List of cities by scientific output


The following article lists the
cities A city is a large human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexity of a settlement can range from a small number of dwellings grouped to ...

metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated core city, urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories under the same administrative division, sharing industry, infrastructure and housing. A metro area u ...

metropolitan area
s with the greatest scientific output, according to the
Nature IndexThe Nature Index is a database, that tracks institutions and countries and their scientific output since its introduction in 2016. Each year, Nature Index ranks the leading institutions (which can be companies, universities, government agencies, rese ...
. The Nature Index attempts to objectively measure the scientific output of institutions, cities and countries by the amount of
scientific article : ''For a broader class of literature, see Academic publishing.'' Scientific literature comprises scholarly publications that report original Empirical evidence, empirical and theoretical work in the natural science, natural and social sciences ...
s and
papers Paper is a thin, flat material produced by the compression of fibres. Paper(s) or The Paper may also refer to: Publishing and academia * Newspaper, a periodical publication * Paper (magazine), ''Paper'' (magazine), an American monthly fashion and ...
published in leading journals. Differences in quality are taken into account. Only Articles published in 82 selected quality journals are counted. These journals were selected by an independent committee. If authors from several institutions from different cities are involved in a scientific article, it is divided accordingly, assuming that all researchers were equally involved in the article. In 2019,
Beijing Beijing ( ; ; ), Chinese postal romanization, alternatively romanized as Peking ( ), is the Capital city, capital of the People's Republic of China. It is the world's List of national capitals by population, most populous national capital ci ...

was the city in the world with the largest scientific output, accounting for 2.8% of the world's total. New York City was second in the world, with about 2% of the world’s total. Overall, the United States has the most cities in the top 100 list, followed by China.


The top 100 cities and metropolitan areas with the highest share of articles published in scientific journals in 2020 according to the Nature Index 2021 Science Cities.

Leading cities in different fields

The 10 cities and metropolitan areas with the highest share of articles published in the fields of
Life Sciences This list of life sciences comprises the branches of science The branches of science, also referred to as science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, build ...
, Earth & environmental sciences,
Chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the Chemical element, elements that make up matter to the chemical compound, compounds composed of atoms, molecules and i ...

Physical Sciences Physical science is a branch of natural science that studies abiotic component, non-living systems, in contrast to life science. It in turn has many branches, each referred to as a "physical science", together called the "physical sciences". ...


{{reflist Lists of cities Science-related lists