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Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is also bordered b ...
has had many different types of
heads of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state Foakes, pp. 110–11 " he head of statebeing an embodiment of the State itself or representatitve of its international persona." in its unity and leg ...
as well as many different types of government. During pre-Columbian times, the territories that today form Argentina were inhabited by nomadic tribes without any defined government. During the
Spanish colonization of the Americas Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...
, the
King of Spain , coatofarms = Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch.svg , coatofarms_article = Coat of arms of the King of Spain , image = (Felipe de Borbón) Inauguración de FITUR 2018 (39840659951) (cropped).jpg , incumbent = Feli ...
retained the ultimate authority over the territories conquered in the
New World The "New World" is a Eurocentrism, eurocultural term applied to the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas."America." ''The Oxford Companion to the English Language'' (). McArthur, Tom, ed., 1992. New York: Oxford Univ ...
, appointing
viceroy A viceroy () is an official who runs a polity in the name of and as the representative of the monarch of the territory. The term derives from the Latin prefix ''vice-'', meaning "in the place of" and the French word ''roy'', meaning "king". A ...

viceroy
s for local government. The territories that would later become Argentina were first part of the Viceroyalty of Peru and then the
Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata The Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata ( es, Virreinato del Río de la Plata, meaning "River of the Silver", also called " Viceroyalty of the River Plate" in some scholarly writings) was the last to be organized and also the shortest-lived of ...
. The May Revolution started the Argentine War of Independence by replacing the viceroy
Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros
Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros
with the first national government. It was the
Primera Junta
Primera Junta
, a junta of several members, which would grow into the Junta Grande with the incorporation of provincial deputies. The size of the juntas gave room to internal political disputes among their members, so they were replaced by the
First First or 1st is the ordinal form of the number 1 (number), one (#1). First or 1st may also refer to: *World record, specifically the first instance of a particular achievement Arts and media Music * 1$T, American rapper, singer-songwriter, DJ, ...
and
Second Triumvirate The Second Triumvirate (43–32 BC) was a political alliance formed after the Roman dictator Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman people, Roman general and statesman who played a critical role i ...
, of three members. The
Assembly of the Year XIII
Assembly of the Year XIII
created a new executive authority, with attributions similar to that of a head of state, called the Supreme Director of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata. A second Assembly, the Congress of Tucumán, declared independence in 1816 and promulgated the Argentine Constitution of 1819. However, this constitution was repealed during Argentine Civil War, armed conflicts between the United Provinces of South America, central government and the Liga Federal, Federal League Provinces. This started a period known as the Anarchy of the Year XX, when Argentina lacked any type of head of state. There was a new attempt to organize a central government in 1826. A new congress wrote a new constitution and elected Bernardino Rivadavia as President (government title), president in the process.Mendelevich, p. 28 Rivadavia was the first President of Argentina. However, he resigned shortly after and the 1826 Constitution was repealed. The Argentine provinces then organized themselves as a confederation without a central head of state. In this organization, the Governor of Buenos Aires Province, governors of Buenos Aires province took some duties such as the payment of external debt or the administration of the Foreign relations of Argentina, foreign relations in the name of all provinces. Those governors were appointed by the Buenos Aires legislature, with the only exception of Juan Lavalle. Juan Manuel de Rosas kept the governor office for seventeen consecutive years until Justo José de Urquiza defeated him at the 1852 Battle of Caseros. Urquiza then called for a new Constitutional Assembly and promulgated the Argentine Constitution of 1853, which is the current Constitution of Argentina through amendments. In 1854, Urquiza became the first President of Argentina, President of modern Argentina, acting both as head of government and head of state. However, the Buenos Aires Province had rejected the Constitution and became an independent state until the aftermath of the 1859 Battle of Cepeda (1859), Battle of Cepeda, although the internecine conflict continued. Only after the subsequent Battle of Pavón in 1861, the former ''bonaerense'' leader Bartolomé Mitre became the first president of an unified Argentina, Argentine Republic. The succession line of constitutional presidents run uninterrupted until 1930, when José Félix Uriburu took government through a civic-military ''1930 Argentine coup d'état, coup d'état''. For many decades, there was an alternance between legitimate presidents and others that took government through illegitimate means. Those means included ''Coups d'état in Argentina, coups d'état'', but also proscriptions of major political partiesMendelevich, p. 130—131 and electoral fraud.Mendelevich, p. 136 The last ''1976 Argentine coup d'état, coup d'état'' occurred in 1976 and resulted in the National Reorganization Process, which ended in 1983. The retrospective recognition as presidents or heads of state of any ''de facto'' ruler that exercised its authority outside the Constitutional mandate is a controversial and relevant issue in Argentine politics. However, their government actions were recognized as valid following the De facto government doctrine, ''de facto'' government doctrine that used to legitimize them. This doctrine was rejected by the 1994 amendment of the Constitution of Argentina, 1994 amendment and would not be applicable for potential future coups. The current head of state is President Alberto Fernández, Alberto Fernandez, who took office on 10 December 2019.


Affiliation keys


United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata (1810–1831)


Junta presidents (1810–1811)


Triumvirates (1811–1814)


Supreme Directors (1814–1820)


Governors of Buenos Aires Province managing international relations (1820–1826)

Between 1820 and 1826, the United Provinces functioned as a loose alliance of autonomous provinces put together by pacts and treaties (see Treaty of Pilar, Treaty of Benegas, Quadrilateral Treaty), but lacking any actual central government until the 1825 Constitutional Congress.


First presidential government (1826–1827)


Governors of Buenos Aires Province managing international relations (1827–1831)


Argentine Confederation (1831–1861)


Governors managing international relations (1831–1852)


Provisional Director of the Argentine Confederation (1852–1854)


Presidents of the Confederation (1854–1861)


Argentine Republic (1861–present)


Presidents (1861–present)


Timeline of head of states of Argentina by affiliation


Timeline of head of states of Argentina by individual

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columns:4 left:200 top:100 columnwidth:210 TextData = pos:(20,100) textcolor:black fontsize:M text:"Political parties:" BarData = bar:CornelioSaavedra bar:DomingoMatheu bar:FelicianoChiclana bar:ManueldeSarratea bar:JuanJoséPaso bar:JuanMartíndePueyrredón bar:NicolásRodríguezPeña bar:AntonioÁlvarezJonte bar:GervasioAntoniodePosadas bar:JoséJuliánPérez bar:JuanLarrea bar:CarlosMaríadeAlvear bar:JosédeSanMartín bar:MatíasdeIrigoyen bar:ManueldeSarratea bar:JoséRondeau bar:IgnacioÁlvarezThomas bar:AntonioGonzálezdeBalcarce bar:JuanPedroAguirre bar:JuanRamónGonzálezBalcarce bar:IldefonsoRamosMexía bar:MiguelEstanislaoSoler bar:ManuelDorrego bar:MartínRodríguez bar:JuanGregoriodeLasHeras bar:BernardinoRivadavia bar:VicenteLópezyPlanes bar:JuanLavalle bar:JuanJoséViamonte bar:JuanManueldeRosas bar:ManuelVicenteMaza bar:JustoJosédeUrquiza bar:SantiagoDerqui bar:JuanEstebanPedernera bar:BartoloméMitre bar:MarcosPaz bar:GuillermoRawson bar:MarcelinoUgarte bar:LucasGonzález bar:DomingoFaustinoSarmiento bar:NicolásAvellaneda bar:JulioArgentinoRoca bar:MiguelJuárezCelman bar:CarlosPellegrini bar:LuisSáenzPeña bar:JoséEvaristoUriburu bar:ManuelQuintana bar:JoséFigueroaAlcorta bar:RoqueSáenzPeña bar:VictorinodelaPlaza bar:HipólitoYrigoyen bar:MarceloTorcuatodeAlvear bar:EnriqueMartínez bar:JoséFélixUriburu bar:AgustínPedroJusto bar:RobertoMaríaOrtiz bar:RamónCastillo bar:ArturoRawson bar:PedroPabloRamírez bar:EdelmiroJuliánFarrell bar:JuanDomingoPerón bar:EduardoLonardi bar:PedroEugenioAramburu bar:ArturoFrondizi bar:JoséMaríaGuido bar:ArturoUmbertoIllia bar:PascualPistarini bar:BenignoIgnacioVarela bar:AdolfoTeodoroÁlvarez bar:JuanCarlosOnganía bar:PedroAlbertoJoséGnavi bar:AlejandroLanusse bar:CarlosAlbertoRey bar:RobertoLevingston bar:HéctorJoséCámpora bar:RaúlAlbertoLastiri bar:IsabelMartínezdePerón bar:ÍtaloLúder bar:JorgeRafaelVidela bar:EmilioEduardoMassera bar:OrlandoRamónAgosti bar:RobertoEduardoViola bar:HoracioTomásLiendo bar:CarlosAlbertoLacoste bar:LeopoldoGaltieri bar:AlfredoOscarSaint-Jean bar:ReynaldoBignone bar:RaúlAlfonsín bar:CarlosMenem bar:FernandodelaRúa bar:AdolfoRodríguezSaá bar:EduardoDuhalde bar:NéstorKirchner bar:CristinaFernándezdeKirchner bar:MauricioMacri bar:AlbertoFernández PlotData= width:5 align:left fontsize:S shift:(5,-4) anchor:till bar:CornelioSaavedra from: 1810 till: 1811 color:noinfo text:"Cornelio Saavedra" bar:DomingoMatheu from: 1811 till: 1811 color:noinfo text:"Domingo Matheu" bar:FelicianoChiclana from: 1811 till: 1812 color:noinfo text:"Feliciano Chiclana" bar:ManueldeSarratea from: 1811 till: 1812 color:noinfo from: 1815 till: 1815 color:noinfo from: 1820 till: 1820 color:noinfo from: 1820 till: 1820 color:noinfo text:"Manuel de Sarratea" bar:JuanJoséPaso from: 1811 till: 1812 color:noinfo from: 1812 till: 1813 color:noinfo text:"Juan José Paso" bar:JuanMartíndePueyrredón from: 1811 till: 1812 color:noinfo from: 1816 till: 1819 color:noinfo text:"Juan Martín de Pueyrredón" bar:NicolásRodríguezPeña from: 1812 till: 1814 color:noinfo text:"Nicolás Rodríguez Peña" bar:AntonioÁlvarezJonte from: 1812 till: 1813 color:noinfo text:"Antonio Álvarez Jonte" bar:GervasioAntoniodePosadas from: 1813 till: 1814 color:noinfo from: 1814 till: 1815 color:noinfo text:"Gervasio Antonio de Posadas" bar:JoséJuliánPérez from: 1813 till: 1813 color:noinfo text:"José Julián Pérez" bar:JuanLarrea from: 1813 till: 1814 color:noinfo text:"Juan Larrea" bar:CarlosMaríadeAlvear from: 1815 till: 1815 color:noinfo text:"Carlos María de Alvear" bar:JosédeSanMartín from: 1815 till: 1815 color:noinfo text:"José de San Martín" bar:MatíasdeIrigoyen from: 1815 till: 1815 color:noinfo from: 1820 till: 1820 color:noinfo text:"Matías de Irigoyen" bar:JoséRondeau from: 1815 till: 1815 color:noinfo from: 1819 till: 1820 color:noinfo text:"José Rondeau" bar:IgnacioÁlvarezThomas from: 1815 till: 1816 color:noinfo text:"Ignacio Álvarez Thomas" bar:AntonioGonzálezdeBalcarce from: 1816 till: 1816 color:noinfo text:"Antonio González de Balcarce" bar:JuanPedroAguirre from: 1820 till: 1820 color:noinfo text:"Juan Pedro Aguirre" bar:JuanRamónGonzálezBalcarce from: 1820 till: 1820 color:noinfo from: 1832 till: 1833 color:federal text:"Juan Ramón González Balcarce" bar:IldefonsoRamosMexía from: 1820 till: 1820 color:noinfo from: 1820 till: 1820 color:noinfo text:"Ildefonso Ramos Mexía" bar:MiguelEstanislaoSoler from: 1820 till: 1820 color:noinfo from: 1820 till: 1820 color:noinfo text:"Miguel Estanislao Soler" bar:ManuelDorrego from: 1820 till: 1820 color:noinfo from: 1827 till: 1828 color:federal text:"Manuel Dorrego" bar:MartínRodríguez from: 1820 till: 1824 color:noinfo text:"Martín Rodríguez" bar:JuanGregoriodeLasHeras from: 1824 till: 1826 color:noinfo text:"Juan Gregorio de Las Heras" bar:BernardinoRivadavia from: 1826 till: 1827 color:unitarian text:"Bernardino Rivadavia" bar:VicenteLópezyPlanes from: 1827 till: 1827 color:none from: 1852 till: 1852 color:none text:"Vicente López y Planes" bar:JuanLavalle from: 1828 till: 1829 color:unitarian text:"Juan Lavalle" bar:JuanJoséViamonte from: 1829 till: 1829 color:federal from: 1833 till: 1834 color:federal text:"Juan José Viamonte" bar:JuanManueldeRosas from: 1829 till: 1831 color:federal from: 1831 till: 1832 color:federal from: 1835 till: 1852 color:federal text:"Juan Manuel de Rosas" bar:ManuelVicenteMaza from: 1834 till: 1835 color:federal text:"Manuel Vicente Maza" bar:JustoJosédeUrquiza from: 1852 till: 1852 color:federal from: 1852 till: 1854 color:federal from: 1854 till: 1860 color:federal text:"Justo José de Urquiza" bar:SantiagoDerqui from: 1860 till: 1861 color:federal text:"Santiago Derqui" bar:JuanEstebanPedernera from: 1861 till: 1861 color:unitarian text:"Juan Esteban Pedernera" bar:BartoloméMitre from: 1861 till: 1868 color:liberal text:"Bartolomé Mitre" bar:MarcosPaz from: 1868 till: 1868 color:liberal text:"Marcos Paz" bar:GuillermoRawson from: 1868 till: 1868 color:none text:"Guillermo Rawson" bar:MarcelinoUgarte from: 1868 till: 1868 color:none text:"Marcelino Ugarte" bar:LucasGonzález from: 1868 till: 1868 color:none text:"Lucas González (politician), Lucas González" bar:JoséEvaristoUriburu from: 1868 till: 1868 color:none from: 1895 till: 1898 color:pan text:"José Evaristo Uriburu" bar:DomingoFaustinoSarmiento from: 1868 till: 1874 color:none text:"Domingo Faustino Sarmiento" bar:NicolásAvellaneda from: 1874 till: 1880 color:pan text:"Nicolás Avellaneda" bar:JulioArgentinoRoca from: 1880 till: 1886 color:pan from: 1898 till: 1904 color:pan text:"Julio Argentino Roca" bar:MiguelJuárezCelman from: 1886 till: 1890 color:pan text:"Miguel Juárez Celman" bar:CarlosPellegrini from: 1890 till: 1892 color:pan text:"Carlos Pellegrini" bar:LuisSáenzPeña from: 1892 till: 1895 color:pan text:"Luis Sáenz Peña" bar:ManuelQuintana from: 1904 till: 1906 color:pan text:"Manuel Quintana" bar:JoséFigueroaAlcorta from: 1906 till: 1910 color:pan text:"José Figueroa Alcorta" bar:RoqueSáenzPeña from: 1910 till: 1914 color:pan text:"Roque Sáenz Peña" bar:VictorinodelaPlaza from: 1914 till: 1916 color:pan text:"Victorino de la Plaza" bar:HipólitoYrigoyen from: 1916 till: 1922 color:ucr from: 1928 till: 1930 color:ucr text:"Hipólito Yrigoyen" bar:MarceloTorcuatodeAlvear from: 1922 till: 1928 color:ucr text:"Marcelo Torcuato de Alvear" bar:EnriqueMartínez from: 1930 till: 1930 color:ucr text:"Enrique Martínez" bar:JoséFélixUriburu from: 1930 till: 1932 color:military text:"José Félix Uriburu" bar:AgustínPedroJusto from: 1932 till: 1938 color:pdn text:"Agustín Pedro Justo" bar:RobertoMaríaOrtiz from: 1938 till: 1942 color:pdn text:"Roberto María Ortiz" bar:RamónCastillo from: 1940 till: 1943 color:pdn text:"Ramón Castillo" bar:ArturoRawson from: 1943 till: 1943 color:military text:"Arturo Rawson" bar:PedroPabloRamírez from: 1943 till: 1944 color:military text:"Pedro Pablo Ramírez" bar:EdelmiroJuliánFarrell from: 1944 till: 1946 color:military text:"Edelmiro Julián Farrell" bar:JuanDomingoPerón from: 1946 till: 1955 color:peronist from: 1973 till: 1974 color:peronist text:"Juan Domingo Perón" bar:EduardoLonardi from: 1955 till: 1955 color:military text:"Eduardo Lonardi" bar:PedroEugenioAramburu from: 1955 till: 1958 color:military text:"Pedro Eugenio Aramburu" bar:ArturoFrondizi from: 1958 till: 1962 color:ucr text:"Arturo Frondizi" bar:JoséMaríaGuido from: 1962 till: 1963 color:ucr text:"José María Guido" bar:ArturoUmbertoIllia from: 1963 till: 1966 color:ucr text:"Arturo Umberto Illia" bar:PascualPistarini from: 1966 till: 1966 color:military text:"Pascual Pistarini" bar:BenignoIgnacioVarela from: 1966 till: 1966 color:military text:"Benigno Ignacio Varela" bar:AdolfoTeodoroÁlvarez from: 1966 till: 1966 color:military text:"Adolfo Teodoro Álvarez" bar:JuanCarlosOnganía from: 1966 till: 1970 color:military text:"Juan Carlos Onganía" bar:PedroAlbertoJoséGnavi from: 1970 till: 1970 color:military from: 1971 till: 1971 color:military text:"Pedro Alberto José Gnavi" bar:AlejandroLanusse from: 1970 till: 1970 color:military from: 1971 till: 1971 color:military from: 1971 till: 1973 color:military text:"Alejandro Lanusse" bar:CarlosAlbertoRey from: 1970 till: 1970 color:military from: 1971 till: 1971 color:military text:"Carlos Alberto Rey" bar:RobertoLevingston from: 1970 till: 1971 color:military text:"Roberto Levingston" bar:HéctorJoséCámpora from: 1973 till: 1973 color:peronist text:"Héctor José Cámpora" bar:RaúlAlbertoLastiri from: 1973 till: 1973 color:peronist text:"Raúl Alberto Lastiri" bar:IsabelMartínezdePerón from: 1974 till: 1976 color:peronist text:"Isabel Martínez de Perón" bar:ÍtaloLúder from: 1975 till: 1975 color:peronist text:"Ítalo Lúder" bar:JorgeRafaelVidela from: 1976 till: 1976 color:military from: 1976 till: 1981 color:military text:"Jorge Rafael Videla" bar:EmilioEduardoMassera from: 1976 till: 1976 color:military text:"Emilio Eduardo Massera" bar:OrlandoRamónAgosti from: 1976 till: 1976 color:military text:"Orlando Ramón Agosti" bar:RobertoEduardoViola from: 1981 till: 1981 color:military text:"Roberto Eduardo Viola" bar:HoracioTomásLiendo from: 1981 till: 1981 color:military text:"Horacio Tomás Liendo" bar:CarlosAlbertoLacoste from: 1981 till: 1981 color:military text:"Carlos Alberto Lacoste" bar:LeopoldoGaltieri from: 1981 till: 1982 color:military text:"Leopoldo Galtieri" bar:AlfredoOscarSaint-Jean from: 1982 till: 1982 color:military text:"Alfredo Oscar Saint-Jean" bar:ReynaldoBignone from: 1982 till: 1983 color:military text:"Reynaldo Bignone" bar:RaúlAlfonsín from: 1983 till: 1989 color:ucr text:"Raúl Alfonsín" bar:CarlosMenem from: 1989 till: 1999 color:peronist text:"Carlos Menem" bar:FernandodelaRúa from: 1999 till: 2001 color:alianza text:"Fernando de la Rúa" bar:AdolfoRodríguezSaá from: 2001 till: 2001 color:peronist text:"Adolfo Rodríguez Saá" bar:EduardoDuhalde from: 2002 till: 2003 color:peronist text:"Eduardo Duhalde" bar:NéstorKirchner from: 2003 till: 2007 color:peronist text:"Néstor Kirchner" bar:CristinaFernándezdeKirchner from: 2007 till: 2015 color:peronist text:"Cristina Fernández de Kirchner" bar:MauricioMacri from: 2015 till: 2019 color:pro text:"Mauricio Macri" bar:AlbertoFernández from: 2019 till: end color:peronist text:"Alberto Fernández"


Living former Presidents by longevity

As of , there are five living former presidents and one incumbent president. The most recent death of a former president was that of Carlos Menem (1989–1999), on 14 February 2021.


See also

*President of Argentina *Politics of Argentina *List of vice presidents of Argentina *Lists of incumbents


References


Notes


Bibliography

* * *


External links


Rulers.org — Argentina
list of rulers for Argentina {{Heads of State of the South America Lists of heads of state, Argentina Lists of national presidents, Argentina Heads of state of Argentina, * Lists of political office-holders in Argentina, Presidents