This is a list of
cultural heritage Cultural heritage is the legacy of cultural resources and intangible attributes of a group or society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, or a large social group sh ...
sites that have been damaged or destroyed accidentally, deliberately, or by a natural disaster, sorted by country. Cultural heritage can be subdivided into two main types—tangible and
intangible heritage An intangible cultural heritage (ICH) is a practice, representation, expression, knowledge, or skill considered by UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO french: Organisation des Nations unies pour ...
. The former includes built heritage such as religious buildings, museums, monuments, and archaeological sites, as well as movable heritage such as works of art and manuscripts. Intangible cultural heritage includes customs, music, fashion and other traditions within a particular culture. This article mainly deals with the destruction of built heritage; the destruction of movable collectible heritage is dealt with in art destruction, whilst the destruction of movable industrial heritage remains almost totally ignored. Deliberate and systematic destruction of cultural heritage, such as that carried out by ISIL and other terrorist organizations, is regarded as a form of cultural genocide.



* Library of Alexandria, destroyed c. 272 AD * In the late 12th century, Sultan Al-Aziz Uthman demolished part of the Pyramid of Menkaure. * The Lighthouse of Alexandria, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, was damaged by earthquakes in the 10th and 14th centuries, before being demolished in 1480 to make way for the Citadel of Qaitbay. Some stones from the lighthouse were used in the construction of the citadel, and some other remains have survived underwater. *The 15th-century Egyptian historian Al-Maqrizi, al-Maqrīzī wrote that a Sufi Muslim named Muhammad Sa'im al-Dahr was responsible for defacing the Great Sphinx of Giza in 1378, breaking off its nose. * Villa Aghion, Alexandria. * Objects stolen from the Mosque of Taghribirdi and Al-Rifai Mosque. *Institut d'Égypte, destroyed on 17 December 2011 during anti-government demonstrations.


*During the Libyan Civil War (2011), 2011 Libyan Civil War, various sites were vandalized, looted, or destroyed. *In March 2015, during the Libyan Civil War (2014–present), second civil war, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, Islamic State destroyed Sufism, Sufi shrines near Tripoli.


*In November 1995, a fire broke out in the Rova of Antananarivo, a royal palace complex that had served as the home of monarchs in the Kingdom of Madagascar since the 17th century. The fire destroyed or severely damaged all of its buildings. The last 2 phases of the Manjakamiadana’s (Queen’s Palace) reconstruction was started by 2010, and by July 2020 the entire structure has been fully refurbished.


*The Great Mosque of Djenné, Great Mosque of Djenne was allowed to fall into disrepair after the conquest of Djenné, Djenne by Seku Amadu in 1818. It was rebuilt in 1907, however. *Parts of the World Heritage Site of Timbuktu were destroyed after the Battle of Gao in 2012, despite condemnation by UNESCO, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, OIC, Mali, and France.


* During the Benin Expedition of 1897, the British Empire launched a military campaign against Benin City, the capital of the Kingdom of Benin (no relation to the modern country known as Benin), and looted and burned the city. The Walls of Benin and the Royal Palace of Oba of Benin, Royal Palace of the Oba of Benin were destroyed, while the Benin Bronzes are currently preserved in the British Museum. * During the 18th-19th century Fula jihads of West Africa, Fula people, Fula jihadists destroyed Ngazargamu, the capital of the Bornu Empire. * During the Battle of Gawakuke, the Sokoto Caliphate destroyed the Hausa people, Hausa city-state of Gobir.


* Great Zimbabwe has faced some damage since the colonial era. The removal of gold and artefacts in amateurist diggings by early colonial antiquarians caused widespread damage, notably diggings by Richard Nicklin Hall, who was determined to find evidence that the monument wasn't built by indigenous Africans until he eventually relinquished this belief. More extensive damage was caused by the mining of some of the ruins for gold. Reconstruction attempts since 1980 caused further damage, leading to alienation of the local communities from the site. Another source of damage to the ruins has been due to the site being open to visitors with many cases of people climbing the walls, walking over archaeological deposits, and the over-use of certain paths all have had major impacts on the structures at the site. These are in conjunction with damages due to the natural weathering that occurs over time due to vegetation growth, the foundations settling, and erosion from the weather.



* During the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, Soviet invasion, large-scale looting occurred in various archaeological sites including Hadda, Afghanistan, Hadda, ancient site of Ai-Khanoum, the Buddhist monastery complex in Tepe Shortor which dates back to the 2nd century AD, and the National Kabul Museum. These sites were ransacked by various pillagers, including the pro-Russian government forces, destitute villagers, and the local crime rings. The National Museum of Afghanistan suffered the greatest damage, in which the systematic looting has plundered the museum collection and the adjacent Archaeological Institute. As a result, more than two-thirds of one hundred thousand pieces of museum treasures and artifacts were lost or destroyed. * A pair of 6th-century monumental statues known as the Buddhas of Bamiyan were dynamited by the Taliban in 2001, who had declared them heretical idols.


* In 1870, a report by the Caucasus Viceroyalty (1801–1917), Viceroyalty of the Caucasus recorded 269 Shia mosques in the region. After 1917, many of the city's religious buildings were demolished in accordance with the Soviet government's modernization and anti-religious policies. A mosque in Yerevan was pulled down with a bulldozer at the beginning of the year 1990, which was done as a result of Azerbaijan destroying the Armenian church in Baku. Today there is Blue Mosque, Yerevan, only one mosque remaining in the city.


*Azerbaijani authorities destroyed the Armenian cemetery in Julfa in December 2005 in the region of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, Nakhchivan. Azerbaijani representative of Nakhchivan denied that there was an Armenian cemetery there in the first place. *Azerbaijani authorities demolished the Church of the Holy Virgin (Baku), Church of the Holy Virgin in Baku in 1992 as part of thei
campaign which also Armenian cemetery in Julfa, took place in Nakhichevan. The rest was turned into a restaurant.


* At least 43 Shia mosques, including the ornate 400-year-old Amir Mohammed Braighi mosque, and many other religious structures were Destruction of Shia mosques during the 2011 Bahraini uprising, destroyed by the Bahraini government during the Bahraini uprising (2011–present), Bahraini uprising of 2011.


* The historical Famen Temple went through several periods of destruction. First erected during the Eastern Han dynasty (AD 25–220), it was destroyed during the years of the Northern Zhou dynasty (557–581). After being rebuilt, it was destroyed again by an earthquake during the Longqing's years (1567–1572) of the Ming dynasty. After another reconstruction, it was destroyed again during the Cultural Revolution of 1966–1976. The present structure was completed in 1987. * The An Lushan Rebellion (755–763) devastated the city of Chang'an, a historical capital of several ancient Chinese empires. The city was sacked and occupied several times by the rebels who looted and demolished the buildings, whose materials were then reused to build the subsequent capital city of Luoyang. Chang'an never recovered after this obliteration, and it was followed by the decline of the Tang dynasty. * During the Great Anti-Buddhist Persecution, systematic persecution of Buddhists in AD 845 by the Taoist Emperor Wuzong of Tang, more than 4,600 Buddhist temples were destroyed across the empire. * In 955, Chai Rong, Emperor Shizong of the Later Zhou ordered the Four Buddhist Persecutions in China#Fourth, systematic destruction of Buddha statues due to the need for copper to mint coins. The ordinance led to the destruction of 3,336 of China's 6,030 Buddhist temples.four imperial persecutions of Buddhism in China
/ref> * In 1739, the Pagoda of Chengtian Temple was destroyed after a large earthquake struck the city of Yinchuan. The pagoda was subsequently restored in 1820. * The Porcelain Tower of Nanjing, which dates back to the 15th century, was destroyed during the course of the Taiping Rebellion (1850–1864). A modern life-size replica was built in 2015. * In 1860, much of the Old Summer Palace, a Qing dynasty, Qing-era imperial palace, was set on fire and sacked during the Second Opium War. The palace was later sacked again and completely destroyed by the Eight-Nation Alliance when they invaded Beijing. * Beijing city fortifications which date back to the 15th–16th century were destroyed through the course of the decline of the Qing dynasty in the late 19th to early 20th century. They were severely damaged during the Boxer Rebellion (1898–1901), with the gate towers and watchtowers destroyed and troops of the Eight-Nation Alliance tearing down much of the outer city walls. After the collapse of the Qing, the fortifications were gradually dismantled for a variety of reasons. Today, nothing of the Outer City remains intact. * In 1921, Buddhist murals at the Mogao Caves were Russians in China#Xinjiang Russians under the reign of Yang Zengxin, Jin Shuren and Sheng Shicai, damaged and vandalized by White Russian soldiers fleeing the Russian Civil War. * Buddhist murals at the Bezeklik Thousand Buddha Caves were damaged by the Uyghur people, local Muslim population. The eyes and mouths in particular were often gouged out. Pieces of murals were also broken off for use as fertilizer by the locals. * During the Kumul Rebellion in Xinjiang in the 1930s, Buddhist murals were vandalized by Muslims. * Yongdingmen, the former front gate of the outer city wall of the Beijing city fortifications, which dates back to 1553, was demolished in the 1950s to make way for the new road system. It was rebuilt in 2005. * The Gate of China, Beijing, Gate of China in Beijing was demolished by the Chinese government in 1954 in order to make way for the expansion of Tiananmen Square. * A shrine dedicated to Wei Yan was destroyed by the Chinese government in 1968. A stone tablet which contained the record of his presence was lost after the demolition. The shrine was rebuilt in 1995. * During the Cultural Revolution of the 1960s and 1970s, many artifacts, monuments, and buildings belonging to the Four Olds were attacked and destroyed, including: **White Horse Temple in Luoyang, the oldest Buddhist temple in China. Some historical artifacts are still missing. **Famen Temple, Famen Buddhist Temple, Shaanxi. **Ming Tombs, Tomb and remains of Ming Emperor Wanli Emperor, Wanli and empresses. * According to anthropologist Robert E. Murowchick, a quarter million tombs have been raided since the 1990s to rob the antiquities which lay beneath them. Murowchick points out that growing demand for antiquities from both domestic and international markets have encouraged the tomb raiding in China. * China's aggressive development has resulted in the destruction of more than 30,000 items listed by the state administration of cultural heritage, compiled from various archaeological and historic sites. One conservation campaigner tells that the rate of destruction is worse than during the Cultural Revolution. Destroyed heritage sites include the old town in Dinghai, the old town of Laoximen in Shanghai, a centuries-old market street in Qianmen, and a section of the Great Wall of China. Historical neighborhoods of Beijing and Nanjing were also razed. * The construction of the Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze River caused water levels to rise, destroying entire cities as well as many historical locations along the river. * In 2016, the Chinese government ordered the demolition of historical housings in the Larung Gar Tibetan Buddhism, Tibetan Buddhist institution. * In 2016, the Chinese government destroyed around 5,000 mosques in the Muslim-majority Xinjiang region, including 70% of the mosques in the township of Lenger, during a three-month campaign. It was conducted under the guise of public safety, although the locals deem it a part of the systematic effort to subjugate the Uyghurs, Uyghur populations who have been advocating for the East Turkestan independence movement, independence of East Turkestan State. * During the 2020 China floods, multiple historic bridges were destroyed, including the Lecheng Bridge and the Zhenhai Bridge.


*In 185 BCE, a general Pushyamitra Shunga assassinated the last Maurya Empire, Mauryan Emperor, Brihadratha Maurya and destroyed Buddhist temples and Decline of Buddhism in the Indian subcontinent, Buddhist heritage in India. *In 1024, during the reign of Bhima I, the prominent Afghan ruler Mahmud of Ghazni raided Gujarat, plundered and destroyed the Somnath temple and broke its ''jyotirlinga''. In 1299, Alauddin Khalji's army under the leadership of Ulugh Khan defeated Karandev II of the Vaghela dynasty, and sacked the (rebuilt) Somnath temple. By 1665, the rebuilt temple was once again ordered destroyed by Mughal Empire, Mughal emperor Aurangzeb. In 1702, he ordered that if Hindus had revived worship there, it should be demolished completely. *In 1323, when the Kakatiya dynasty refused to pay tribute to the Delhi Sultanate, Muhammad bin Tughluq, Ulugh Khan under orders from his father and sultan Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq laid Siege of Warangal, 1323, siege to the Warangal Fort and destroyed it. *Around 1200 CE, the most prominent seats of learning in Ancient India, Nalanda, Nalanda University, Buddhist monasteries, Buddhist Monasteries and Educational centers of Vikramasila and Odantapuri were sacked and destroyed by Bengal ruler Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji. *The famous Martand Sun Temple, located in Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir, was completely destroyed by the Muslims, Muslim Sikandar Shah Miri, Sultan Sikandar Butshikan in the early 15th century, with demolition lasting a year. *In 1565 CE, after the Battle of Talikota, the capital city of Vijayanagara, with all its temples, palaces, mansions and monuments, was sacked and completely destroyed by an invading army raised by the five Bahamani Sultanates. What remains now are the ruins of Hampi. *In 1664, Aurangzeb destroyed the Kashi Vishwanath Temple, Kashi Vishwanath Mandir and built the Gyanvapi Mosque over its walls. The remnants of the temple wall can still be seen today, as was depicted in the 19th century sketch by James Prinsep. Christian missionary Edwin Greaves (1909), of the London Missionary Society, described the site as follows: "At the back of the mosque and in continuation of it are some broken remains of what was probably the old Bishwanath Hindu temple, Temple. It must have been a right noble building; there is nothing finer, in the way of architecture in the whole city, than this scrap. A few pillars inside the mosque appear to be very old also." *In 1696, the Mahmud Gawan Madrasa, Madrasa Mahmud Gawan of Bidar was struck by lightning and a part of it was destroyed. *In 1528, Mir Baqi destroyed The Ram Janambhoomi Temple to construct Babri Masjid. *On 6 December 1992, the Babri Masjid was Demolition of the Babri Masjid, destroyed by Hindu nationalism, Hindu nationalists. *On 26 April 2016, the National Museum of Natural History, New Delhi and its valuable collection of animal fossils and stuffed animals was destroyed by fire.


File:Gambir station Jakarta.JPG, Gambir station after huge renovation * (Original) Gambir railway station. Demolished in 1988 due making new overpass line. * In 2016 it was discovered that the wrecks of cruiser HNLMS Java (1921), HNLMS ''Java'', HNLMS De Ruyter (1935), HNLMS ''De Ruyter'', HMS Exeter (68), HMS ''Exeter'', destroyer HNLMS Kortenaer (1927), HNLMS ''Kortenaer'', HMS Electra (H27), HMS ''Electra'', HMS Encounter (H10), HMS ''Encounter'' and USS Pope (DD-225), USS ''Pope'' which is located in the Java Sea has been destroyed by illegal salvage operation. * The roof that covers the line 1 and 2 is demolished in 2019 due Jatinegara Station station expansion. The original station still remains.


*In 330 BC, Alexander the Great sent the main force of his army to Persepolis by the Royal Road and Persepolis#Destruction, destroyed it.


* The Hanging Gardens of Babylon, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, are believed to have been destroyed sometime after the 1st century AD. Their existence is not confirmed by archaeology, and there have been suggestions that the gardens were purely mythical. * The Round City of Baghdad, the seat of the Abbasid caliph, was sacked by the Mongols led by Hulegu in 1258. Large section of the city as well as irrigation system and the House of Wisdom, a library and intellectual center, were destroyed. The city was attacked again by Tamerlane in 1401, leading to the almost complete destruction. * Several historical gates of Baghdad dating back to the 12th century were demolished by the occupying Allies of World War I, Allied and Ottoman Empire, Ottoman forces during the World War I, First World War. * Since the 2003 invasion of Iraq, U.S.-led invasion of Iraq in 2003, various Archaeological looting in Iraq, archaeological sites and museums have been looted, including the ancient cities of Adab (city), Adab, Hatra and Isin where United States Armed Forces, U.S. military protection was absent. The most prominent among them being the Iraq Museum where as much as 170,000 items were looted, including the 5,000 year old statues. In addition, several sites such as Babylon saw the destruction of its archaeology-rich subsoil as a result of military planning. * During the Iraqi Civil War (2006–2008), civil war ensued the 2003 invasion, several historical sites were destroyed by various groups. In 2006 and 2007, Al-Askari Mosque was bombed by Sunni Islam, Sunni militants twice in the course of two years. In 2006, the Minaret of Anah and the statue of Al-Mansur were bombed by Shia Islam, Shia militant and destroyed. All the aforementioned buildings were later reconstructed. * The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) destroyed much of the cultural heritage in the areas it controlled in Iraq. At least 28 religious buildings were looted and destroyed, including Shiite mosques, tombs, shrines and churches. In addition, numerous ancient and medieval sites and artifacts, including the ancient cities of Nimrud and Hatra, parts of the wall of Nineveh, the ruins of Bash Tapia Castle and Dair Mar Elia, and artifacts from the Mosul Museum were also destroyed.

Israel and Palestine

* The Solomon's Temple, first Temple in Jerusalem was destroyed by the Neo-Babylonian Empire in 587 BCE, and the Second Temple, second by the Roman Empire in 70 CE. *Following the Arab-Israeli War of 1948, conquest of the Old City (Jerusalem), Old City of Jerusalem by the Arab Legion in 1948, under the Jordanian annexation of the West Bank, Jordanian annexation, Jews, Jewish sites were Islamization of East Jerusalem under Jordanian occupation, systematically damaged and destroyed. In particular, all but one of the thirty-five synagogues of the Jewish Quarter (Jerusalem), Jewish Quarter were destroyed. * Following Israel's victory during the Six-Day War, 1967 Six-Day War the Israel Defense Forces, Israeli military destroyed a large part of the Moroccan Quarter in Old City (Jerusalem), Jerusalem's Old Town in order to make room for a plaza in front of the Western Wall. * The Baptist Church of Jerusalem in Narkis Street was burned down by Zionism, Jewish Nationalists in 1982, and subjected to an arson attack in 2007. *In 1996, the Jerusalem Islamic Waqf began unauthorized construction on the Temple Mount, damaging ancient structures and weakening the stability of the Southern Wall. 300 truckloads of topsoil were excavated and dumped in the Kidron Valley without permitting proper archaeological care. (See Temple Mount Sifting Project). *In 2015, in one of a series of attacks on churches in Israel and the West Bank by Jewish religious terrorism, Jewish extremist groups, a former settler on the West Bank torched and set fire to the Church of the Multiplication in Tabgha on the shore of the Sea of Galilee in Northern District (Israel), northern Israel. This was the church where Christians believe Jesus to have carried out his miracle of the Feeding the multitude, feeding of the 5000. *Joseph's Tomb in the Nablus, city of Nablus has been repeatedly vandalized, with Palestinians, Palestinian mobs burning and pillaging it immediately after the withdrawal of Israel Defense Forces, Israeli forces in 2000, in 2003, and in 2009, when the tomb was vandalized with graffiti including swastikas. In 2014, Palestinians attempted to burn the tomb again, but were stopped by Palestinian National Security Forces, PA security forces.


*Shuri Castle, a palace of the Ryukyu Kingdom first built in the 14th century, was destroyed during the Battle of Okinawa in World War II. The Japanese forces had set up a defense perimeter which goes through the underground of the castle. U.S. military targeted this location by shelling with the battleship USS Mississippi (BB-41) for three days in May 1945. The castle burned down subsequently after. It was later reconstructed in the 1990s. *The Kinkaku-ji (Golden Pavilion) of Kyoto was burnt down by an arsonist in 1950, but was restored in 1955. *A large number of Important Cultural Property (Japan), Important Cultural Property, libraries, museums, and other archives were damaged or destroyed by the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami.


*Candi Number 11 also known as Candi Sungai Batu Estate, a 1,200 year old ruin of a tomb-temple located in the Bujang Valley historical complex in Kedah was demolished in 2013 by housing developers who claimed not to have known the historical significance of the stone edifice.


*On 7 February 2012, in the aftermath of the 2011–2012 Maldives political crisis, coup in which Mohamed Nasheed was toppled as President of the Maldives, President, the National Museum was stormed by Islamism, Islamists who destroyed Buddhism, Buddhist artifacts. Most of Maldive's Buddhist physical history was obliterated. Hindus, Hindu artifacts were also targeted for obliteration and the actions have been compared to the attacks on the Buddhas of Bamiyan, Buddhas by the Taliban.


*Shwedagon Pagoda, Shwedagon Paya temple complex in Yangon, built c. 6th and 10th centuries AD, was severely damaged after Cyclone Nargis passed the region in 2008, which caused the worst natural disaster in the recorded history of Myanmar.


*The 7.8 April 2015 Nepal earthquake, Nepal earthquake in 2015 demolished heritages in Kathmandu Valley, Kathmandu valley. It destroyed centuries old medieval temples and palaces in the Kathmandu, Bhaktapur and Patan, Nepal, Patan Durbar Squares along with the tower of Dharahara, the temple of Changunarayan, some temples of the Pashupatinath Temple, Pahupatinath complex, the main stupa of Boudhanath and the temples of Swayambhunath, Swayambhunath Stupa.


*The Archaeological site of Harappa which dates back to 2600 BCE was heavily damaged during the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Bricks from the ruins were brought out and used as track ballast during the construction of History of rail transport in Pakistan#Early development (1855–1870), Lahore–Multan railway line. Since the discovery, the site was constantly being damaged by the local farmers in the process of turning it into an agriculture land. *Shaheed Ganj Mosque in Lahore was demolished by the Sikhs in 1935. Sikhs had been occupying the public square near the mosque since the capture of Lahore by Bhangi Misl in the 18th century. The conflict concerning the mosque had heightened during the British Raj, colonial era, as Muslims were forbidden to pray there by the mosque administration. The demolishing of the mosque had led to the Muslims protesters holding marches toward the mosque, which was dispersed by the police opening fire on them. *Looters and the Taliban destroyed much of Buddhism in Pakistan, Pakistan's Buddhist artifacts left over from the Gandhara, Buddhist Gandhara civilization especially in Swat Valley. Gandhara Buddhist relics were deliberately targeted by the Taliban for destruction, and illegally looted by smugglers. Kushan Empire, Kushan era Buddhist stupas and statues in Swat valley, including the Jehanabad Gautama Buddha, Buddha's face, were demolished by the Taliban. The government was criticized for doing nothing to safeguard the statue after the initial attempt at destroying the Buddha, which did not cause permanent harm, and when the second attack took place on the statue the feet, shoulders, and face were demolished. A rehabilitation attempt on the Buddha was made by Luca Olivieri and a group from Italy.


*During the Battle of Manila (1945), Battle of Manila in 1945, most of the city's unique architecture was destroyed. After the battle, in the business district, only two buildings dating to before the war remained intact, and these buildings' plumbing had been looted. After the war ended, much of Manila was rebuilt in a modernist style, and thus the original architectural heritage of the city is largely lost. *Manila Jai Alai Building, a historic jai alai venue demolished in 2000 which was opposed by heritage conservationists. The demolition led to the passage of the National Cultural Heritage Act of 2009. *Several historic buildings were damaged or destroyed during the 2013 Bohol earthquake, including the Loboc Church, the Loon Church, the Maribojoc Church and the Baclayon Church. *The Philippine Su Kuang Institute building was demolished in 2017 after the owners sold the building to a private developer within the same year. The 1940s was the last Art deco architecture, Art Deco wooden school structure in Binondo, Manila.

Saudi Arabia

* Various mosques and other historic sites, especially those relating to early Islam, have been destroyed in Saudi Arabia. Apart from early Islamic sites, other buildings such as the Ajyad Fortress were also destroyed. This is done for economic reasons, to create room to accommodate hajj pilgrims (including luxury facilities for wealthy guests), as well as for ideological reasons related to the iconoclasm, iconoclastic religious doctrine of the state Wahhabi sect. *Ajyad Fortress of the Ottomans demolished for commercial development of the Mecca Royal Hotel Clock Tower.


* The Singapore Stone was blown up in 1843 to make way for Fort Fullerton.

South Korea

* Hwangnyongsa, a massive Buddhist temple in Gyeongju which dates back to the 7th century, was burned down by the Mongolians during their invasion in 1238. * Hundreds of Buddhist monasteries were shut down or destroyed during the Joseon dynasty, Joseon period as a part of Korean Buddhism#Suppression under the Joseon Dynasty (1392–1910), anti-Buddhism policy. In 1407, during the reign of Taejong of Joseon, Taejong, the regulations were imposed on the number of Buddhist temples which limited to 88. Sejong the Great further reduced the number to 36. Many Buddhist statues were also destroyed during the reign of Jungjong of Joseon, Jungjong (1506–1544). *Namdaemun was damaged by fire caused by arson in 2008. It reopened in 2013.

Sri Lanka

* The Palace of King Parakramabahu I of Polonnaruwa was set into fire by the Kalinga Magha lead Indian invaders in the 11th century. The ruins and the effect of the fire is still visible. * The Library of Jaffna, which had over 97,000 manuscripts, was Burning of Jaffna library, burned in 1981, as a part of the Sri Lankan war.


*The Library of Antioch was ordered destroyed by the Roman emperor, Roman Emperor Jovian (emperor), Jovian in 363 AD. *The Aleppo Codex, the authoritative Hebrew Bible text, was partially destroyed during 1947 anti-Jewish riots in Aleppo, anti-Jewish riots in Syria in 1947. *Much of Culture of Syria, Syria's cultural heritage was damaged, destroyed, or looted during the Syrian Civil War. Destroyed buildings include the minaret of the Great Mosque of Aleppo and the Al-Madina Souq, while others such as Krak des Chevaliers were damaged. *Khusruwiyah Mosque (Husrev Mosque). * The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) destroyed the Lion of Al-lāt, the temples of Temple of Bel, Bel and Temple of Baalshamin, Baalshamin, the Arch of Triumph (Palmyra), Arch of Triumph, and other sites in Palmyra. The group also destroyed the Monastery of St. Elian, the Armenian Genocide Memorial Church, Der Zor, Armenian Genocide Memorial Church, and several ancient sculptures in the city of Raqqa. * During the Turkish military operation in Afrin in 2018, Turkey, Turkish shelling seriously damaged the Ain Dara (archaeological site), ancient temple of Ain Dara in Afrin, Syria, Afrin.


In June 1932 in Siam—now Thailand—a Siamese revolution of 1932, revolution overthrew 700 years of absolute monarchy. A political structure based on a constitution that required non-royal governments elected by the people, was introduced. On 10 December 1936, the first post-revolution prime minister, Phraya Phahonphonphayuhasena, Phraya Phahon, held a small ceremony to embed a small plaque the size of a dinner plate into the ground at the spot, in front of Bangkok's Ananta Samakhom Throne Hall, where he had first announced the end of the absolute monarchy. The inscription on it read: "Here on 24 June 1932 at dawn, the People's Party proclaimed a constitution for the country's advancement." Eighty years later, sometime between 2–8 April 2017, the democracy plaque was replaced by a new plaque. Its message read: "To love and respect the Buddhist trinity, one's own state, one's own family, and to have a heart faithful to your monarch, will bring prosperity to the country". Prime Minister Prayut Chan-o-cha dismissed the theft and replacement of the plaque as unimportant. The police insisted they could not investigate the plaque's disappearance because they did not know who owned the plaque. Investigation stalled as all 11 CCTV cameras in the area had been removed days before the plaque was taken. On 20 September 2020, a new updated version of the plaque was installed by democracy activists at Sanam Luang. Within a day of its installation it was removed by persons unknown.


* The Temple of Artemis, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, was destroyed by arson in 356 BC. It was later rebuilt, but was damaged in a raid by Goths in 268 AD. Its stones were subsequently used in other buildings, including the Hagia Sophia and other buildings in Constantinople. A few fragments of the structure still survive ''in situ''. * The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, another Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, Wonder of the Ancient World, was destroyed by a series of earthquakes between the 12th and 15th centuries. Most of the remaining marble blocks were burnt into lime, but some were used in the construction of Bodrum Castle by the Knights Hospitaller, where they can still be seen today. The only other surviving remains of the mausoleum are some foundations ''in situ'', a few sculptures in the British Museum, and some marble blocks which were used to build a dockyard in Malta's Grand Harbour *Port city of Izmir (Smyrna) during the Great fire of Smyrna in the aftermath of the Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922), Greco-Turkish war. * The abandonment and confiscation of Armenian monasteries and cultural heritage in places such as Ani contributed to their eventual destruction. In 1974, UNESCO stated that after 1923, out of 913 Armenian historical monuments left in Eastern Anatolia Region, Eastern Turkey, 464 had vanished completely, 252 were in ruins, and 197 were in need of repair. In 2011, there were 34 List of active Armenian churches in Turkey, Armenian churches functioning in Turkey, primarily in Istanbul.


* The Church of the Transfiguration, Ashgabat, Church of the Transfiguration in Ashgabat was destroyed in 1932 by the Government of the Soviet Union, Soviet Government. *The country’s only Baháʼí House of Worship, Bahá’í Temple, in Ashgabat (called Ishqabad by its followers) which was completed in 1908 was layer destroyed in 1962 after being damages in the 1948 Ashgabat earthquake, 1948 Earthquake.



*Sulejman Pasha Mosque, the dome and mosque were destroyed during World War II, while its minaret remained until 1967, when the People's Socialist Republic of Albania, communist regime of Enver Hoxha built a Unknown Soldier (statue), war memorial in its place. Many religious sites have also been destroyed over the years.


*Vienna's St. Stephen's Cathedral, Vienna, Cathedral of St. Stephen was severely damaged by fire in 1945, towards the end of the Second World War. Incendiary bombs and shelling had set the roof on fire, and the cathedral's original larch girders, said to be made from an entire forest of larches, were destroyed, as were the Rollinger choir stalls, carved in 1487. The building was rebuilt soon after the war.


* The Coudenberg, Palace of Coudenberg in Brussels burned down in 1731 and its ruins were demolished half a century later. * Many churches and abbeys were demolished during the War of the First Coalition, French occupation in the late 18th century, amongst them the St. Lambert's Cathedral, Liège, St. Lambert's Cathedral in Liège, the St. Donatian's Cathedral and Eekhout Abbey in Bruges, Florennes Abbey in Florennes, and St. Michael's Abbey, Antwerp, St. Michael's Abbey in Antwerp. * The Herkenrode Abbey in Hasselt survived the French Revolution, but subsequently fell into disrepair. In 1826 a fire destroyed much of the church, and the remaining ruins were demolished in 1844. * On 25 August 1914, during World War I, the university library of Leuven was The Rape of Belgium, destroyed by the Germans. 230,000 volumes were lost, including medieval and Renaissance manuscripts and more than 1,000 Incunable, incunabula. After the war, a new library was built. During World War II, the new building was again set on fire and nearly a million books were lost. * During World War I, the city of Ypres was completely destroyed, including its ''Town Hall'' and ''Ypres Cloth Hall, Cloth Hall''. These monuments were later rebuilt. * The ''Maison du Peuple (Brussels), Maison du Peuple'' in Brussels, one of the largest works of architect Victor Horta, was demolished in 1965 to make way for an office building. The surviving buildings designed by Horta were Major Town Houses of the Architect Victor Horta (Brussels), declared UNESCO World Heritage in 2000. * Château Miranda, a 19th century neo-Gothic castle in Celles was demolished in 2016-17. * The Valemprez farm, a 13th century farmhouse rebuilt in the 18th century in Dottignies. It was demolished in 2008

Bosnia and Herzegovina

* Through the course of the Bosnian War, numerous sites of cultural and religious heritage were destroyed: ** In the Bosnian War during the Siege of Sarajevo, culturcide was committed by Army of Republika Srpska. The National and University Library of Bosnia and Herzegovina was specifically targeted and besieged by cannons positioned all around the city and it was completely destroyed in the fire, along with 80 percent of its contents. Some 3 million books destroyed, along with hundreds of original documents from the Ottoman Empire and the Austro-Hungarian monarchy. **Muslim heritage sites suffered the most, with 277 mosques and several other religious facilities, schools, and institutions destroyed by the authorities of the Republic of Srpska as a part of the ethnic cleansing campaign against the local Muslim populations. The most well known among them include Mehmed Pasha Kukavica Mosque, Arnaudija Mosque, and Ferhat Pasha Mosque. A substantial proportion of these mosques date back to the Ottoman and Austro-Hungarian rule in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Austro-Hungarian era. **Roman Catholic sites also suffered with more than 269 churches being destroyed, which was associated with the killings of Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnian Croats, mostly by Serbs of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnian Serbs. **As many as 450 Serbian Orthodox religious buildings were destroyed in the war, such as the 13th-century Sase Monastery, Vozuća Monastery, and others. **Parts of the old city of Mostar, including the Stari Most, were destroyed by the Croatian Defence Council during the war. The Stari Most has been rebuilt. Another symbol of the city, the monumental Serbian Orthodox Cathedral of the Holy Trinity, Mostar, Cathedral of the Holy Trinity was shelled, set afire, and finally blown up by the local Croat forces. The reconstruction of the church is ongoing.


*In the Independent State of Croatia 450 Serb Orthodox churches and monasteries were destroyed along with monumental iconostasis, thousands of icons and number of manuscripts and books which included archival books about births, weddings and deaths. The destroyed ritual items were of great cultural and historical importance and beauty. *War damage of the Croatian War (1991–1995) has been assessed on 2,271 protected cultural monuments, with the damage cost being estimated at 407 million Deutsche Mark, DM.Destruction and Conservation of Cultural Property
ed. Robert Layton, Peter G. Stone & Julian Thomas, One World Archeology, Routledge 2001, London, pg. 162.
The largest numbers – 683 damaged cultural monuments – are located in the area of Dubrovnik and Neretva County. Most are situated in Dubrovnik itself. The entire buildings and possessions of 481 Roman Catholic churches, several synagogues, and a number of Serbian Orthodox churches were badly damaged or completely destroyed. Valuable inventories were looted from over 100 churches. The most drastic example of destruction of cultural monuments, art objects, and artefacts took place in Vukovar. After the occupation of the devastated city by the Yugoslav Army and Serbian paramilitary forces, portable cultural property was removed from shelters and museums in Vukovar to museums and archives in Serbia. **Church of St. Nicholas, Karlovac, destroyed between 1991 and 1993. Renovated in 2007. **Medieval Dragović monastery, Vrlika, destroyed in 1995. Reestablished in 2004. * After Croatia gained independence, about 3,000 memorials dedicated to the Anti-fascism, anti-fascist resistance and the victims of fascism were destroyed. * In September 1991, Republic of Croatia Armed Forces, Croatian forces entered the memorial site of the Jasenovac Concentration Camp and vandalized the museum building, while exhibitions and documentation were destroyed, damaged and looted.

Czech Republic

* The Old Town Hall (Prague), Old Town Hall in Prague was severely damaged by fire during the Prague uprising of 1945. The chamber where George of Poděbrady was elected King of Bohemia was devastated; the town hall's bell, the oldest in Bohemia, dating from 1313, was melted; and the city archives, comprising 70,000 volumes, as well as historically priceless manuscripts, were completely destroyed.


*Copenhagen Fire of 1728, where a great part of medieval Copenhagen vanished. *Christiansborg Palace (1st), Christiansborg Palace, main residence of the List of Danish monarchs, Danish Kings, destroyed by fire in 1794. *Copenhagen Fire of 1795, where a great part of medieval and renaissance Copenhagen vanished. *Hirschholm Palace, summer residence of the Danish Kings, demolished in 1809–1813 after it stood empty after its role in the affair between Johann Friedrich Struensee and Queen Caroline Matilda of Great Britain in the 1770s.


*During World War II, 98% of town of Narva was destroyed due to March bombing, Soviet bombing raids. Only 3 buildings, including the Narva Town Hall, town hall, are still remaining.


*During the Siege of Strasbourg that took place at the height of the Franco-Prussian War in 1870, the total destruction by Shell (projectile), shelling and fire of the municipal library and the municipal art and archaeology collections resulted in the loss of 400,000 books, 3,446 Medieval manuscripts, and thousands of incunables, as well as of hundreds of paintings, stained glass windows, and archaeological artefacts. The most famous lost object was the original manuscript of the Hortus deliciarum. *On 23 May 1871, the Tuileries Palace, which had been the usual Parisian residence of French monarchs, was almost entirely gutted in a fire set by members of the Paris Commune, leaving only the stone shell. It was subsequently demolished in 1883. *In 1914, Reims Cathedral was burned as a result of shelling during the initial phase of the First World War. The cathedral was rebuilt after the war. *The 1978 Palace of Versailles bombing severely damaged parts of the Palace of Versailles, including several priceless pieces of art. The palace was rebuilt and reopened to the public within four years. *On 15 April 2019, the roof of the Notre-Dame de Paris Notre-Dame de Paris fire, caught fire, severely damaging the bell towers and resulting in the total collapse of the central spire and roof. The fire is believed to have been caused by the ongoing Building restoration, restoration, though an investigation is ongoing.


*Many historically and architecturally significant buildings were destroyed or severely damaged during World War II and the post-war period as a result of the Allied policy of area bombing of cities aimed at destroying or weakening infrastructure and war-related industry in the German Reich, as well as demoralizing the population by destroying urban cores and residential neighborhoods. Several hundred cities were destroyed, many of them by more than 80 percent. Striking examples are palaces like Berlin Palace, Monbijou Palace, and City Palace, Potsdam, as well as churches like Dresden Frauenkirche, Berlin Cathedral, and Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church. Several have been rebuilt since 1990 (including all those mentioned except Monbijou Palace and Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church). *The Paulinerkirche, Leipzig, Paulinerkirche was a medieval church from 1231 in Leipzig. The church survived the war practically unscathed but was dynamited in 1968 during the communist regime of East Germany. After the reunification of Germany, a new building in a contemporary style, the Paulinum, was built on the site. *The building housing the Historical Archive of the City of Cologne collapsed on 3 March 2009 during the construction of an underground railway line. *The Church of St. Lambertus, Immerath, Church of St. Lambertus in Immerath (Erkelenz), Immerath was demolished on 9 January 2018 as part of the demolition of the entire village to make way for an expansion of the Garzweiler surface mine. The church had been added to the list of heritage monuments in Erkelenz on 14 May 1985. *In October 2020, artworks displayed at various museums at Museumsinsel in Berlin were vandalized with a liquid that left stains on the artifacts.


*The Colossus of Rhodes, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, was destroyed in the 226 BC Rhodes earthquake, and its remains were destroyed in the 7th century AD while Rhodes was under Arab rule. In December 2015, a group of European architects announced plans to build a modern Colossus where the original once stood. *The Statue of Zeus at Olympia, also a Wonder of the Ancient World, was destroyed around the 5th century CE, although it is not known exactly when or how. *The Parthenon was extensively damaged in 1687 during the Great Turkish War (1683–1699). The Ottoman army fortified the Acropolis of Athens and used the Parthenon as a gunpowder magazine and a shelter for members of the local Turkish community. On 26 September, a Venetian mortar round blew up the magazine, and the explosion blew out the building's central portion. About three hundred people were killed in the explosion, which caused fires that burned until the following day and consumed many homes. The Parthenon was extensively and permanently damaged when Thomas Bruce, the 7th Earl of Elgin and ambassador to the Ottoman Empire (occupiers of Greece in the early 19th century), who admired the Parthenon's extensive collection of ancient marble sculptures, began extracting and expatriating them to Britain in 1801. More damage to the site's heritage came after independence, when all Medieval and Ottoman features of the Acropolis (most notably the Frankish Tower (Acropolis of Athens), Frankish Tower) were destroyed by Heinrich Schliemann in a project to rid the site of all post-Classical Greece, Classical influence.


* further ** :hu:Budapest elpusztult épületei (Destroyed buildings of Budapest, in Hungarian) ** :hu:Magyarország elpusztult épületei (Destroyed buildings of Hungary, in Hungarian) *Numerous historical buildings in Budapest were damaged or destroyed during World War II, including the Hungarian Parliament Building, the Chain Bridge (Budapest), Chain Bridge, and the Sándor Palace, Budapest, Sándor Palace. These three have now been rebuilt.


*During the Battle of Dublin at the beginning of the Irish Civil War in 1922, munitions were stored at the Four Courts building, which housed 1,000 years of Irish records in the Public Record Office. Under circumstances that are disputed, the munitions exploded, destroying much of Ireland's historical record. *The Irish Republican Army followed a policy of deliberate destruction of Irish country houses (1919–1923).


*Many historic gardens and villas were destroyed in Rome in the 19th century, including Villa Ludovisi, Villa Negroni and Villa Astalli; *Tower of Paul III and Convent of Aracoeli, demolished to make room for the Victor Emmanuel Monument. *Various historic buildings were demolished in the 19th and 20th centuries to make way for railways, industrial areas, or other modern buildings. Examples include the Castello di Villagonia and the Real Cittadella in Sicily. *Many historic buildings in Italy were destroyed or damaged during World War II. These include the monastery of Monte Cassino, which was destroyed during the Battle of Monte Cassino but was rebuilt after the war. *Several historic buildings, books, paintings, and sculptures were destroyed during the 1966 flood of the Arno, Florence Flood of 1966. Also, Venice was affected during the 1966 Venice flood, flood of 1966. *Several churches and other heritage sites were damaged or destroyed during earthquakes such as the 1997 Umbria and Marche earthquake, the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake, and the August 2016 Central Italy earthquake.


During the Yugoslavia period there was destruction of Albanian heritage endorsed by the state. A number of Albanian cultural sites in Kosovo were destroyed during the Kosovo conflict (1998–1999) which constituted a war crime violating the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907, Hague and Geneva Conventions. In all 225 out of 600 mosques in Kosovo were damaged, vandalised, or destroyed alongside other Islamic architecture and Islamic libraries and archives with records spanning 500 years.. Additionally 500 Albanian owned ''Tower houses in the Balkans, kulla'' dwellings (traditional stone tower houses) and three out of four well preserved Ottoman period urban centres located in Kosovo cities were badly damaged resulting in great loss of traditional architecture. Kosovo's public libraries, in particular 65 out of 183 were completely destroyed with a loss of 900,588 volumes. During the war, Islamic architectural heritage posed for Yugoslav Serb paramilitary and military forces as Albanian patrimony with destruction of non-Serbian architectural heritage being a methodical and planned component of ethnic cleansing in Kosovo. During World War II, a number of Serbian Orthodox Church, Serbian Orthodox religious sites were damaged or destroyed. During the 1968 and 1981 protests in Kosovo, 1981 protests, Serbian Orthodox religious sites were the target of vandalism, that continued during the 1980s. Kosovo War, NATO bombing in March–June 1999 resulted in some accidental damages to churches and a mosque. Revenge attacks against Serbian religious sites commenced following the conflict and the return of hundreds of thousands of Kosovo Albanian refugees to their homes. Serbian cultural sites in Kosovo were systematically destroyed in the aftermath of the Kosovo War and 2004 unrest in Kosovo, 2004 ethnic violence. According to the International Center for Transitional Justice this includes 155 destroyed Serbian Orthodox Church, Serbian Orthodox churches and monasteries as well as Medieval Monuments in Kosovo, which were inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger.


*Parts of the megalithic Xagħra Stone Circle in Gozo were deliberately destroyed in around 1834–1835 and its megaliths were broken down to form masonry which was used in the construction of a nearby farmhouse. The site was subsequently forgotten for over a century before being rediscovered in the late 20th century. *A number of buildings of historical or architectural importance which had been included on the Antiquities List were destroyed by aerial bombardment during World War II, including Auberge d'Auvergne, Auberge de France and the Slaves' Prison in Valletta, the Birgu Clock Tower, Clock Tower, Auberge d'Allemagne, Birgu, Auberge d'Allemagne and Auberge d'Italie, Birgu, Auberge d'Italie in Birgu, and two out of three Kordin Temples, megalithic temples at Kordin. Others such as Fort Manoel also suffered severe damage, but were rebuilt after the war. *Other buildings which were not included on the Antiquities List but which had significant cultural importance were also destroyed during the war. The most notable of these was the Royal Opera House, Valletta, Royal Opera House in Valletta, which is considered as "one of the major architectural and cultural projects undertaken by the British" by the Superintendence of Cultural Heritage. *The Gourgion Tower in Xewkija, which was included on the Antiquities List, was demolished by American forces in 1943 to make way for an airfield. Many of its inscriptions and decorated stones were retrieved and they are now in storage at Heritage Malta. *Palazzo Fremaux, a building included on the Antiquities List and which was scheduled as a Grade 2 property, was gradually demolished between 1990 and 2003. The demolition was condemned by local residents, the local government and non-governmental organizations. *The Azure Window, a limestone natural arch on the island of Gozo in Malta. It was located in Dwejra Bay in the limits of San Lawrenz, close to the Inland Sea and the Fungus Rock. It was one of Malta's major tourist attractions. The arch, together with other natural features in the area of Dwejra, is featured in a number of international films and other media representations. The formation was anchored on the east end by the seaside cliff, arching over open water, to be anchored to a free standing pillar in the sea to the west of the cliff. It was created when two limestone sea caves collapsed. Following years of natural erosion causing parts of the arch to fall into the sea, the arch and free standing pillar collapsed completely during a storm in March 2017. *Villa St Ignatius, a 19th-century villa with historical and architectural significance, was partially demolished in late 2017. This was condemned by numerous non-governmental organizations and other entities.


*The German bombing of Rotterdam that took place on 14 May 1940, also known as the Rotterdam Blitz, decimated most of the historical city center of the Dutch city of Rotterdam, which at the time was the second-largest city in the country. During the bombing, hundreds of years worth of architecture and artwork were destroyed within hours. * Kareol, a huge Art Deco building in Aerdenhout. It was built in 1908-1911. It was the largest house being built by a private owner in The Netherlands in the 20th century. It was demolished in 1979. * Kolleg St. Ludwig, a friary in Vlodrop. It was demolished in 2015.


*From 1992 to 1995, members of the Early Norwegian black metal scene, Norwegian black metal scene began a wave of arson attacks on medieval Christian churches. By 1996, there had been at least 50 attacks.


*Warsaw Old Town, including the Royal Castle, Warsaw, Warsaw New Town, Łazienki Park including the Łazienki Palace, and Ujazdowski Castle, was Planned destruction of Warsaw, destroyed by Nazi Germany in 1944, and later rebuilt from the 1950s to 1980s.


*Lisbon was almost totally destroyed during the 1755 Lisbon earthquake and subsequent fire and tsunami. *A small section of the 19th-century quarter ''Chiado'' was destroyed by fire on 25 August 1988. The eighteen damaged buildings were rebuilt in the following 20 years.


*The 60-meter-high tower of List of fortified churches in Transylvania, Rotbav fortified church, dating back to the 13th century, collapsed on 20 February 2016. *Many historical buildings were demolished to construct the Centrul Civic in Bucharest. *Many old towns of different cities were destroyed partially or completely because of Urban planning in communist countries, communist urban planning. Old towns of cities like Bacău, Bârlad, Câmpina, Galați, Orșova, Pitești, Ploiești, Râmnicu Vâlcea, and Suceava were completely demolished. *The 1989 fire of the Central University Library, Bucharest, Central University Library in Bucharest destroyed over 500,000 books and 3,700 manuscripts, including manuscripts of famous Romanian writings, such as many of Mircea Eliade's novel manuscripts.


* Russian cultural heritage register#Post-Soviet Russia (1991–present), In Moscow alone losses of 1917–2006 are estimated at over 640 notable buildings (including 150 to 200 listed buildings, out of a total inventory of 3,500) – some disappeared completely, others were replaced with concrete replicas. * President of Russia, President Boris Yeltsin ordered the shelling of the White House (Moscow), White House, seat of the Russian government, during his 1993 Russian constitutional crisis#Storming of the White House, 1993 consolidation of power, causing a large fire and considerable damage to the top floors. * 'Mephistopheles', figure on a St Petersburg building on Lakhtinksaya Street known as the House with Mephistopheles, smashed by a fundamentalist Orthodox group in 2015. * The original buildings of Metrowagonmash plant, founded by Savva Mamontov in 1897 and built in Russian Gothic style, were demolished between 2016 and 2019 to make way for block houses.


*A number of culturally and historically important buildings were destroyed in Belgrade during Operation Retribution (1941), Operation Retribution, the Allied bombing of Yugoslavia in World War II, and various other battles. Destroyed buildings include the National Library of Serbia and the library's collection of 500,000 volumes and invaluable collection of medieval Cyrillic manuscripts and charters, King Alexander Bridge, Old Post Office (Belgrade), Old Post Office, Belgrade Synagogue#Jews in Belgrade, Sephard synagogue, and a number of other buildings. *The Yugoslav Ministry of Defence building, a cultural monument, was partially destroyed during the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia in 1999. NATO bombing also resulted in the damaging of medieval monuments, such as Gračanica Monastery, the Patriarchate of Peć (monastery), Patriarchate of Peć and the Visoki Dečani, which are on the UNESCO's World Heritage Site, World Heritage list today. Furthemore, 19 hospitals and 20 health centers were damaged, including the University Hospital Center Dr Dragiša Mišović, which was founded in 1922. The Avala Tower, one of the most iconic symbols of the Serbian capital, was destroyed during the bombing.


* Yugoslav Partisans, Partisan forces or their successors destroyed approximately 100 castles and manors during and after the Second World War. Examples include Ajman Castle, Ajman Manor, Drtija, Belnek Castle, Boštanj, Grosuplje#Castle, Boštanj Castle, Brdo pri Lukovici, Brdo Castle, Čušperk, Čušperk Castle, Dol pri Ljubljani, Dol Mansion, Dolena, Dolena Castle, Gracar Turn, Gracar Castle, Planina, Postojna, Haasberg Castle, Grič pri Klevevžu, Klevevž Castle, Kolovec, Kolovec Castle, Križ, Komenda, Križ Castle, Stranska Vas pri Semiču, Krupa Castle, Mokronog, Mokronog Castle, Pogonik, Pogonik Castle, Dolenje Radulje, Radelstein Castle, Soteska, Dolenjske Toplice, Soteska Castle, Špitalič, Kamnik, Špitalič Manor, Višnja Gora, Turn Castle, and Volčji Potok, Volčji Potok Manor. * An Allied raid heavily damaged Žužemberk, Žužemberk Castle during the Second World War. * Partisan forces or their successors destroyed many churches during and after the Second World War. Examples include the churches in Ajbelj, Gabrje, Dobrova–Polhov Gradec, Gabrje, Hinje, Žužemberk, Hinje, Koče, Kočevje, Koče, Kočevska Reka, Morava, Kočevje, Morava, Plešivica, Žužemberk, Plešivica, Srobotnik pri Velikih Laščah, Stari Log, Kočevje, Stari Log, Trava, Loški Potok, Trava, Velika Račna, Zafara, Žužemberk, Zafara, and Žužemberk. * A German raid during the Second World War destroyed the church in Dragatuš. * Allied raids destroyed churches during the Second World War. Examples include the church in Dvor, Žužemberk, Dvor and Sts. Peter and Paul Church in Ptuj.

Soviet Union

* During February–March 1944, the Soviet conducted the Deportation of the Chechens and Ingush, expulsion of the Chechens and Ingush from the North Caucasus as a part of the Forced settlements in the Soviet Union, Soviet forced settlement program of the non-Russian ethnic minorities. The operation resulted in the deportation of 496,000 Chechen people, Chechens and Ingush people, Ingush populations, and the death of around a quarter of them. It was also accompanied by the destruction of local cultural and societal heritages; names of these nations were erased from the books and records; placenames were replaced with Russian ones; mosques were demolished; villages were razed; and the historical Nakh language manuscripts were almost completely destroyed. * The native Crimean Tatars were Deportation of the Crimean Tatars, deported by the Soviets from the peninsula in May 1944. Afterward, the government engaged in a full-scale Detatarization of Crimea, detatarization campaign to continue the ethnic cleansing campaign, all the Tatar placenames being replaced with Russian ones, and the Muslim graveyards and religious objects were destroyed or converted into secular places. * Russian cultural heritage register#Denial of heritage (1917–1941), With the change in values imposed by communist ideology, the tradition of preservation was broken. Independent preservation societies, even those that defended only secular landmarks such as Moscow-based OIRU were disbanded by the end of the 1920s. A new anti-religious campaign, launched in 1929, coincided with collectivization of peasants; destruction of churches in the cities peaked around 1932. A number of churches were demolished, including the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow and St. Michael's Cathedral (Izhevsk), St. Michael's Cathedral in Izhevsk. Both of these were rebuilt in the 1990s and 2000s. * Russian cultural heritage register#Khrushchev's offensive (1959–1964), In 1959 Nikita Khrushchev launched his anti-religious campaign. By 1964 over 10 thousand churches out of 20 thousand were shut down (mostly in rural areas) and many were demolished. Of 58 monasteries and convents operating in 1959, only sixteen remained by 1964; of Moscow's fifty churches operating in 1959, thirty were closed and six demolished.


* Because of the Spanish confiscation, Ecclesiastical confiscations of Mendizábal, secularization of church properties in 1835–1836, several hundreds of church buildings, monasteries, etc., or civil buildings owned by the Church were partly or totally demolished. Many of the art works, libraries and archives contained were lost or pillaged in the time the buildings were abandoned and without owners. Among them were important buildings as Santa Caterina convent (the first gothic building in Iberian Peninsula) and Sant Francesc convent (gothic too, one of the richest in the country), both in Barcelona, or San Pedro de Arlanza Roman monastery, near Burgos, now ruined. * Several monuments demolished in Calatayud: the church of Convent of Dominicos of San Pedro Mártir (1856), Convent of Trinidad (1856), Church of Santiago (1863), Church of San Torcuato and Santa Lucía (1869) and Church of San Miguel (1871). * The leaning Leaning Tower of Zaragoza, Torre Nueva in Zaragoza was demolished in 1892 amidst fears that it would topple. * Churches, monasteries, Convents burning in Spain (1936), convents and libraries were destroyed during the Spanish Civil War. * A Virxe da Barca sanctuary, located in Muxia, was destroyed by lightning.


* Tre Kronor (castle), Tre Kronor, main residence of the List of Swedish monarchs, Swedish Kings, destroyed by fire in 1697. Several important documents of the history of Sweden were lost in the fire. * Klara (Stockholm), Klarakvarteren, a part of Stockholm from the 17th century. It was demolished in the 1960–70. * The city of Norrköping was razed in 1719 by Russians. It was reconstructed with grid pattern streets and using the surviving Johannesborg fort as a quarry.


* The city of Basel was devastated by the 1356 Basel earthquake. * Pfäfers Abbey was destroyed in 1665 by fire. * The city of Sion, Switzerland, Sion with Majoria and Tourbillon castles was destroyed by fire in 1788. * Disentis Abbey was destroyed by fire in 1799 with its library and archives. * The Kapellbrücke (Chapel Bridge) in Luzern (Lucerne) was substantially destroyed in 1993 by fire.


*Brotherhood Monastery, Kyiv: Demolished by Soviet authorities in 1935. *Church of the Tithes, Kyiv: The original 10th century church was destroyed by Mongol Empire, Mongol forces in the Siege of Kiev (1240). A new church was built on the site in the 19th century, but it too was destroyed by Soviet authorities in 1935. *Great Suburb Synagogue, Lviv: Demolished by invading Nazi forces in 1941. *Golden Rose Synagogue (Lviv), Golden Rose Synagogue, Lviv: Oldest synagogue in Ukraine, sacked in 1941 and demolished in 1942 by the Nazi occupation forces. *Khreshchatyk, Kyiv: The main street of Kyiv, containing many historic buildings. It was heavily mined by retreating Soviet forces in 1941, and as a result most buildings were destroyed. Some buildings were restored after the war, but most were replaced with new structures in the style of Stalinist architecture. *St. Michael's Golden-Domed Monastery, Kyiv: Demolished by Soviet authorities from 1934-1936. Some frescoes and mosaics were removed and taken to museums in the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Russian FSR prior to demolition, only a portion of which were returned when the Cathedral was rebuilt in the 1990s. *St. Nicholas Military Cathedral, Kyiv: Demolished by Soviet authorities in 1934

United Kingdom

*The Dissolution of the Monasteries in the 1530s led to many monasteries, relics, and books being destroyed, such as Glastonbury Abbey. *The Great Fire of London in 1666 destroyed much of the old city, including Old St Paul's Cathedral, 87 parish churches, 44 Company Halls, the Royal Exchange, London, Royal Exchange, the Custom House, City of London, Custom House, and the Bridewell Palace. *The Palace of Whitehall, the main residence of the English and later List of British monarchs, British monarchs, was destroyed by fire in 1698. *Arthur's O'on, a Roman temple or triumphal monument located near the Antonine Wall in Scotland, was demolished by a local landowner in 1743. *St Mary's Church, Reculver, St Mary's Church in Reculver, an exemplar of Anglo-Saxon architecture and sculpture, was partially demolished in 1809. *The Palace of Westminster was almost completely destroyed by Burning of Parliament, fire on 16 October 1834, and many documents about Britain's political history were lost. Only Westminster Hall and the Jewel Tower survived. *The Crystal Palace in London was destroyed by fire on 30 November 1936. *Coventry Cathedral, St Michael's Church in Coventry was a 14th-century cathedral that was nearly destroyed by the German Luftwaffe during the Coventry Blitz of 14 November 1940. Only the tower, spire, the outer wall, and the bronze effigy and tomb of its first bishop, Huyshe Yeatman-Biggs, survived. The ruins of this cathedral remain Consecration, hallowed ground and are listed building, listed at Grade I. *Charles Church, Plymouth, Charles Church in Plymouth was entirely burned out by incendiary bombs dropped by the Luftwaffe on the nights of 21 and 22 March 1941. However, it has since been encircled by a roundabout and turned into "a memorial to those citizens of Plymouth who were killed in air-raids on the city in the 1939–45 war." *Coleshill House, a historic mansion in Oxfordshire (historically Berkshire) was entirely destroyed in a fire in 1952, and many historic items within were lost. The ruins were demolished in 1958. *Several historic structures, such as the Euston Arch in London and the Royal Arch (structure), Royal Arch in Dundee, were demolished in the 1960s to make way for redeveloped infrastructure. * The Imperial Hotel, London, designed by Charles Fitzroy Doll and built from 1905 to 1911, was demolished in 1966–67. *York Minster was severely damaged by fire in 1984, believed to have been caused by a lightning strike on the south transept. *The Baltic Exchange at Baltic Exchange (building), 24-28 St Mary Axe in the City of London, was destroyed by a bomb placed there by the Provisional IRA in 1992. The site is now occupied by The Gherkin and the Baltic Exchange Memorial Glass can be seen in the National Maritime Museum. *A 1992 Windsor Castle fire, major fire in 1992 caused extensive damage to Windsor Castle, the largest inhabited castle in the world and one of the official residences of Queen Elizabeth II. *The Wembley Stadium (1923), original Wembley Stadium was closed in October 2000 for redevelopment, and demolition commenced in December 2002, completing in 2003. The top of one of the twin towers was erected as a memorial in the park on the north side of Overton Close in the Saint Raphael's Estate. *The Carlton Tavern, Kilburn, Carlton Tavern, an historic pub in Kilburn, London and the only building on its street to survive the Blitz during World War II, was demolished by its owner and without prior permission in April 2015. *Clandon Park House, a historic mansion in Surrey, was severely damaged by fire on 29 April 2015, leaving the house "essentially a shell" and destroying thousands of historic items, including one of the footballs kicked across no-man's land on the first day of the Battle of the Somme in 1916. *The Royal Clarence Hotel in Exeter, considered England's oldest hotel, was almost completely destroyed by fire on 28 October 2016. *The Mackintosh Building of the Glasgow School of Art was extensively damaged by fire in May 2014 including the destruction of the artistically significant Mackintosh library but as restoration was completed and nearing reopening a far more devastating fire broke out on the night of June 15, 2018, entirely destroying the building's interior. Alan Dunlop, the school's professor of architecture, said: "I can’t see any restoration possible for the building itself. It looks totally destroyed." *The Beehive Mills, in Bolton, Lancashire, a Grade II Listed buildings in Bolton, Bolton listed building built in 1895, was demolished by agreement of the local authority in 2019 for the building of 121 houses.

North America


* Several Maya civilization, Maya sites such as San Estevan (Maya site), San Estevan and Nohmul have been partly demolished.


* The 1620 Province of Avalon, Colony of Avalon was destroyed in 1696 in the Avalon Peninsula Campaign, Siege of Ferryland during King William's War. * In 1696, the Cathedral of St. John the Baptist (St. John's), Cathedral of St. John the Baptist in St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, Newfoundland, was destroyed by the French under the command of Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville. The present cathedral was extensively damaged in The Great Fire of 1892. * The 1754 St. Matthew's United Church (Halifax) was destroyed by fire in 1857 and rebuilt. * In January 1839, St. James Anglican Church in Toronto was destroyed by a fire and rebuilt as St. James Cathedral by December 1839. This building was destroyed by another Great Fire of Toronto (1849), fire in 1849 and replaced by the current structure, the Cathedral Church of St. James (Toronto), Cathedral Church of St. James, in 1853. * Brock's Monument was heavily damaged after a bombing on 17 April 1840 and subsequently demolished; the monument was rebuilt in 1859. * On the night of 25 April 1849, the Canadian Parliament buildings in Montreal were Burning of the Parliament Buildings in Montreal, set ablaze by United Empire Loyalist, Loyalist rioters. The resulting fire consumed the Parliament's two libraries, parts of the archives of Upper Canada and Lower Canada, as well as more recent public documents. Over 23,000 volumes, forming the collections of the two parliamentary libraries, were lost. * Christ Church Cathedral (Montreal) was rebuilt in 1859, replacing the previous structure destroyed in a fire in 1856. * The 1665 Fort William, Newfoundland, Fort William in St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, Newfoundland, was demolished in 1881 to make room for the Newfoundland Railway. * The 1881 St. James Anglican Church (Vancouver) was destroyed by a fire in 1886 and only rebuilt after 1935 (completed in 1937). * Knox Presbyterian Church (Toronto) was severely damaged by fire in 1895 and eventually relocated in 1909. * Crystal Palace (Montreal) was destroyed by fire in 1896. * Centre Block#Great Fire, Centre Block of Parliament Hill in Ottawa was destroyed by fire on 3 February 1916, and immediately rebuilt. * The Church of Nativité-de-la-Sainte-Vierge-d'Hochelaga was rebuilt in 1921 after fire destroyed the original 1877 church. * Montreal City Hall from 1872–1878 was gutted by fire in 1922 and rebuilt by 1932. * Church of the Ascension (Windsor, Ontario) was destroyed by fire in 1926 (rebuilt in 1927) and again in 1990 (repaired in same year). * Metropolitan United Church was destroyed by fire in 1928 and rebuilt in 1929 to match the original 1874 building. * Saint Boniface Cathedral in Winnipeg, built in 1830, was destroyed by fire in 1860, rebuilt in 1862, relocated in 1906, and destroyed by fire again in 1968. The current cathedral was rebuilt in 1972. * Saint-Jacques Cathedral (Montreal) was destroyed by three fires in 1852, 1858, and 1933. The last rebuilt church was mostly demolished after 1973 with only the entrance preserved as Pavillon Judith-Jasmin for the Université du Québec à Montréal. * St. Jude's Cathedral (Iqaluit) was destroyed by arson in 2005, along with Inuit art and artifacts. * The Quebec City Armoury, built 1885–1888, was mostly destroyed by a fire in 2008 and rebuilt by 2016.


*The Maya codices were destroyed by Spanish priest Diego de Landa. *Iglesia del Carmen, a colonial church in Antigua, Guatemala, Antigua, Guatemala, was damaged by several earthquakes. * Tikal Temple 33 was destroyed in the 1960s by archaeologists to uncover earlier phases of construction of the pyramid.


* Much of Haiti's heritage was damaged or destroyed in the 2010 Haiti earthquake, devastating earthquake in 2010, including the National Palace (Haiti), National Palace and the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Assumption, Port-au-Prince, Port-au-Prince Cathedral.


*Castillo Bogran in Honduras, an abandoned 19th-century historical building, has deteriorated extensively due to heavy rains, hurricanes, and wind. Only 30% of the structure survives today. *Tenampua, a ceremonial center of the Lenca culture from the classic Mesoamerican period, was heavily damaged during the second Honduran Civil War in 1924. *Gilded plate altars of the Immaculate Conception Cathedral, Comayagua, Immaculate conception cathedral of Comayagua, the cathedral originally possessed 16 altarpieces, the remaining 12 were allegedly robbed and destroyed.

United States

*Pennsylvania Station (1910–1963), Pennsylvania Station was a Beaux-Arts style "architectural jewel" of New York City. Controversially, the above-ground portions of the station were demolished in 1963, making way for the construction of the Madison Square Garden arena. The controversy energized a historic preservation movement in New York City and the United States. *On 11 September 2001, Islamist terrorists affiliated with al-Qaeda destroyed both towers of the World Trade Center (1973–2001), World Trade Center complex in New York City during the September 11 attacks, 11 September attacks. *The 2008 Universal Studios fire destroyed 40,000 to 50,000 films and video recordings and over 100,000 master audio recordings. *Since the start of the 1960s, the National Historic Landmark (NHL) program and the 1966 start of the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP), numerous landmarks designated in those programs have been destroyed. In some cases, the destruction was mitigated by documentation of the artifact or reproduction. **Losses by flood and wind damage include: ***The Old Blenheim Bridge, built-in 1855 and the longest-surviving covered bridge in the United States, was destroyed by Hurricane Irene-related flooding in 2011. ***Numerous NRHP-listed coastal properties in Mississippi and Louisiana were destroyed or significantly damaged by Hurricane Katrina in 2005. **Losses by fire, arson, or otherwise include: ***The Russian-built Fort Ross, California, Fort Ross Chapel, pre-1841, was destroyed in 1970 and subsequently reproduced. *** The National Personnel Records Center fire of 1973 destroyed about 80% of the military personnel records held at the National Personnel Records Center in St. Louis, MO. ***The Provo Tabernacle (NRHP) was destroyed in a fire on 17 December 2010. It was subsequently rebuilt as the Provo City Center Temple, dedicated in 2016. ***On 30 May 2020, multiple historical documents and artifacts were either damaged or destroyed when the Memorial to the Women of the Confederacy was attacked by rioters in Richmond, Virginia. **Losses by permitted processes include: ***The Edwin H. Armstrong House in Yonkers, New York, was demolished in 1983. ***Soldier Field stadium in Chicago, Illinois, built in 1924, was altered during a 2002 renovation. ***The Army Medical Museum and Library in Washington, D.C., built in 1887, was demolished in 1969. ***Leesylvania (plantation) was demolished in 1960 to make way for a road. ***NASA wind tunnels including the Eight-Foot High Speed Tunnel (1936–2011) and Full Scale 30-by 60-Foot Tunnel (1936–2010). **Ships broken up include: ***Wapama (steam schooner), ''Wapama'' (steam schooner) (1915–2013), scrapped, though documented by Historic American Engineering Record (HAER) throughout its dismantling. ***President (1924 steamboat), ''President'' (steamboat) (1924–2009), disassembled. *Other losses of covered bridges, landmarked or not, include: **Dooley Station Covered Bridge (1917–1960), arson; replaced by move of 1856-built Portland Mills Covered Bridge. **Bridgeton Covered Bridge (1868–2005), arson, replaced by a replica. **Jeffries Ford Covered Bridge (1915–2002), arson. **Welle Hess Covered Bridge No. S1 (1871–1981), collapsed, partially reproduced off-site. **Whites Bridge (1869–2013), arson. **Babb's Bridge (1864–1973), arson, replaced by a replica. **Honey Run Covered Bridge (1886–2018), destroyed during the 2018 Camp Fire (2018), Camp Fire * In 2014, a 4,500-year-old Coast Miwok Indian burial ground and village was found near Larkspur, California, Larkspur, California, and destroyed to make way for a multimillion-dollar housing development. * Grand Coulee Dam, constructed between 1933 and 1942 on the Columbia River, disturbed burial grounds and destroyed ancient villages on of the Colville Indian Reservation, home to a dozen tribes at the time. **NRHD Jobbers Canyon Historic District, in 1989, all 24 buildings were demolished for development, representing the largest National Register historic district loss to date.

South America


*Several buildings in Buenos Aires were demolished over years, including , , , , Teatro Odeón, Odeón Theater, Teatro Coliseo, Coliseo Theater and various palaces in Avenida Alvear. *As response to the Bombing of Plaza de Mayo in 1955 several churches in Buenos Aires were burned and looted, including Santo Domingo convent, St. Ignatius Church (Buenos Aires), St. Ignatius Church, , and . *Old buildings in the city of San Juan, Argentina, San Juan were destroyed by an 1944 San Juan earthquake, earthquake in 1944, including the Cathedral and the Government House. *The 1773 over the Reconquista River was renewed in 1964 and declared a List of National Historic Monuments of Argentina, National Historic Monument of Argentina. In 1997, the Company demolished it. *On 18 October 1977, a fire burned the Teatro Argentino de La Plata, Teatro Argentino to the ground in La Plata. The building was later rebuilt, but in a different style.


* On 8 July 1978, the Museum of Modern Art, Rio de Janeiro, Museum of Modern Art of Rio de Janeiro was destroyed by fire. * On 17 May 2010, the natural history collection of the Instituto Butantan was destroyed by fire. * On 2 September 2018, the National Museum of Brazil was National Museum of Brazil fire, destroyed by fire.


*In 1969, an original Flag of the Treinta y Tres from the Cisplatine War was stolen from the history museum. The national symbol was taken on 16 July 1969 by a revolutionary group called OPR-33. The historical flag was last seen in 1975 in Buenos Aires but has been considered missing since the day of its theft. This is still a matter of political debate.



*The Garden Palace in Sydney, Australia, Sydney was destroyed by fire on 22 September 1882. *The original Her Majesty's Theatre, Sydney, Her Majesty's Theatre in Sydney was demolished in June 1933 to make way for a Woolworths Limited, Woolworths retail store. *The Jubilee Exhibition Building in Adelaide was demolished in 1962. It hosted the Adelaide Jubilee International Exhibition, Adelaide Jubilee International Exhibition of 1887. *The Bellevue Hotel, Brisbane, Bellevue Hotel in Brisbane was demolished on 20 April 1979 by the Bjelke-Petersen Queensland State government amid mass protest. *The Cloudland, Cloudland Dance Hall in Brisbane was demolished in 1982 to make way for an apartment complex. *The Regent Theatre (Sydney), Regent Theatre in Sydney was demolished in 1988. *Tasmanian Aboriginal cave paintings, believed to be 800–8,000 years old, were vandalised in 2016. *Juukan Gorge cave, a site of Australian Aboriginal culture, Aboriginal cultural significance in the Pilbara region of Western Australia. Estimated age of human artefacts: 46,000 years. Destroyed by Rio Tinto (corporation), Rio Tinto mining interests, 15 May 2020, despite objections of the Puutu Kunti Kurrama and Pinikura peoples, whose ancestors' DNA cave paintings and over 7000 artefacts were discovered in the caves. * Burrup Gorge, a site of Australian Aboriginal culture, Aboriginal cultural significance in the Burrup Peninsula, Western Australia, the world's biggest rock art gallery.

New Zealand

* The Cathedral of the Blessed Sacrament, Christchurch, Cathedral of the Blessed Sacrament in Christchurch was demolished in 2021 by order of Bishop Paul Martin following damage in the 2010 and 2011 2011 Christchurch earthquake, Canterbury Earthquakes. The cathedral was listed as a category 1 heritage building. Previous Bishop Barry Jones had approved
plan to restore the building
but these plans were thrown out following his death in 2016. After extensive destruction of significant heritage buildings in the quakes and the loss of many community hubs within Christchurch the decision to demolish not only the Cathedral but also many other catholic churches (damaged and undamaged) was regarded by many in the city as an act of cultural vandalism.

See also

* Art destruction * Book burning and list of book-burning incidents * List of destroyed libraries * List of World Heritage in Danger * Lost work, lost artworks and list of lost films * Slighting * Virtual heritage * World Monuments Fund




* Gaya Nuño, Juan Antonio. ''La arquitectura española en sus monumentos desaparecidos''. Madrid, Espasa-Calpe, 1961. * * *

Further reading

* * * * * Arun Shourie, Shourie, Arun, S.R. Goel, Harsh Narain, J. Dubashi and Ram Swarup. Hindu Temples - What Happened to Them Vol. I, (A Preliminary Survey) (1990)

External links

* (dedicated to the study, research, and documentation of the destruction and damage of historic heritage during the Balkan Wars of the 1990s. The website contains judicial documents from the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY)). * http://www.cracked.com/article_20149_6-mind-blowing-archeological-discoveries-destroyed-by-idiocy_p2.html {{DEFAULTSORT:Destroyed Heritage, List Of Lists of demolished buildings and structures, * Architecture lists Cultural heritage Cultural lists