Dawla Abu Mansur Bakhtiyar

Emir, Amir al-umara 943–979 966 979 Son of Mu\'izz al-Dawla Self-proclaimed Senior Buyid Emir
Emir
(976-978)

Adud al-Dawla Fanna Khusraw

Emir, Shahanshah 937–983 977 983 Son of Rukn al-Dawla Also Emir
Emir
of Fars (949-983) and Senior Buyid Emir
Emir
(976-983)

Samsam al-Dawla Abu Kalijar Marzban

Emir, King 964–998 983 987 Son of Adud al-Dawla Also self-proclaimed Senior Buyid Emir
Emir
(983-986) and Emir
Emir
of Fars "> A map showing the Great Seljuk Empire at its height, upon the death of Malik Shah I in 1092.

For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

* Muslim dynasties of Iran
Iran

THRONE NAME ORIGINAL NAME PORTRAIT TITLE BIRTH–DEATH ENTERED OFFICE LEFT OFFICE FAMILY RELATIONS NOTE

HOUSE OF SELJUQ (1029–1191)

Rukn ad-Dunya wa'd-Din Toğrül I Abu Talib Mohammad

Beg, Sultan 995–1063 1029 1063 Son of Mikha'il son of Seljuq

ʿAdud ad-Dawla Alp Arslan
Alp Arslan
Abu Shujaʿ Mohammad

Sultan 1039–1072 1063 1072 Son of Chaghri Beg Dawud brother of Toğrül I

Jalal ad-Dawla wa'd-Din Malik Shah I Abu'l-Fath Hasan

Sultan 1055–1092 1072 1092 Son of Alp Arslan
Alp Arslan
Killed by Assassins

Nasir ad-Dawla wa'd-Din Abu'l-Qasim Mahmud I

Sultan 1086–1094 1092 1094 Son of Malik Shah I

Rukn ad-Dunya wa'd-Din Abu'l-Muzaffar Barkiyaruq

Sultan 1080–1105 1094 1105 Son of Malik Shah I

Ghiyath ad-Dunya wa'd-Din Abu Shuja Muhammad
Muhammad
I Tapar

Sultan 1082–1118 1105 1118 Son of Malik Shah I

Muglith ad-Dunya wa'd-Din Mahmud II

Sultan 1104–1131 1118 1131 Son of Muhammad
Muhammad
I Dominated by his uncle Sanjar and killed in a rebellion against him.

Rukn ad-Dunya wa'd-Din Abu Talib Toghrul II

Sultan 1109–1134 1132 1134 Son of Muhammad
Muhammad
I Ruled only in Iraq, dominated by his uncle Ahmed Sanjar

As-Salatin Muʿizz ad-Dunyā wa'd-Dīn Abu'l-Harith Ahmed Sanjar

Sultan 1087–1157 1097 1157 Son of Malik Shah I Ruled in Khorasan, dominating a series of nephews in Iraq.

Ghiyath ad-Dawla wa'd-Din Abu'l-Fath Mas\'ud

Sultan 1109–1152 1134 1152 Son of Muhammad
Muhammad
I Ruled over the western portion of the empire. Preoccupations in the east meant Sanjar was unable to dominate him.

Mugith ad-Dunya wa'd-Din (First reign) Malik Shah
Shah
II

Sultan 1128–1160 1152 1153 Son of Mahmud II Deposed by Khass Bey

Ghiyath ad-Dunya wa'd-Din Abu Shuja Muhammad
Muhammad
II

Sultan 1128–1160 1153 1160 Son of Mahmud II Rule contested with his uncle Sulayman Shah
Shah
(1153-1155)

Mu'izz ad-Dunya wa'd-Din (First reign) Abu'l-Harith Sulayman Shah
Shah

Sultan 1118–1162 1153 1155 Son of Muhammad
Muhammad
I Rule contested with his nephew Muhammad
Muhammad
II

Mugith ad-Dunya wa'd-Din (Second reign) Malik Shah
Shah
II

Sultan 1128–1160 1160 1160 Son of Mahmud II Deposed by the people of Isfahan after 16 days.

Mu'izz ad-Dunya wa'd-Din (Second reign) Abu'l-Harith Sulayman Shah
Shah

Sultan 1118–1162 1160 1161 Son of Muhammad
Muhammad
I Deposed by Inanj, Lord of Reyy and the court officials

Rukn ad-Dunya wa'd-Din Arslan

Sultan 1134–1176 1161 1176 Son of Toghrul II De facto power in the hands of Ildeniz (1160-1174) and his son Pahlavan (1174-1176)

Rukn ad-Dunya wa'd-Din (First reign) Abu Talib Toghrul III

Sultan ?–1194 1176 1194 Son of Arslan De facto power in the hands of Pahlavan (1176-1186) and Qizil Arslan (1186-1188). Deposed by Qizil Arslan in 1191.

Sanjar II

Sultan

1189 1191 Son of Sulayman Shah
Shah
De facto power in the hands of Qizil Arslan (1189-1191). Deposed by Qizil Arslan in 1191.

ELDIGUZIDS (1191)

Qizil Arslan

Sultan ?–1191 1191 1191 Son of Ildeniz Held de facto power (1186-1188). Deposed Qizil Arslan in 1191, declared himself Sultan
Sultan
and died an hour before his coronation.

HOUSE OF SELJUQ (1191–1194)

Rukn ad-Dunya wa'd-Din (Second reign) Abu Talib Toghrul III

Sultan ?–1194 1176 1194 Son of Arslan Killed by Khwarazm Shah
Shah
Tekish

KHWAREZMID DYNASTY (1153–1231)

Khwarazmian Empire at its greatest extent.

An empire built from Khwarezm
Khwarezm
, covering part of Iran
Iran
and neighbouring Central Asia. For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

* Muslim dynasties of Iran
Iran

THRONE NAME ORIGINAL NAME PORTRAIT TITLE BIRTH–DEATH ENTERED OFFICE LEFT OFFICE FAMILY RELATIONS NOTE

KHWAREZMID EMPIRE (1153–1231)

Ala ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Abul-Muzaffar Atsiz

Sultan 1097/1105–1156 1153 1156 son of Muhammad
Muhammad
I of Khwarazm Ruling in Khwārazm from 1127

Taj ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Abul-Fath Il-Arslan
Il-Arslan

Sultan ?–1171 1156 1172 son of Atsiz

Ala ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Abul-Muzaffar Tekish

Sultan ?–1200 1172 1200 son of Il-Arslan
Il-Arslan
With opposition from Sultan
Sultan
shah

Ala ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Abul-Fath Muhammad
Muhammad
Sanjar

Shah ?–1220 1200 1220 son of Tekish Eliminated by the Mongols

Jalal ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Abul-Muzaffar Mingburnu

Jalal od-Din, Sultan ?–1231 1220 1231 son of Muhammad
Muhammad
Reign largely guerilla warfare against the Mongol conquerors

MONGOL EMPIRE AND ILKHANATE (1230–1357)

Mongol Empire at its greatest extent. Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
at its greatest extent.

For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

* Muslim dynasties of Iran
Iran

THRONE NAME ORIGINAL NAME PORTRAIT TITLE BIRTH–DEATH ENTERED OFFICE LEFT OFFICE FAMILY RELATIONS NOTE

GREAT KHANS (1221–1256)

Genghis Temujin

Khan 1162–1227 1221 1227 Son of Yesugei Baghatur Ruling in Mongolia from 1206

Tolui

Khan 1192–1232 25 August 1227 13 September 1229 Son of Genghis Regent

Ögedei

Khan c. 1186 – 11 December 1241 13 September 1229 11 December 1241 Son of Genghis

Töregene

Khatun ?–? 1242 1246 Wife of Ögedei Regent

Güyük

Khan c. 1206–1248 1246 1248 Son of Ögedei and Töregene

Oghul Qaimish

Khatun ?–1251 1248 1251 Wife of Güyük Regent

Möngke

Khan 10 January 1209 – 11 August 1259 1 July 1251 11 August 1259 Son of Tolui

ILKHANATE (1256–1357)

Hulagu

Khan, Ilkhan c. 1217 – 8 February 1265 1256 8 February 1265 Son of Tolui

Abaqa

Khan, Ilkhan 1234–1282 1265 1 April 1282 Son of Hulagu

Ahmad Nicholas Tekuder

Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan ?–1284 1282 1284 Son of Hulagu Killed by Arghun

Arghun

Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan c. 1258 – 7 March 1291 1284 7 March 1291 Son of Abaqa

Gaykhatu

Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan ?–1295 1291 1295 Son of Abaqa Killed by general Taghachar

Baydu
Baydu

Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan ?–1295 1295 1295 Son of Taraqai son of Hulagu Executed by Ghazan
Ghazan

Mahmud Ghazan
Ghazan

Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan 5 November 1271– 11 May 1304 1295 1304 Son of Arghun

Muhammad
Muhammad
Khodabandeh Öljaitü
Öljaitü

Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan, 1280 – 16 December 1316 1304 16 December 1316 Son of Arghun

Abu Sa\'id Ala' ad-Din Bahadur

Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan 2 June 1305 – 1 December 1335 1316 1 December 1335 Son of Öljaitü
Öljaitü

Arpa Ke\'un Mu'izz ad-Din Mahmud

Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan ?–1336 1335 10 April 1336 Son of Suseh son of Munkqan son of Malik-Temur son of Ariq Böke son of Tolui Killed in battle by Ali Padshah

Nasir ad-Din Musa

Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan ?–1337 12 April 1336 1337 Son of Ali son of Baydu
Baydu
Puppet of Ali Padshah, fled after being defeated by the Jalayirid Hasan Buzurg

Togha Temür

Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan ?–1353 1335 1353 Son of Sudi son of Bababahathor son of Abokan son of Amakan son of Tur son of Jujiqisar son of Yesugei Baghatur In opposition to Jalayirid and Chupanid
Chupanid
candidates, killed by the Sarbadar Yahya Karawi

Muzaffar ad-Din Muhammad
Muhammad

Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan, ?–1338 1336 1338 Son of Yul Qotloq son of Il Temur son of Ambarji son of Mengu Temur son of Hulagu Puppet of Hasan Buzurg , executed by the Chupanid
Chupanid
Hasan Kucek

Sati beg

Khatun c. 1300 – after 1345 1338 1339 Daughter of Öljaitü
Öljaitü
Puppet of Hasan Kucek , who deposed her.

Izz ad-Din Jahan Temür

Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan, ?–? 1339 1340 Son of Ala-Fireng son of Gaykhatu Puppet of Hasan Buzurg , who deposed him for Togha Temür.

Suleiman

Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan ?–? May 1339 1345 Husband of Sati beg and son of Yusef Shah
Shah
son of Soga son of Yeshmut son of Hulagu Puppet of Hasan Kucek , fled to Diyarbakr in the disorder after his death.

Anushirwan

Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan ?–? 1344 1356 ? Puppet of the Chupanid
Chupanid
Malek Ashraf

Luqman

Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan ?–? 1353 1388 Son of Togha Temür Puppet of Timur
Timur

Ghazan
Ghazan
II

Khan, Ilkhan, Sultan ?–? 1356 1357 ? Puppet of Malek Ashraf

RIVAL DYNASTIES (1332–1501)

For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:

* Muslim dynasties of Iran
Iran

SARBADARS (1332–1386)

Sarbadars
Sarbadars
in 1345

NAME PORTRAIT TITLE BIRTH–DEATH ENTERED OFFICE LEFT OFFICE FAMILY RELATIONS NOTE

SARBADARS (1332 - 1386)

Abd al-Razzaq ibn Fazlullah

Amir ??-1338 1337 1338

Revolted against Togha Temür , stabbed to death by his brother

Wajih ad-Din Masud ibn Fazlullah

Amir ??-1344 1338 1344 brother of Abd al-Razzaq Captured by the Paduspanids and executed.

Muhammad
Muhammad
Aytimur (1343–1346)

Amir ??-1346 1344 1346 Unrelated to predecessors Overthrown and executed

Kulu Isfendiyar

Amir ??-c. 1347 1346 c. 1347 Unrelated to predecessors

Shams al-Din ibn Fazl Allah

Amir ??-?? c. 1347 1347 brother of Abd al-Razzaq Forced to abdicate by successor

Khwaja Shams al-Din \'Ali

Amir ??-1351/1352 1347 1351/1352 Unrelated to predecessors Assassinated by a disgruntled official

Yahya Karawi

Amir ??-1355/1356 1351/1352 1355/1356 Unrelated to predecessors Eliminated Togha Temür , assassinated.

Zahir al-Din Karawi

Amir ??-1355/1356 1355/1356 1355/1356 Nephew of Yahya Karawi Deposed by vizier

Haidar Qassab

Amir ??-1356 1355/1356 1356 Unrelated to predecessors Assassinated by a Turkish slave

Lutf Allah

Amir ??-1357/1358 or 1361 1356 1357/1358 or 1361 Son of Wajih ad-Din Masud Deposed and executed by his vizier

Hasan al-Damghani

Amir ??-1361/1362 1357/1358 or 1361 1361/1362 Unrelated to predecessors Overthrown by Dervish
Dervish
rebels

Khwaja 'Ali-yi Mu'ayyad ibn Masud

Amir ??-?? 1361/1362 1376/1377 Unrelated to predecessors

Rukn ad-Din

Amir

1376/1377 1376/1377 Unrelated to predecessors Installed by Dervish
Dervish
rebels.

Khwaja 'Ali-yi Mu'ayyad ibn Masud

Amir ??-?? 1376/1377 1381 Unrelated to predecessors Restored, became vassal of Tamerlane
Tamerlane
in 1381

CHUPANIDS (1335–1357)

Chupanids at its greatest extent

NAME PORTRAIT TITLE BIRTH–DEATH ENTERED OFFICE LEFT OFFICE FAMILY RELATIONS NOTE

CHUPANIDS (1335–1357)

Hassan Kuchak

Amir c. 1319–December 15, 1343 July 16, 1338 December 15, 1343 Son of Timurtash son of Chupan Ruled on behalf of his Il-Khanate puppets Sati Beg and Suleiman Khan .

Yagi Basti

Amir ?-1344 1343 1344 Son of Chupan Assassinated by his co-ruler Malek Ashraf.

Surgan

Amir c. 1320-? 1343 1345 Son of Chupan and Sati Beg Driven out by his co-ruler Malek Ashraf.

Malek Ashraf

Amir ?-1357 1343 1357 Brother of Hassan Kuchak Ruled on behalf of his Il-Khanate puppets Anushirwan . Hung by Jani Beg of the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
.

Temürtas

Amir ?-1360 1360 1360 Son of Malek Ashraf Short-lived puppet of the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
.

JALAYIRIDS (1335–1432)

Jalayirids at its greatest extent

THRONE NAME ORIGINAL NAME PORTRAIT TITLE BIRTH–DEATH ENTERED OFFICE LEFT OFFICE FAMILY RELATIONS NOTE

JALAYIRIDS (1335–1432)

Taj-ud-Din Hasan Buzurg

Ulus Beg ?-1356 1336 1356 Son-in-law of Chupan Ruled through Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
puppets Muhammad
Muhammad
Khan and Jahan Temür .

Mu'izz-ud-dunya wa'd-Din Shaikh Uvais

Bahadur Khan c. 1337-1374 1356 1374 Son of Hasan Buzurg

Hasan

Shaikh ?-1374 1374 1374 Son of Shaikh Uvais Killed by the Amirs

Jalal-ud-Din Husain I (1374–1382)

Shaikh ?-1382 1374 1382 Son of Shaikh Uvais Executed by his rebellious brother Ahmed

Bayazid

Shaikh ?-? 1382 1384 Son of Shaikh Uvais In opposition to Husain and Ahmed

Ghiyath ud-Din Ahmad

Sultan ?-1410 1383 1410 Son of Shaikh Uvais In exile 1393-4, 1400-2, 1403-5. Killed in battle by Qara Yusuf

Ala ud-Dunya Shah
Shah
Walad

Sultan ?-1411 1410 1411 Son of Ali, son of Uvais

Mahmud

Sultan ?-1425 1411 1411 Son of Shah
Shah
Walad Under regency of Tandu Khatun

Uvais

Sultan ?-1421 1415 1421 Son of Shah
Shah
Walad

Muhammad
Muhammad

Sultan ?-1421 1421 1421 Son of Shah
Shah
Walad

Mahmud

Sultan ?-1425 1421 1425 Son of Shah
Shah
Walad Second reign

Hussain

?-1432 1425 1432 Son of Ala-ud-Dawlah, son of Ahmed Defeated by Kara Koyunlu
Kara Koyunlu

INJUIDS (1335–1357)

Injuids at its greatest extent.

NAME PORTRAIT TITLE BIRTH–DEATH ENTERED OFFICE LEFT OFFICE FAMILY RELATIONS NOTE

INJUIDS (1335–1357)

Sharaf ad-Din Mahmud Shah

?-1325 1304 1335

Highly autonomous master of the Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
royal estates (the injü), removed by Abu Sa\'id , executed by Arpa Ke\'un .

Ghiyath ad-Din Kai-Khusrau

Amir ?-1338/9 1335 1338/9 Son of Mahmud Shah

Jalal ad-Din Mas'ud Shah

Amir ?-1342 1338 1342 Son of Mahmud Shah In opposition to Kai-Khusrau. Jalayirid partisan. Assassinated by Chupanids .

Shams ad-Din Muhammad

Amir ?-1339/40 1339/40 1339/40 Son of Mahmud Shah In opposition to Mas'ud Shah. Murdered by his Chupanid
Chupanid
supporter.

Shaikh Abu Ishaq

Amir ?-? 1343 1357 Son of Mahmud Shah Defeated "> Muzaffarids at its greatest extent.

NAME PORTRAIT TITLE BIRTH–DEATH ENTERED OFFICE LEFT OFFICE FAMILY RELATIONS NOTE

MUZAFFARIDS (1335–1357)

Mubariz ad-Din Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn al-Muzaffar

Emir 1301-1368 1314 1358

Founder of the Muzaffarid dynasty

Shah
Shah
Shuja

Emir ?-1384 1358 1384

Zain al-Abidin

Emir ?-1387 1384 1387

Shah
Shah
Yahya

Emir ?-1391 1387 1391

Only ruled in Shiraz

Shah
Shah
Mansur

Emir ?-1393 1391 1393

KARA KOYUNLU (1375–1468)

Kara Koyunlu
Kara Koyunlu
at its greatest extent.

THRONE NAME ORIGINAL NAME PORTRAIT TITLE BIRTH–DEATH ENTERED OFFICE LEFT OFFICE FAMILY RELATIONS NOTE

KARA KOYUNLU (1375-1468)

Qara Muhammad Qara Muhammad
Muhammad
Turmush ibn Bairam Khwaja

Bey ?–1388 1378 1388 First Bey of Kara Koynulu

Qara Yusuf Abu Nasr Qara Yusuf Nuyan ibn Muhammad

Bey ?–1420 1388 1420

Reign ended by Timurid invasion

Qara Iskander Qara Iskander ibn Yusuf

Bey ?-1436 1420 1436

killed

Jahan Shah Muzaffar al-Din Jahan Shah
Shah
ibn Yusuf

Bey 1397-11 November 1467 1438 11 November 1467 Son of Qara Yusuf Killed by Uzun Hasan of the Ak Koyunlu

Hasan Ali Hasan Ali ibn Jahan Shah

Bey ?-1468 11 November 1467 1468 Son of Jahan Shah Killed by Uzun Hasan of the Ak Koyunlu

AK KOYUNLU (1378–1497)

Aq Qoyunlu empire at the year of Uzun Hasan's death, 1478.

THRONE NAME ORIGINAL NAME PORTRAIT TITLE BIRTH–DEATH ENTERED OFFICE LEFT OFFICE FAMILY RELATIONS NOTE

AK KOYUNLU (1378-1497)

Qara Osman Qara Yuluk (Nickname)

Bey ?–1435 1378 1435

For aiding Timur, he was given Diyarbakir in 1402

Ali Nur al-Din Ali ibn Qara Yülük

Bey ?-1438 1435 1438 Son of Qara Osman

Hamza

Bey ?–1444 1403 1435

Jahangir M‘uizz al-Din Jahangir ibn Ali ibn Qara Yülük

Bey ?-1453 1444 1453 Son of Qara Osman

Uzun Hassan Uzun Hassan ibn Jahangir

Bey ?-1478 1453 January 6, 1478 Son of Jahangir

Khalil Khalil ibn Uzun Hasan

Bey ?-1479 1478 1479 Son of Uzun Hasan

Yaqub Yaqub ibn Uzun Hasan

Bey ?-1490 1479 1490 Son of Uzun Hasan

Baysongur Baysongur ibn Yaqub

Bey ?-1491 1490 1491 Son of Yaqub

Rostam Rostam ibn Maqsud

Bey ?-1496 1491 1497 Son of Maqsud

Ahmad Govde Ahmad Govde ibn Muhammad

Bey ?-1497 1497 1497 Son of Muhammad

TIMURID DYNASTY (1370–1507)

Locator map of the Timurid Empire, c. 1400.

THRONE NAME ORIGINAL NAME PORTRAIT TITLE BIRTH–DEATH REIGN BEGAN REIGN ENDED FAMILY RELATIONS NOTE

TIMURID EMPIRE (1370–1449)

Timur
Timur
Tarmashirin Khan Barlas

Emir
Emir
, Beg , Khan , Mirza
Mirza
, Gurkani 9 April 1336 – 18 February 1405 1370 18 February 1405 Son of Muhammad
Muhammad
Taraghai

Pir Muhammad
Muhammad
Pir Muhammad
Muhammad
Khan bin Jahangir

Emir, Khan c. 1374 – 22 February 1407 18 February 1405 22 February 1407 Grandson of Timur

Khalil Sultan Khalil Sultan bin Miran Shah

Emir, Sultan
Sultan
, Shah
Shah
c. 1384 – 4 November 1411 18 February 1405 13 May 1409 Grandson of Timur

Shahrukh Mirza
Mirza
Shahrukh Mirza

Mirza 30 August 1377 – 12 March 1447 18 February 1405 12 March 1447 Son of Timur

Ulugh Beg Mirza
Mirza
Muhammad
Muhammad
Tāraghay

Mirza, Sultan 22 March 1394 – 27 October 1449 12 March 1447 27 October 1449 Son of Shahrukh Mirza Deposed and murdered by his successor

RULERS IN TRANSOXIANA (1449-1469):

Abdal-Latif Padarkush

Mirza, Sultan c. 1429 - 9 May 1450 27 October 1449 9 May 1450 Son of Ulugh Beg Murdered by Amirs

\'Abdullah

Mirza c. 1410 - June 1451 9 May 1450 June 1451 Grandson of Shah
Shah
Rukh Deposed and executed by his successor

Abu Sa\'id

Mirza 1424 - 1469 June 1451 17 February 1469 Nephew of Ulugh Beg and great-grandson of Timur Conquered Khurasan in 1459, realm disintegrates at his death.

RULERS IN KHURASAN (1449-1459, 1459-1507):

Abul-Qasim Babur

Mirza ?-1457 1449 1457 Grandson of Shah
Shah
Rukh

Shah
Shah
Mahmud

Mirza c. 1446 - 1460s 1457 1457 Son of Babur Expelled by successor

Ibrahim

Mirza ? - March 1459 1457 March 1459 Nephew of Babur Died at Battle of Sarakhs

INTERREGNUM (1459-1469)

Husayn Bayqarah

Mirza, Sultan June/July 1438 - 4 May 1506 24 March 1469 4 May 1506 Great-grandson of Timur

Badi\' al-Zaman

Mirza ? - 1517 4 May 1506 1507 Son of Husayn Driven out by Uzbeks

UZBEKS (1507-1510)

Shaybani Khan Abul Fath Muhammad

Khan c. 1451 - 2 December 1510 1507 2 December 1510

Died at the Battle of Marv
Battle of Marv

SAFAVID DYNASTY (1501–1736)

The maximum extent of the Safavid Empire under Shah
Shah
Abbas I.

THRONE NAME ORIGINAL NAME PORTRAIT TITLE BIRTH–DEATH ENTERED OFFICE LEFT OFFICE FAMILY RELATIONS NOTE

SAFAVID DYNASTY (1501–1736)

Ismail I
Ismail I

Shah, Sultan, Kagan-i Suleyman shan, Turk-Tajdar 1487–1524 7 November 1502 23 May 1524 son of Sultan
Sultan
Heidar

Tahmasp I

Shah, Sahib-i-Qiran, Sultan
Sultan
bar Salatin, Kagan-i Suleyman shan 1514–1576 23 May 1525 25 May 1576 son of Ismail I
Ismail I

Ismail II

Shah 1537–1577 25 May 1576 24 November 1577 son of Tahmasp I Poisoned (?)

Mohammad I

Khodabandeh, Ashraf, Soltan 1532–1596 25 May 1576 1 October 1587 son of Tahmasp I Deposed

Abbas I

Shahanshah, Sultan, Great 1571–1629 1 October 1587 19 January 1629 son of Mohammad I

Safi Sam Mirza

Shah, Mirza 1611–1642 19 January 1629 12 May 1642 son of Mohammd Baqer (Safi) Mirza
Mirza
son of Abbas I

Abbas II

Shah 1632–1666 12 May 1642 26 October 1666 son of Safi

Suleiman I Safi Mirza

Shah, Hakem-ol Hokama 1645–1694 26 October 1666 29 July 1694 son of Abbas II

Sultan
Sultan
Husayn

Shah, Sultan, Sadr-ol Hakem 1668–1726 29 July 1694 11 September 1722 son of Suleiman I Deposed & then killed by Ashraf Hotak

AFGHAN REBELLION

Mahmud Hotak

Shah 1697?–1725 23 October 1722 22 April 1725 son-in-law of Sultan
Sultan
Husayn son of Mirwais Khan Hotak Recognised as Shah
Shah
of Persia after the Siege of Isfahan

Ashraf Hotak

Shah ?–1730 22 April 1725 5 October 1729 cousin of Mahmud Hotak Ruled in opposition to Tahmasp II and lost control of Persia after the Battle of Damghan

SAFAVID RESTORATION

Tahmasp II

Shah 1704–1740 11 September 1722 16 April 1732 son of Sultan
Sultan
Husayn Ruled in opposition to Mahmud Hotak , later deposed & then killed by Nader

Abbas III

Shah 1730–1739 16 April 1732 22 January 1736 son of Tahmasp II Under control of Nader . Deposed "> Afsharid dynasty
Afsharid dynasty
at its greatest extent.

THRONE NAME ORIGINAL NAME PORTRAIT TITLE BIRTH–DEATH ENTERED OFFICE LEFT OFFICE FAMILY RELATIONS NOTE

AFSHARID DYNASTY (1736–1796)

Nader Shah
Shah
Nadhar Qoli Khan

Shah, Sultan, Hakem-ol Hokama, Hazrat-e Ashraf 1698–1747 22 January 1736 19 June 1747 son of Imam Qoli Beig Afshar Before crowning his title was Tahmasp Qoli Khan. Killed

Adil Shah
Shah
Ali Qoli Beig

Shah 1719/20–1749 19 June 1747 29 July 1748 son of Mohammad Ebrahim Khan brother of Nader Deposed, blinded & then killed by Ebrahim

Ebrahim Afshar Mohammd Ali Beig

Shah 1724–1749 29 July 1748 3 September 1748 son of Mohammad Ebrahim Khan brother of Nader Deposed & then killed by Shahrukh Afshar

Shahrukh Afshar

Shah 1734–1796 3 September 1748 1796 son of Reza Qoli Mirza
Mirza
son of Nader . His mother was Fatemeh Soltan Beigom daughter of Sultan
Sultan
Husayn I Safavi Deposed & blinded by Suleiman II (1749), restored (1750)

BRIEF SAFAVID CONTROL (1749-1750)

Suleiman II of Persia Mir Sayyed Mohammad Marashi

Shah ?-? 1749 1750 Pretender to the Safavid throne Removed and blinded

AFSHARID RESTORATION (1750-1796)

Shahrukh Afshar

Shah 1734–1796 3 September 1748 1796 son of Reza Qoli Mirza
Mirza
son of Nader . His mother was Fatemeh Soltan Beigom daughter of Sultan
Sultan
Husayn I Safavi Deposed "> Map of the Zand dynasty
Zand dynasty
at Lotf Ali Khan
Lotf Ali Khan
time.

THRONE NAME ORIGINAL NAME PORTRAIT TITLE BIRTH–DEATH ENTERED OFFICE LEFT OFFICE FAMILY RELATIONS NOTE

ZAND DYNASTY (1751–1794)

Karim Khan Mohammad Karim

Khan, Vakil e-Ra'aayaa 1705–1779 1751 6 March 1779 son of Inaq Khan & Bay Agha

Mohammad Ali Khan

Khan 1760–1779 6 March 1779 19 June 1779 son of Karim

Abol Fath Khan

Khan 1755–1787 6 March 1779 22 August 1779 son of Karim

Zaki Khan

Khan ?–22 August 1779 6 March 1779 22 August 1779 son of Budaq Khan & Bay Agha

Sadiq Khan Zand Mohammad Sadeq

Khan ?–1782 22 August 1779 14 March 1781 son of Inaq Khan & Bay Agha

Ali Murad Khan

Khan 1720–1785 14 March 1781 11 February 1785 son of Allah Morad (Qeytas) Khan Zand Hazareh

Jafar Khan

Khan ?–1789 18 February 1785 23 January 1789 son of Sadeq

Sayed Murad Khan

Khan ?–1789 23 January 1789 10 May 1789 son of Khoda Morad Khan Zand Hazareh

Lotf Ali Khan
Lotf Ali Khan

Khan 1769–1794 23 January 1789 20 March 1794 son of Ja\'far Deposed, blinded "> Map of the Qajar dynasty
Qajar dynasty
at Mohammad Khan time.

THRONE NAME ORIGINAL NAME PORTRAIT TITLE BIRTH–DEATH ENTERED OFFICE LEFT OFFICE FAMILY RELATIONS NOTE

QAJAR DYNASTY (1794–1925)

Mohammad Khan Qajar Agha Mohammad Khan

Khan, Shahanshah, Khaqan 1742–1797 20 March 1794 17 June 1797 son of Mohammad Hassan Khan Qajar Gelded prior to accession. Assassinated

Fat′h-Ali Shah
Shah
Qajar Baba Khan

Shahanshah, Khaqan, Soltane Saheb Qaran 1772–1834 17 June 1797 23 October 1834 son of Hosein Qoli Khan Jahansuz brother of Mohammad

Mohammad Shah
Shah
Qajar

Shahanshah, Khaqan 1808–1848 23 October 1834 5 September 1848 son of Abbas Mirza
Mirza
Nayeb os-Saltaneh son of Fat\'h Ali

Naser al-Din Shah
Shah
Qajar

Shahanshah, Khaqan, Soltane Saheb Qaran, Qebleye alam 1831–1896 5 September 1848 1 May 1896 son of Mohammad and Mahd-e Olia Assassinated at Shah-Abdol-Azim by Mirza
Mirza
Reza Kermani

Mozaffar al-Din Shah
Shah
Qajar

Shahanshah, Khaqan 1853–1907 1 May 1896 3 January 1907 son of Naser ed-Din

Mohammad Ali Shah
Shah
Qajar

Shahanshah 1872–1925 3 January 1907 16 July 1909 son of Mozaffar ed-Din Deposed

Ahmad Shah
Shah
Qajar

Shahanshah 1898–1930 16 July 1909 15 December 1925 son of Mohammd Ali Deposed

PAHLAVI DYNASTY (1925–1979)

Map of the Pahlavi dynasty.

THRONE NAME ORIGINAL NAME PORTRAIT TITLE BIRTH–DEATH ENTERED OFFICE LEFT OFFICE FAMILY RELATIONS NOTE

PAHLAVI DYNASTY (1925–1979)

Reza Shah
Shah
Reza Khan (later Pahlavi)

Alahazrat, Homayoun, Shahanshah, Sardar Sepah 1878–1944 15 December 1925 16 September 1941 son of Abbas Ali Deposed during the Anglo-Soviet invasion

Mohammad Reza Shah
Shah
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi

Alahazrat, Homayoun, Shahanshah, Ariamehr, Bozorg Arteshtaran, Khodaygan 1919–1980 16 September 1941 11 February 1979 son of Reza Shah Deposed during the Iranian Revolution
Iranian Revolution

SEE ALSO

* Iranian monarchy * Monarchism in Iran
Iran
* Supreme Leader of Iran
Iran
* History of Iran
Iran
* Persian Empire * List of ancient Persians * Shah
Shah
* Shahbanu
Shahbanu

NOTES AND REFERENCES

* ^ G. Posener, La première domination perse en Égypte, Cairo, 1936, pp. 30-36. * ^ Jürgen von Beckerath , Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (= Münchner ägyptologische Studien, vol 46), Mainz am Rhein: Verlag Philipp von Zabern, 1999. ISBN 3-8053-2310-7 , pp. 220–21. * ^ "Ahasuerus". JewishEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2014-07-25. * ^ A B Assar, 2004.Assar, 2005. Assar, "Moses of Choren & the Early Parthian Chronology", 2006. * ^ A B C D E F G Ghashghai, H.R., "The successors of Mithridates II" * ^ A B C D E F G Assar, G.R.F., "A Revised Parthian Chronology of the Period 165-91 BC" Ghashghai, H.R., "The successors of Mithridates II" * ^ Assar, G.R.F., "A Revised Parthian Chronology of the Period 165-91 BC" * ^ Josephus Flavius, Antiquities of the Jews, Book XVI, Ch.8.4 * ^ Tacitus, The Annals, 11.10 * ^ See: Unknown King (III) (c. AD 140) * ^ See: Tiridates III (c. AD 224 – 228?) * ^ In Persian it means "King of Kings" * ^ "The great king of Armenians" * ^ "The penetrator of the shoulders" * ^ A B "Queen" * ^ In arabic, ibn means son of. so muhammad ibn suri means: muhammad son of suri (so suri is his father) * ^ Muʾayyid S̲ābitī, ʻAlī (1967). Asnad va Namahha-yi Tarikhi (Historical documents and letters from early Islamic period towards the end of Shah
Shah
Ismaʻil Safavi's reign.). Iranian culture & literature (46). Kitābkhānah-ʾi Ṭahūrī., pp. 193, 274, 315, 330, 332, 422 and 430. See also: Abdul Hussein Navai, Asnaad o Mokatebaat Tarikhi Iran
Iran
(Historical sources and letters of Iran), Tehran, Bongaah Tarjomeh and Nashr-e-Ketab, 2536, pages 578,657, 701-702 and 707 * ^ H.R. Roemer, "The Safavid Period", in Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. VI, Cambridge University Press 1986, p. 339: "Further evidence of a desire to follow in the line of Turkmen rulers is Ismail's assumption of the title 'Padishah-i-Iran', previously held by Uzun Hasan." * ^ The Cambridge History of Iran, vol. 7, 1991, p. 960. * ^ http://www.san.beck.org/1-11-Ottoman1730-1875.html * ^ Lang, David Marshall (1957), The Last Years of the Georgian Monarchy, 1658-1832, p. 148. Columbia University Press * ^ The Cambridge History of Iran, vol. 7, 1991, p. 961. * ^ The Cambridge History of Iran, vol. 7, 1991, p. 962.

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