List of emperors of the Qing dynasty
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Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last Dynasties in Chinese history, dynasty in the History of China#Imperial China, imperial history of China. It was established in 1636, and ruled China proper from 1644 to 1912, w ...
(1636–1912) was a
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Manchu
-led imperial Chinese dynasty and the last orthodox dynasty of China. It was officially founded in 1636 in what is now
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Northeast China
, but only succeeded the
Ming dynasty The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; ) are an East Asian ethnic group nativ ...

Ming dynasty
in
China proper China proper, Inner China or the Eighteen Provinces was a term used by Western writers on the Manchu people, Manchu-led Qing dynasty to express a distinction between the core and frontier regions of China. There is no fixed extent for China pr ...

China proper
in 1644. The Qing period ended when the imperial clan (surnamed
Aisin Gioro Aisin Gioro was the Manchu The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, exonym for a historical and geographic region of Russia and China ...
) abdicated in February 1912, a few months after a military uprising had started the
Xinhai Revolution The 1911 Revolution, also known as the Chinese Revolution or the Xinhai Revolution, ended China's last imperial dynasty, the Manchu-led Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last Dynasties in Chinese hi ...
(1911) that led to the foundation of the
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.
Nurhaci Nurhaci (1559 – 30 September 1626) was a Jurchen people, Jurchen chieftain who rose to prominence in the late 16th century in Manchuria. He was a member of the House of Aisin-Gioro, and reigned as the founding Khan (title), khan of the Later J ...

Nurhaci
(1559–1626), khan of the
Jurchens Jurchen (: ''Jušen'', ; zh, 女真, ''Nǚzhēn'', ) is a term used to collectively describe a number of peoples, descended from the . They lived in the northeast of China, later known as , before the 18th century. The Jurchens were the ance ...
, founded the Later Jin dynasty in 1616 in reference to the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty (1115–1234) that had once ruled over northern China. His son and successor
Hong Taiji Hong Taiji (28 November 1592 – 21 September 1643), sometimes written as Huang Taiji and sometimes referred to as Abahai in Western literature, was the second khan of the Later Jin (reigned from 1626 to 1636) and the founding emperor of t ...

Hong Taiji
(1592–1643) renamed his people "
Manchu The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, exonym for a historical and geographic region of Russia and China in Northeast Asia (mostly in N ...
" in 1635 and changed the name of Nurhaci's state from "Great Jin" to "Great Qing" in 1636. Hong Taiji was the real founder of Qing imperial institutions. He was the first to adopt the title of "
emperor An emperor (from la, imperator, via fro, empereor) is a monarch, and usually the sovereignty, sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. Empress, the female equivalent, may indicate an emperor's wife (empress consort), m ...
" (''huangdi'') and founded an
Imperial Ancestral Temple The Imperial Ancestral Temple, or Taimiao () of Beijing, is a historic site in the Imperial City, Beijing, Imperial City, just outside the Forbidden City, where during both the Ming Dynasty, Ming and Qing Dynasty, Qing Dynasties, sacrificial ceremo ...
in the Qing capital
Mukden Shenyang (; ), formerly known as Fengtian () or by its Manchu name Mukden, is a major Chinese sub-provincial city A sub-provincial division () (or deputy-provincial divisions) in China China, officially the People's Republic of China ...

Mukden
in 1636. After the Qing captured Beijing in 1644 and appropriated the Ming Ancestral Temple, from 1648 on, Nurhaci was worshiped there as "Taizu" (太祖), a
temple name Temple names are posthumous titles accorded to monarchs of the Sinosphere The East Asian cultural sphere, Chinese cultural sphere or Sinosphere (also Sinic/Sinitic world) encompasses the countries within East and Southeast Asia South ...
usually accorded to dynastic founders. Like their Ming (1368–1644) predecessors—but unlike the emperors of earlier dynasties like the
Han Han may refer to: Ethnic groups * Han Chinese The Han Chinese,
. Huayuqiao.org. Retrieved on ...

Han
, Tang, and
Song A song is a musical composition Musical composition can refer to an piece or work of , either or , the of a musical piece or to the process of creating or writing a new piece of music. People who create new compositions are called s ...
—Qing emperors used only one era name ("Shunzhi", "Qianlong", "Guangxu", etc.) for their entire reign, and are most commonly known by that name. Starting with Nurhaci, there were thirteen Qing rulers. Following the capture of
Beijing Beijing ( ), as Peking ( ), is the of the . It is the world's , with over 21 million residents within an of 16,410.5 km2 (6336 sq. mi.). It is located in , and is governed as a under the direct administration of the with .Figures ...

Beijing
in 1644, the
Shunzhi Emperor The Shunzhi Emperor (Fulin; 15 March 1638 – 5 February 1661) was List of emperors of the Qing dynasty, Emperor of the Qing dynasty from 1644 to 1661, and the first Qing emperor to rule over China proper. A Deliberative Council of Princes and ...
(r. 1643–1661) became the first of the eleven Qing sovereigns to rule over China proper. At 61 years, the reign of the
Kangxi Emperor The Kangxi Emperor (Xuanye; 4 May 1654– 20 December 1722) was the third Emperor of the Qing dynasty, and the second Qing emperor to rule over China proper China proper, Inner China or the Eighteen Provinces was a term used by Western ...

Kangxi Emperor
(r. 1661–1722) was the longest, though his grandson, the
Qianlong Emperor The Qianlong Emperor (25 September 17117 February 1799) was the fifth Emperor of the Qing dynasty and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China proper China proper, Inner China or the Eighteen Provinces was a term used by Western write ...

Qianlong Emperor
(r. 1735–1796), would have reigned even longer if he had not purposely ceded the throne to the
Jiaqing Emperor The Jiaqing Emperor (13 November 1760 – 2 September 1820), personal name Yongyan, was the sixth emperor An emperor (from la, imperator, via fro, empereor) is a monarch, and usually the sovereignty, sovereign ruler of an empire or an ...
(r. 1796–1820) in order not to reign longer than his grandfather. Qing emperors succeeded each other from father to son until the Tongzhi Emperor (r. 1861–1875), the 11th Qing ruler, died childless in 1875. The last two emperors were chosen by Empress Dowager Cixi from other branches of the imperial clan.


Succession

Unlike the Ming emperors, who named their eldest Dishu system, legitimate son heir apparent whenever possible and forbade other sons from participating in politics, the Qing monarchs did not choose their successors according to primogeniture. When in 1622
Nurhaci Nurhaci (1559 – 30 September 1626) was a Jurchen people, Jurchen chieftain who rose to prominence in the late 16th century in Manchuria. He was a member of the House of Aisin-Gioro, and reigned as the founding Khan (title), khan of the Later J ...

Nurhaci
(1559–1626) was asked which one of his sons he had chosen to succeed him as khan (title), khan of the Jurchens, he refused to answer, telling his sons that they should determine after his death who among them was the most qualified leader. His answer reflected the fact that in Jurchen society, succession as tribal chieftain was usually determined by merit, not descent. When Nurhaci died in 1626, a committee of
Manchu The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, exonym for a historical and geographic region of Russia and China in Northeast Asia (mostly in N ...
princes selected
Hong Taiji Hong Taiji (28 November 1592 – 21 September 1643), sometimes written as Huang Taiji and sometimes referred to as Abahai in Western literature, was the second khan of the Later Jin (reigned from 1626 to 1636) and the founding emperor of t ...

Hong Taiji
(1592–1643) as his successor. Hong Taiji's death in 1643 caused another succession crisis, because many of Nurhaci's other sons appeared to be qualified leaders. As a compromise, the Manchu princes chose Hong Taiji's four-year-old son Fulin (the
Shunzhi Emperor The Shunzhi Emperor (Fulin; 15 March 1638 – 5 February 1661) was List of emperors of the Qing dynasty, Emperor of the Qing dynasty from 1644 to 1661, and the first Qing emperor to rule over China proper. A Deliberative Council of Princes and ...
, r. 1643–1661) as his successor, marking the adoption of father-son succession in the Qing imperial line. The Shunzhi Emperor, who died of smallpox in 1661, chose his third son Xuanye as successor because he had survived smallpox. That child reigned as the
Kangxi Emperor The Kangxi Emperor (Xuanye; 4 May 1654– 20 December 1722) was the third Emperor of the Qing dynasty, and the second Qing emperor to rule over China proper China proper, Inner China or the Eighteen Provinces was a term used by Western ...

Kangxi Emperor
(r. 1661–1722), who for the first time in Qing history followed the Chinese habit of primogeniture and appointed his eldest son Yinreng (1674–1725) as heir apparent. The heir apparent was removed twice because of his extravagance and abhorrent behavior, which included an attempt to assassinate the emperor. After Yinreng was demoted for good in 1712, the emperor refused to name an heir. Because Qing policy forced imperial princes to reside in the capital Beijing, many princes became involved in politics, and the Kangxi succession became particularly contested. After the Kangxi Emperor's death in 1722, his fourth son Yinzhen (1678–1735) emerged as victor and reigned as the Yongzheng Emperor, but his legitimacy was questioned for years after his accession. To avoid such struggles in the future, the Yongzheng Emperor designed a system by which the living emperor would choose his successor in advance and on merit, but would keep his choice secret until his deathbed. The name of the future emperor was sealed in a casket that was hidden behind a panel in the rafters of the Palace of Heavenly Purity, Qianqing Palace inside the Forbidden City. As successor, the Yongzheng Emperor chose his fourth son Hongli (1711–1799), the
Qianlong Emperor The Qianlong Emperor (25 September 17117 February 1799) was the fifth Emperor of the Qing dynasty and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China proper China proper, Inner China or the Eighteen Provinces was a term used by Western write ...

Qianlong Emperor
, who himself selected his 15th son Yongyan, the
Jiaqing Emperor The Jiaqing Emperor (13 November 1760 – 2 September 1820), personal name Yongyan, was the sixth emperor An emperor (from la, imperator, via fro, empereor) is a monarch, and usually the sovereignty, sovereign ruler of an empire or an ...
(r. 1796–1820). The latter chose his successor Minning (1782–1850), the Daoguang Emperor, in 1799, but only read his testament shortly before dying. When the Tongzhi Emperor died heirless in 1875, his mother Empress Dowager Cixi was the one who selected the next emperor. But instead of making the deceased emperor adopt an heir from the generation below himself (in this case this would have been a nephew of the Tongzhi Emperor) as the rules of imperial succession dictated, she picked one from the same generation. The new emperor was Zaitian (the Guangxu Emperor; 1871–1908), the son of Yixuan, Prince Chun, Prince Chun, a half-brother of Empress Dowager Cixi's late husband, the Xianfeng Emperor (r. 1850–1861). She assured her opponents that as soon as the new emperor had a son, he would be adopted into the Tongzhi Emperor's line. However, as the Guangxu Emperor died heirless too, Empress Dowager Cixi also chose his successor, Puyi, in 1908.


Regents and empresses dowager

Qing succession and inheritance policies made it difficult for empresses and their relatives to build power at court, as they had in the Han dynasty for example. Threats to imperial power usually came from within the imperial clan. When the young Fulin was chosen to succeed his father Hong Taiji in September 1643, two "prince regents" were selected for him: Hong Taiji's half-brother Dorgon (1612–1650) and Nurhaci's nephew Jirgalang (1599–1655). Soon after the Manchus had seized Beijing under Dorgon's leadership in May 1644, Dorgon came to control all important government matters. Official documents referred to him as "Imperial Uncle Prince Regent" (''Huang shufu shezheng wang'' 皇叔父攝政王), a title that left him one step short of claiming the throne for himself. A few days after his death, he received a
temple name Temple names are posthumous titles accorded to monarchs of the Sinosphere The East Asian cultural sphere, Chinese cultural sphere or Sinosphere (also Sinic/Sinitic world) encompasses the countries within East and Southeast Asia South ...
(Chengzong 成宗) and an posthumous name, honorific posthumous title (Yi Huangdi 義皇帝, "Righteous Emperor"), and his spirit tablet was placed in the Imperial Ancestral Temple next to those of Nurhaci and Hong Taiji. In early March 1651 after Dorgon's supporters had been purged from the court, these titles were abrogated. The reign of the Shunzhi Emperor ended when he died of smallpox in 1661 at the age of 22. His last will—which was tampered and perhaps even forged by its beneficiaries—appointed Four Regents of the Kangxi Emperor, four co-regents for his son and successor the six-year-old Xuanye, who was to reign as the
Kangxi Emperor The Kangxi Emperor (Xuanye; 4 May 1654– 20 December 1722) was the third Emperor of the Qing dynasty, and the second Qing emperor to rule over China proper China proper, Inner China or the Eighteen Provinces was a term used by Western ...

Kangxi Emperor
. All four were Manchu dignitaries who had supported the Shunzhi Emperor after the death of Dorgon, but their Manchu nativism (politics), nativist measures reversed many of the Shunzhi Emperor's own policies. The "Oboi regency", named after the most powerful of the four regents, lasted until 1669, when the Kangxi Emperor started his personal rule. For almost 200 years, the Qing Empire was governed by adult emperors. In the last fifty years of the dynasty—from the death of the Xianfeng Emperor in 1861 to the final abdication of the child emperor Puyi in 1912—the imperial position again became vulnerable to the power of regents, empress dowagers, imperial uncles, and eunuchs. Empress Dowager Cixi (1835–1908) came to power through Xinyou Coup, a coup that ousted eight regents who had been named by her husband, the Xianfeng Emperor. She controlled the government during the reigns of the Tongzhi (r. 1861–1875) and Guangxu (r. 1875–1908) emperors. From 1861 onwards, she was officially co-regent with Empress Dowager Ci'an, but her political role increased so much that within a few years she was taking charge of most government matters. She became sole regent in 1881 after the death of Empress Dowager Ci'an. With the assistance of eunuchs and Manchu princes, she remained regent until March 1889, when she finally let the Guangxu Emperor rule personally (he was then 28 years old). After she intervened to end the Hundred Days' Reform in September 1898, she had the emperor put under house arrest and held the reins of the Qing government until her death in 1908.


Multiple appellations


Era name

An emperor's Chinese era name, era name or reign name was chosen at the beginning of his reign to reflect the political concerns of the court at the time. A new era name became effective on the first day of the Chinese New Year after that emperor's accession, which fell between 21 January and 20 February (inclusively) of the Gregorian calendar. Even if an emperor died in the middle of the year, his era name was used for the rest of that year before the next era officially began. Like the emperors of the Ming dynasty, Qing monarchs used only one reign name and are usually known by that name, as when we speak of the "
Qianlong Emperor The Qianlong Emperor (25 September 17117 February 1799) was the fifth Emperor of the Qing dynasty and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China proper China proper, Inner China or the Eighteen Provinces was a term used by Western write ...

Qianlong Emperor
" (r. 1735–1795) or the "Guangxu Emperor" (r. 1875–1908). Strictly speaking, referring to the Qianlong Emperor simply as "Qianlong" is wrong, because "Qianlong" was not that emperor's own name but that of his reign era. For convenience sake, however, many historians still choose to call him Qianlong (though not "Emperor Qianlong"). The only Qing emperors who are not commonly known by their reign name are the first two:
Nurhaci Nurhaci (1559 – 30 September 1626) was a Jurchen people, Jurchen chieftain who rose to prominence in the late 16th century in Manchuria. He was a member of the House of Aisin-Gioro, and reigned as the founding Khan (title), khan of the Later J ...

Nurhaci
(r. 1616–1626), who is known by his personal name, and his son and successor
Hong Taiji Hong Taiji (28 November 1592 – 21 September 1643), sometimes written as Huang Taiji and sometimes referred to as Abahai in Western literature, was the second khan of the Later Jin (reigned from 1626 to 1636) and the founding emperor of t ...

Hong Taiji
(r. 1626–1643), whose name was Khong Tayiji, a title meaning "prince Hong". Hong Taiji was the only Qing emperor to use two era names (see table). Reign names are usually left untranslated, but some scholars occasionally gloss them when they think these names have a special significance. Historian Pamela Crossley explains that Hong Taiji's first era name Tiancong 天聰 (''abkai sure'' in Manchu) referred to a "capacity to transform" supported by Heaven, and that his second one Chongde 崇德 (''wesihun erdemungge'') meant the achievement of this transformation. The practice of translating reign names is not new: Jesuits who resided at the Qing court in Beijing in the 18th century translated "Yongzheng Emperor, Yongzheng"—or its Manchu version "Hūwaliyasun tob"—as ''Concordia Recta''. An era name was used to record dates, usually in the format "Reign-name Xth year, Yth month, Zth day" (sometimes abridged as X/Y/Z by modern scholars). A Qing emperor's era name was also used on the coins that were cast during his reign. Unlike in the Ming dynasty, the characters used in Qing reign names were naming taboo, taboo, that is, the Chinese characters, characters contained in it could no longer be used in writing throughout the empire.


Personal name

As in previous dynasties, the emperor's personal name became taboo after his accession. The use of ''xuan'' 玄 ("mysterious", "profound") in the Kangxi Emperor's personal name Xuanye (玄燁), for example, forced woodblock printing, printers of Chinese Buddhism, Buddhist and Daoism, Daoist books to replace this very common character with ''yuan'' 元 in all their books. Even the ''Daodejing'', a Daoist classic, and the ''Thousand Character Classic'', a widely used primer (textbook), primer, had to be reprinted with ''yuan'' instead of ''xuan''. When the Yongzheng Emperor, whose generation was the first in which all imperial sons shared a generational character as in Chinese clans, acceded the throne, he made all his brothers change the first character of their name from "Yin" (胤) to "Yun" (允) to respect the taboo. Citing fraternal solidarity, his successor, the Qianlong Emperor, simply removed one stroke from his own name and let his brothers keep their own. Later emperors found other ways to diminish the inconvenience of naming taboos. The
Jiaqing Emperor The Jiaqing Emperor (13 November 1760 – 2 September 1820), personal name Yongyan, was the sixth emperor An emperor (from la, imperator, via fro, empereor) is a monarch, and usually the sovereignty, sovereign ruler of an empire or an ...
(r. 1796–1820), whose personal name was Yongyan (永琰), replaced the very common first character of his personal name (''yong'' 永, which means "forever") with an obscure one (顒) with the same pronunciation. The Daoguang Emperor (r. 1820–1850) removed the character for "continuous" (綿) from his name and decreed that his descendants should henceforth all omit one stroke from their name. In accordance with Manchu practice, Qing emperors rarely used their clan name Aisin Gioro.


Posthumous titles


Temple name

After their deaths, the emperors were given a
temple name Temple names are posthumous titles accorded to monarchs of the Sinosphere The East Asian cultural sphere, Chinese cultural sphere or Sinosphere (also Sinic/Sinitic world) encompasses the countries within East and Southeast Asia South ...
and an posthumous name, honorific name under which they would be worshiped at the
Imperial Ancestral Temple The Imperial Ancestral Temple, or Taimiao () of Beijing, is a historic site in the Imperial City, Beijing, Imperial City, just outside the Forbidden City, where during both the Ming Dynasty, Ming and Qing Dynasty, Qing Dynasties, sacrificial ceremo ...
. On the spirit tablets that were displayed there, the temple name was followed by the honorific name, as in "Shizu Zhang huangdi" for the Shunzhi Emperor and "Taizong Wen huangdi" for Hong Taiji. As dynastic founder, Nurhaci ("Taizu") became the focal ancestor in the main hall of the temple. The earlier paternal ancestors of the Qing imperial line were worshiped in a back hall. Historical records like the ''Veritable Records'' (), which were compiled at the end of each reign, retrospectively referred to emperors by their temple names. Hong Taiji created the Qing ancestral cult in 1636 when he assumed the title of emperor. Taking the Chinese imperial cult as a model, he named his main paternal ancestors "kings" and built an Imperial Ancestral Temple in his capital Mukden to offer sacrifices to them. When the Qing took control of Beijing in 1644, Prince Regent Dorgon had the Aisin Gioro ancestral tablets installed in what had been the Ming ancestral temple. In 1648 the Qing government bestowed the title of "emperor" to these ancestors and gave them the honorific posthumous names and temple names by which they were known for the rest of the dynasty. Nurhaci was identified retrospectively as Taizu ("grand progenitor"), the usual name given to a dynasty's first emperor. This is why Nurhaci is considered as the first Qing ruler even if he was never emperor in his lifetime. Taizong was the usual name for the second emperor of a dynasty, and so Hong Taiji was canonized as Qing Taizong. The last emperor of a dynasty usually did not receive a temple name because his descendants were no longer in power when he died, and thus could not perpetuate the ancestral cult. Puyi, the last Qing monarch, reigned as the Xuantong Emperor from 1908 to 1912, but did not receive a temple name.


Honorific posthumous name

After death emperors were given an posthumous name, honorific posthumous title that reflected their ruling style. Nurhaci's posthumous name was originally the "Martial Emperor" (武皇帝 ''wǔ huángdì'')—to reflect his military exploits—but in 1662 it was changed to "Highest Emperor" (高皇帝 ''gāo huángdì''), that is, "the emperor from whom all others descend." Hong Taiji's posthumous name, the "Emperor of Letters" (M.: ''šu hūwangdi''; Ch.: 文皇帝 ''wén huángdì''), was chosen to reflect the way in which he metamorphosed Qing institutions during his reign.


List of emperors

This is a complete list of the emperors of the Qing dynasty. These emperors were usually enthroned on an auspicious day soon after the death of the previous monarch. With two exceptions (Jiaqing and Guangxu), they reigned under their predecessor's era name until the following Chinese New Year, New Year. The date that appears under "Dates of reign" indicates the first day of the lunisolar calendar, lunisolar year following the death of the previous emperor, which is when the new emperor's era name came into use. The number of years indicated in the same column is the number of years in which that era name was used. Because of discrepancies between the western and the Chinese calendar, this number does not perfectly correspond to the number of years in which an emperor was on the throne. Since posthumous titles and temple names were often shared by emperors of different dynasties, to avoid confusion they are usually preceded by the dynastic name. The Qianlong emperor, for instance, should be referred to as Qing Gaozong rather than just Gaozong. The table, however, omits the term "Qing", because it is understood that all the emperors listed were from that dynasty. Because each emperor's posthumous name was extremely long—that of the Shunzhi Emperor, for instance, was "Titian longyun dingtong jianji yingrui qinwen xianwu dade honggong zhiren chunxiao Zhang huangdi" 體天隆運定統建極英睿欽文顯武大德弘功至仁純孝章皇帝—the table only shows the short form.This posthumous title appears in ''Draft History of Qing'' (''Qingshi Gao''), chapter 5, p. 163 of the Zhonghua shuju edition. Except for the last emperor Puyi, all portraits are official court portraits. All dates in the table are in the Gregorian calendar.


Timeline

ImageSize = width:1600 height:auto barincrement:15 PlotArea = top:10 bottom:30 right:140 left:20 AlignBars = early DateFormat = yyyy Period = from:1610 till:1920 TimeAxis = orientation:horizontal ScaleMajor = unit:year increment:10 start:1610 Colors = id:canvas value:rgb(0.97,0.97,0.97) id:LJ value:rgb(1,0.6,0.2) id:QI value:rgb(1,0.2,0.6) Backgroundcolors = canvas:canvas BarData = barset:Rulers PlotData= width:5 align:left fontsize:S shift:(5,-4) anchor:till barset:Rulers from: 1616 till: 1626 color:LJ text:"Nurhaci, Taizu (1616–1626 CE)" from: 1626 till: 1636 color:LJ text:"Hong Taiji, Taizong (as Later Jin khan; 1626–1636 CE)" from: 1636 till: 1643 color:QI text:"Hong Taiji, Taizong (as Qing emperor; 1636–1643 CE)" from: 1643 till: 1661 color:QI text:"Shunzhi Emperor, Shunzhi (1643–1661 CE)" from: 1661 till: 1722 color:QI text:"Kangxi Emperor, Kangxi (1661–1722 CE)" from: 1722 till: 1735 color:QI text:"Yongzheng Emperor, Yongzheng (1722–1735 CE)" from: 1735 till: 1796 color:QI text:"Qianlong Emperor, Qianlong (1735–1796 CE)" from: 1796 till: 1820 color:QI text:"Jiaqing Emperor, Jiaqing (1796–1820 CE)" from: 1820 till: 1850 color:QI text:"Daoguang Emperor, Daoguang (1820–1850 CE)" from: 1850 till: 1861 color:QI text:"Xianfeng Emperor, Xianfeng (1850–1861 CE)" from: 1861 till: 1875 color:QI text:"Tongzhi Emperor, Tongzhi (1861–1875 CE)" from: 1875 till: 1908 color:QI text:"Guangxu Emperor, Guangxu (1875–1908 CE)" from: 1908 till: 1912 color:QI text:"Puyi, Xuantong (1908–1912 CE)" from: 1917 till: 1917 color:QI text:"Puyi, Xuantong (restored; 1917 CE)" barset:skip Legend: * denotes Later Jin (1616–1636), Later Jin monarchs * denotes Qing dynasty, Qing monarchs


See also

*Dynasties in Chinese history *Chinese emperors family tree (late)#Qing Dynasty, Qing dynasty family tree


References


Citations


Sources

; Works cited * . * . * . * . * . * . * . * . * * . * . * . * . * . * . * . * . * . * . In two volumes. * . * . * . * * . {{DEFAULTSORT:List Of Emperors Of The Qing dynasty Lists of Chinese monarchs, Qing Qing dynasty emperors, * Lists of leaders of China Lists of Chinese people