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This page is a list of the countries of the world by gross domestic product (at purchasing power parity) per capita, i.e., the purchasing power parity (PPP) value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given year, divided by the average (or mid-year) population for the same year. As of 2019, the estimated average GDP per capita (PPP) of all of the countries of the world is Int$18,381. For rankings regarding wealth, see list of countries by wealth per adult.


Method


The gross domestic product (GDP) per capita figures on this page are derived from PPP calculations. Such calculations are prepared by various organizations, including the IMF and the World Bank. As estimates and assumptions have to be made, the results produced by different organizations for the same country are not hard facts and tend to differ, sometimes substantially, so they should be used with caution. Comparisons of national wealth are frequently made on the basis of ''nominal'' GDP and savings (not just income), which do not reflect differences in the cost of living in different countries (''see List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita''); hence, using a PPP basis is arguably more useful when comparing differences in living standards between nations because PPP takes into account the relative cost of living and the inflation rates of the countries, rather than using only exchange rates, which may distort the real differences in income. This is why GDP (PPP) per capita is often considered one of the indicators of a country's standard of living,"Alternative progress indicators to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) as a means towards sustainable development"
/ref> although this can be problematic because GDP per capita is not a measure of personal income. (''See Standard of living and GDP''.)


Lists of countries and dependencies


All figures are in current international dollars, and rounded up or down to the nearest whole number. Several economies that are not considered to be sovereign states (such as various dependent territories) are included because they appear in the sources. These non-sovereign entities, former countries and other special groupings are in ''italics''. They are listed in dollar order, but are not given a numerical rank.

Distorted GDP-per-capita for tax havens

There are many natural economic reasons for GDP-per-capita to vary between jurisdictions (e.g. places rich in Oil & Gas reserves tend to have high GDP-per-capita figures). However, it is increasingly being recognized that tax havens, or corporate tax havens, have distorted economic data which produces artificially high, or inflated, GDP-per-capita figures. It is estimated that over 15% of global jurisdictions are tax havens (see tax haven lists). The paper implicitly adopts the "smaller" tax haven approach, i.e., disregarding larger countries which have either low taxes rates (for example, Russia), or systems of taxation which permit them to be used to structure tax avoidance schemes (for example, the United Kingdom). It also excludes non-sovereign tax havens (for example, Delaware or Labuan). An IMF investigation estimates that circa 40% of global FDI flows, which heavily influence the GDP of various jurisdictions, are described as "phantom" transactions. In 2017, Ireland's economic data became so distorted by U.S. multinational tax avoidance strategies (see leprechaun economics), also known as BEPS actions, that Ireland effectively abandoned GDP (and GNP) statistics as credible measures of its economy, and created a replacement statistic called modified gross national income (or GNI*). Ireland is one of the world's largest corporate tax havens. A list of the top 15 GDP-per-capita countries from 2016 to 2017, contains most of the major global tax havens (see GDP-per-capita tax haven proxy for more detail):

See also

*List of countries by GDP (nominal) *List of countries by past and projected GDP (PPP) per capita *List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita *List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita growth rate *List of IMF ranked countries by GDP *Quality of life *Big Mac Index *Government spending *Corporate tax havens

Notes



References

{{DEFAULTSORT:Gdp (Ppp) Per Capita GDP (PPP) per capita *GDP (PPP) per capita