List of ancient Germanic peoples and tribes
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This list of ancient
Germanic people The Germanic peoples were historical groups of people that once occupied Central Europe and Scandinavia during antiquity and into the early Middle Ages. Since the 19th century, they have traditionally been defined by the use of ancient and ear ...
s is an inventory of ancient Germanic cultures, tribal groupings and other alliances of Germanic tribes and civilisations in ancient times. The information comes from various ancient historical documents, beginning in the 2nd century BC and extending into late antiquity. By the
Early Middle Ages The Early Middle Ages (or early medieval period), sometimes controversially referred to as the Dark Ages (historiography), Dark Ages, is typically regarded by historians as lasting from the late 5th or early 6th century to the 10th century. They ...
, early forms of kingship began to have a historical impact across Europe, with the exception of
Northern Europe The northern region of Europe has several definitions. A restrictive definition may describe Northern Europe as being roughly north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea, which is about 54th parallel north, 54°N, or may be based on other g ...
, where the
Vendel Period In Swedish prehistory, the Vendel Period ( sv, Vendeltiden; 540–790 AD) appears between the Migration Period and the Viking Age. The name is taken from the rich boat inhumation cemetery at Vendel parish church, Uppland. This is a period with ...
from AD 550 to 800 and the subsequent
Viking Age The Viking Age () was the period during the Middle Ages when Norsemen known as Vikings undertook large-scale raiding, colonizing, conquest, and trading throughout Europe and reached North America. It followed the Migration Period and the Germ ...
until AD 1050 are still seen in the Germanic context. The associations and locations of the numerous peoples and groups in ancient sources are often subject to heavy uncertainty and speculation, and classifications of ethnicity regarding a common culture or a temporary alliance of heterogeneous groups are disputed. Sometimes, it is uncertain that the groups are Germanic in the broader linguistic sense or, in other words, they consisted of speakers of a
Germanic language The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European languages, Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania and Southern Africa. The most widely spoken ...
. In that respect, the names listed here are not terms for ethnic groups in any modern sense but the names of groups that were perceived in ancient and late antiquity as Germanic. It is essentially an inventory of peoples, groups, alliances and associations stretching from the
Barbaricum Barbaricum (from the gr, Βαρβαρικόν, "foreign", "barbarian") is a geographical name used by historical and archaeological experts to refer to the vast area of barbarian A barbarian (or savage) is someone who is perceived to be eit ...
region east of the
Rhine The Rhine ; french: Rhin ; nl, Rijn ; wa, Rén ; li, Rien; rm, label=Sursilvan, Rein, rm, label=Sutsilvan and Surmiran, Ragn, rm, label=Rumantsch Grischun, Vallader and Puter, Rain; it, Reno ; gsw, Rhi(n), including in Alsatian dialect, Al ...
to the north of the
Danube The Danube ( ; ) is a river that was once a long-standing frontier of the Roman Empire and today connects 10 European countries, running through their territories or being a border. Originating in Germany, the Danube flows southeast for , pa ...
(also known as
Germania Germania ( ; ), also called Magna Germania (English: ''Great Germania''), Germania Libera (English: ''Free Germania''), or Germanic Barbaricum to distinguish it from the Roman province of the same name, was a large historical region in nort ...
), especially those that arrived during the
Migration Period The Migration Period was a period in History of Europe, European history marked by large-scale migrations that saw the fall of the Western Roman Empire and subsequent settlement of its former territories by various tribes, and the establishment ...
.


In alphabetical order

The present list is largely based on the list of Germanic tribal names and its spelling variants contained in the first register of the '' Reallexikons der Germanischen Altertumskunde''. The first column contains the English name and its variants, if one is common, otherwise the traditional ancient name. The second column contains ancient names of Latin and Greek authors, the latter both in transcription and in Greek. The third column gives a brief description followed by a location. The fifth column gives important sources of tradition for the group in question. The few ancient main sources for names and location of Germanic tribes are not linked. These are: *
Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; ; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), was a Roman people, Roman general and statesman. A member of the First Triumvirate, Caesar led the Roman armies in the Gallic Wars before defeating his political rival Pompey in Caes ...
: ''
Commentarii de Bello Gallico ''Commentarii de Bello Gallico'' (; en, Commentaries on the Gallic War, italic=yes), also ''Bellum Gallicum'' ( en, Gallic War, italic=yes), is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. In it Ca ...
'' *
Jordanes Jordanes (), also written as Jordanis or Jornandes, was a 6th-century Eastern Roman bureaucrat widely believed to be of Goths, Gothic descent who became a historian later in life. Late in life he wrote two works, one on Roman history (''Romana ...
: ''De origine actibusque Getarum'', short ''
Getica ''De origine actibusque Getarum'' (''The Origin and Deeds of the Getae oths'), commonly abbreviated ''Getica'', written in Late Latin Late Latin ( la, Latinitas serior) is the scholarly name for the form of Literary Latin of late antiquity. ...
'' *
Ptolemy Claudius Ptolemy (; grc-gre, wikt:Πτολεμαῖος, Πτολεμαῖος, ; la, Claudius Ptolemaeus; AD) was a mathematician, astronomer, astrologer, geographer, and music theorist, who wrote about a dozen scientific Treatise, treatis ...
: ''
Geography Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia''. Combination of Greek words ‘Geo’ (The Earth) and ‘Graphien’ (to describe), literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, i ...
'' *
Tacitus Publius Cornelius Tacitus, known simply as Tacitus ( , ; – ), was a Roman historian and politician. Tacitus is widely regarded as one of the greatest Roman historiography, Roman historians by modern scholars. The surviving portions of his t ...
: ''
Germania Germania ( ; ), also called Magna Germania (English: ''Great Germania''), Germania Libera (English: ''Free Germania''), or Germanic Barbaricum to distinguish it from the Roman province of the same name, was a large historical region in nort ...
''


Ancestors

*
Proto-Indo-Europeans The Proto-Indo-Europeans are a hypothetical prehistory, prehistoric population of Eurasia who spoke Proto-Indo-European language, Proto-Indo-European (PIE), the ancestor of the Indo-European languages according to linguistic reconstruction. ...
(
Proto-Indo-European Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the reconstructed common ancestor of the Indo-European language family. Its proposed features have been derived by linguistic reconstruction from documented Indo-European languages. No direct record of Proto-Indo-E ...
speakers) ** Proto-Germanics (
Proto-Germanic Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; also called Common Germanic) is the linguistic reconstruction, reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic languages, Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages. Proto-Germanic eventually developed from ...
speakers)


Possible ethnolinguistic kinship


East Germanic peoples The Germanic peoples were historical groups of people that once occupied Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between Western Europe and Eastern Europe, based on a common History, historical, Society, social and cultural iden ...
( Vandilians)

* Avarpi *
Burgundians The Burgundians ( la, Burgundes, Burgundiōnes, Burgundī; on, Burgundar; ang, Burgendas; grc-gre, Βούργουνδοι) were an early Germanic peoples, Germanic tribe or group of tribes. They appeared in the middle Rhine region, near the R ...
/
Burgundiones The Burgundians ( la, Burgundes, Burgundiōnes, Burgundī; on, Burgundar; ang, Burgendas; grc-gre, Βούργουνδοι) were an early Germanic tribe or group of tribes. They appeared in the middle Rhine Between Bingen am Rhein, Bing ...
/ Burgundes / Burgodiones ( Frugundiones? may have been a variant of
Burgundiones The Burgundians ( la, Burgundes, Burgundiōnes, Burgundī; on, Burgundar; ang, Burgendas; grc-gre, Βούργουνδοι) were an early Germanic tribe or group of tribes. They appeared in the middle Rhine Between Bingen am Rhein, Bing ...
with the "B" as an "F" Furgundiones > Frugundiones) ( Urugundes? may have been a variant of Burgundes without the initial "B" (B)urugundes > Urugundes, i.e. the
Burgundians The Burgundians ( la, Burgundes, Burgundiōnes, Burgundī; on, Burgundar; ang, Burgendas; grc-gre, Βούργουνδοι) were an early Germanic peoples, Germanic tribe or group of tribes. They appeared in the middle Rhine region, near the R ...
) (at the time of the
Migration Period The Migration Period was a period in History of Europe, European history marked by large-scale migrations that saw the fall of the Western Roman Empire and subsequent settlement of its former territories by various tribes, and the establishment ...
and
Decline of the Roman Empire The fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called the fall of the Roman Empire or the fall of Ancient Rome, Rome) was the loss of central political control in the Western Roman Empire, a process in which the Empire failed to enforce its rul ...
, they founded the
Burgundian Kingdom The Kingdom of the Burgundians or First Kingdom of Burgundy was established by Germanic Burgundians The Burgundians ( la, Burgundes, Burgundiōnes, Burgundī; on, Burgundar; ang, Burgendas; grc-gre, Βούργουνδοι) were an early Ger ...
) (
Burgundians The Burgundians ( la, Burgundes, Burgundiōnes, Burgundī; on, Burgundar; ang, Burgendas; grc-gre, Βούργουνδοι) were an early Germanic peoples, Germanic tribe or group of tribes. They appeared in the middle Rhine region, near the R ...
or part of them may have dwelt in
Bornholm Bornholm () is a Danish island in the Baltic Sea, to the east of the rest of Denmark ) , song = ( en, "King Christian stood by the lofty mast") , song_type = National and royal anthem , image_map = EU-Denmark.svg , map_caption = , ...
island for a time - old name of the island was ''Borgundarholm'') (they were assimilated by the
Gallo-Roman Gallo-Roman culture was a consequence of the Romanization of Gauls under the rule of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Romanum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the p ...
majority, however their
ethnonym An ethnonym () is a name applied to a given ethnic group. Ethnonyms can be divided into two categories: exonyms (whose name of the ethnic group has been created by another group of people) and autonyms, or endonyms (whose name is created and used ...
was the origin for the name of the region
Burgundy Burgundy (; french: link=no, Bourgogne ) is a historical territory and former Regions of France, administrative region and province of east-central France. The province was once home to the Duke of Burgundy, Dukes of Burgundy from the early 11 ...
- '' Bourgogne''): Nibelungs (
Old German Old High German (OHG; german: Althochdeutsch (Ahd.)) is the earliest stage of the German language, conventionally covering the period from around 750 to 1050. There is no standardised or supra-regional form of German at this period, and Old High ...
) / Niflung (
Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian, is a stage of development of North Germanic languages, North Germanic dialects before their final divergence into separate Nordic languages. Old Norse was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and t ...
), clan that was the Burgundian royal house known as Gibichungs (
Old German Old High German (OHG; german: Althochdeutsch (Ahd.)) is the earliest stage of the German language, conventionally covering the period from around 750 to 1050. There is no standardised or supra-regional form of German at this period, and Old High ...
) or Gjúkings (
Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian, is a stage of development of North Germanic languages, North Germanic dialects before their final divergence into separate Nordic languages. Old Norse was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and t ...
) *
Goths The Goths ( got, 𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌸𐌹𐌿𐌳𐌰, translit=''Gutþiuda''; la, Gothi, grc-gre, Γότθοι, Gótthoi) were a Germanic people who played a major role in the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the emergence of medieval Europe. ...
/
Gothones The Gutones (also spelled Guthones, Gotones etc) were a Germanic people The Germanic peoples were historical groups of people that once occupied Central Europe and Scandinavia during antiquity and into the early Middle Ages. Since the 19th ce ...
/
Gutones The Gutones (also spelled Guthones, Gotones etc) were a Germanic people who were reported by Roman era writers in the 1st and 2nd centuries to have lived in what is now Poland. The most accurate description of their location, by the geographer Ptol ...
/ Gautae /
Geats The Geats ( ; ang, gēatas ; non, gautar ; sv, götar ), sometimes called ''Geats#Goths, Goths'', were a large North Germanic peoples, North Germanic tribe who inhabited ("land of the Geats") in modern southern Sweden from antiquity until the ...
**
Gepids The Gepids, ( la, Gepidae, Gipedae, grc, Γήπαιδες) were an East Germanic tribes, East Germanic tribe who lived in the area of modern Romania, Hungary and Serbia, roughly between the Tisza, Sava and Carpathian Mountains. They were said t ...
**
Goths The Goths ( got, 𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌸𐌹𐌿𐌳𐌰, translit=''Gutþiuda''; la, Gothi, grc-gre, Γότθοι, Gótthoi) were a Germanic people who played a major role in the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the emergence of medieval Europe. ...
/ Hreidgoths *** Gothi Minores ***
Greuthungi The Greuthungi (also spelled Greutungi) were a Gothic people who lived on the Pontic steppe between the Dniester and Don rivers in what is now Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in Eastern Europe. It is the ...
(direct ancestors or an older name of the
Ostrogoths The Ostrogoths ( la, Ostrogothi, Austrogothi) were a Roman-era Germanic peoples, Germanic people. In the 5th century, they followed the Visigoths in creating one of the two great Goths, Gothic kingdoms within the Roman Empire, based upon the larg ...
) ****
Ostrogoths The Ostrogoths ( la, Ostrogothi, Austrogothi) were a Roman-era Germanic peoples, Germanic people. In the 5th century, they followed the Visigoths in creating one of the two great Goths, Gothic kingdoms within the Roman Empire, based upon the larg ...
/ Hreiðgoths (at the time of the
Migration Period The Migration Period was a period in History of Europe, European history marked by large-scale migrations that saw the fall of the Western Roman Empire and subsequent settlement of its former territories by various tribes, and the establishment ...
and
Decline of the Roman Empire The fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called the fall of the Roman Empire or the fall of Ancient Rome, Rome) was the loss of central political control in the Western Roman Empire, a process in which the Empire failed to enforce its rul ...
, they founded the
Ostrogothic Kingdom The Ostrogothic Kingdom, officially the Kingdom of Italy (), existed under the control of the Germanic Ostrogoths in Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic, ) or the Republic of Italy, is a country in Southern Europe ...
in
Pannonia Pannonia (, ) was a Roman province, province of the Roman Empire bounded on the north and east by the Danube, coterminous westward with Noricum and upper Roman Italy, Italy, and southward with Dalmatia (Roman province), Dalmatia and upper Moesia ...
, northern
Illyria In classical antiquity, Illyria (; grc, Ἰλλυρία, ''Illyría'' or , ''Illyrís''; la, Illyria, ''Illyricum'') was a region in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula inhabited by numerous tribes of people collectively known as the Illyr ...
and
Italia Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic, ) or the Republic of Italy, is a country in Southern Europe. It is located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, and its territory largely coincides with the Italy (geographical region) ...
) (they were assimilated by the Italo-Roman majority) *****
Crimean Goths The Crimean Goths were Greuthungi- Gothic tribes who remained in the lands around the Black Sea, especially in Crimea. They were the longest-lasting of the Gothic communities. Their existence is well attested through the ages, though the exact ...
(existed as a people until 16th and 17th centuries in southern Crimea Peninsula or
Taurida The recorded history of the Crimean Peninsula, historically known as ''Tauris'', ''Taurica'' ( gr, Ταυρική or Ταυρικά), and the ''Tauric Chersonese'' ( gr, Χερσόνησος Ταυρική, "Tauric Peninsula"), begins around the ...
Peninsula) (they were later assimilated by
Crimea Germans The Crimea Germans (german: Krimdeutsche) were ethnic German , native_name_lang = de , region1 = , pop1 = 72,650,269 , region2 = , pop2 = 534,000 , region3 = , pop3 = 15 ...
,
Black Sea Germans The Black Sea Germans (german: Schwarzmeerdeutsche; russian: черноморские немцы; uk, чорноморські німці) are ethnic Germans , native_name_lang = de , region1 = , pop1 = 72,65 ...
, Crimean Greeks and
Crimean Tatars Crimean Tatars ( crh, Къырымтатарлар, translit=Qırımtatarlar) or Crimeans ( crh, Къырымлар/Къырымлылар, translit=Qırımlar/Qırımlılar) are a Turkic peoples, Turkic ethnic group and nation who are an indige ...
) ***
Thervingi The Thervingi, Tervingi, or Teruingi (sometimes pluralised Tervings or Thervings) were a Goths, Gothic people of the plains north of the Lower Danube and west of the Dniester River in the 3rd and the 4th centuries. They had close contacts with ...
(direct ancestors or an older name of the
Visigoths The Visigoths (; la, Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi) were an early Germanic people who, along with the Ostrogoths, constituted the two major political entities of the Goths within the Roman Empire in late antiquity, or what is kno ...
) ****
Visigoths The Visigoths (; la, Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi) were an early Germanic people who, along with the Ostrogoths, constituted the two major political entities of the Goths within the Roman Empire in late antiquity, or what is kno ...
(at the time of the
Migration Period The Migration Period was a period in History of Europe, European history marked by large-scale migrations that saw the fall of the Western Roman Empire and subsequent settlement of its former territories by various tribes, and the establishment ...
and
Decline of the Roman Empire The fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called the fall of the Roman Empire or the fall of Ancient Rome, Rome) was the loss of central political control in the Western Roman Empire, a process in which the Empire failed to enforce its rul ...
, they founded the
Visigothic Kingdom The Visigothic Kingdom, officially the Kingdom of the Goths ( la, Regnum Gothorum), was a kingdom that occupied what is now southwestern France and the Iberian Peninsula from the 5th to the 8th centuries. One of the Germanic peoples, Germanic su ...
in Southern
Gaul Gaul ( la, Gallia) was a region of Western Europe first described by the Romans. It was inhabited by Celts, Celtic and Aquitani tribes, encompassing present-day France, Belgium, Luxembourg, most of Switzerland, parts of Northern Italy (only dur ...
and
Hispania Hispania ( la, Hispānia , ; nearly identically pronounced in Spanish language, Spanish, Portuguese language, Portuguese, Catalan language, Catalan, and Italian language, Italian) was the Ancient Rome, Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula and it ...
) (they were assimilated by the Hispano-Roman majority) *
Herules The Heruli (or Herules) were an early Germanic people. Possibly originating in Scandinavia, the Heruli are first mentioned by Roman authors as one of several " Scythian" groups raiding Roman provinces in the Balkans The Balkans ( ), ...
, East Germanic (East Germanic
Herules The Heruli (or Herules) were an early Germanic people. Possibly originating in Scandinavia, the Heruli are first mentioned by Roman authors as one of several " Scythian" groups raiding Roman provinces in the Balkans The Balkans ( ), ...
) **East
Herules The Heruli (or Herules) were an early Germanic people. Possibly originating in Scandinavia, the Heruli are first mentioned by Roman authors as one of several " Scythian" groups raiding Roman provinces in the Balkans The Balkans ( ), ...
**West
Herules The Heruli (or Herules) were an early Germanic people. Possibly originating in Scandinavia, the Heruli are first mentioned by Roman authors as one of several " Scythian" groups raiding Roman provinces in the Balkans The Balkans ( ), ...
*
Lemovii The Lemovii were a Germanic peoples, Germanic tribe, only once named by Tacitus in the late 1st century. He noted that they lived near the Rugii and Goths and that they had short swords and round shields.The Works of Tacitus: The Oxford Translati ...
(=
Turcilingi The Turcilingi (also spelled Torcilingi or Thorcilingi) were an obscure barbarian A barbarian (or savage) is someone who is perceived to be either uncivilized or primitive. The designation is usually applied as a generalization based on a pop ...
?) (also probably identical with
Widsith "Widsith" ( ang, Wīdsīþ, "far-traveller", lit. "wide-journey"), also known as "The Traveller's Song", is an Old English poem of 143 lines. It survives only in the '' Exeter Book'', a manuscript of Old English poetry compiled in the late-10th ...
's Glommas, Glomma or Glomman was the singular form) * Lugians ( Longiones?) (=
Vandals The Vandals were a Germanic peoples, Germanic people who first inhabited what is now southern Poland. They established Vandal Kingdom, Vandal kingdoms on the Iberian Peninsula, Mediterranean islands, and North Africa in the fifth century. The ...
?) ** Buri ( Lugi Buri) (part of the Buri accompanied the
Suebi The Suebi (or Suebians, also spelled Suevi, Suavi) were a large group of Germanic peoples originally from the Elbe river region in what is now Germany and the Czech Republic. In the early Roman era they included many peoples with their own names ...
in their invasion of
Hispania Hispania ( la, Hispānia , ; nearly identically pronounced in Spanish language, Spanish, Portuguese language, Portuguese, Catalan language, Catalan, and Italian language, Italian) was the Ancient Rome, Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula and it ...
, the
Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula (), ** * Aragonese language, Aragonese and Occitan language, Occitan: ''Peninsula Iberica'' ** ** * french: Péninsule Ibérique * mwl, Península Eibérica * eu, Iberiar penintsula also known as Iberia, is a pe ...
, and established themselves in a mountainous area of modern
northern Portugal The North Region ( pt, Região do Norte ) or Northern Portugal is the most populous region in Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a Sovereign state, country whose mainland is loc ...
in the 5th century. They settled in the region between the rivers Cávado and Homem, in the area known as
Terras de Bouro Terras de Bouro () is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unit,Article 3(1). country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, constituent state, ...
(Lands of the Buri) - ''Bouros'' = '' Buri'' - '' Buros'' in the masculine
accusative The accusative case ( abbreviated ) of a noun A noun () is a word that generally functions as the name of a specific object or set of objects, such as living creatures, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.Example nouns for ...
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally a dialect spoken in the lower Tiber area (then known as Latium) around present-day Rome, but through ...
declension In linguistics, declension (verb: ''to decline'') is the changing of the form of a word, generally to express its syntactic function in the sentence, by way of some inflection. Declensions may apply to nouns, pronouns, adjectives, adverbs, and ar ...
) ** Diduni ( Lugi Diduni) / Dunii / Duni (Δοῦνοι - Doūnoi was the Greek variant of the Latin name) ** Harii ** Helisii / Elysii / Helusii / Hellusii ** Manimi /
Omani Oman ( ; ar, عُمَان ' ), officially the Sultanate of Oman ( ar, سلْطنةُ عُمان ), is an Arabian country located in southwestern Asia. It is situated on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Penins ...
? / Omanii? ( Lugi Omani?) (the
Omani Oman ( ; ar, عُمَان ' ), officially the Sultanate of Oman ( ar, سلْطنةُ عُمان ), is an Arabian country located in southwestern Asia. It is situated on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Penins ...
may have been the same as the Manimi) ** Marsigni **
Vandals The Vandals were a Germanic peoples, Germanic people who first inhabited what is now southern Poland. They established Vandal Kingdom, Vandal kingdoms on the Iberian Peninsula, Mediterranean islands, and North Africa in the fifth century. The ...
/ Vandilii (at the time of the
Migration Period The Migration Period was a period in History of Europe, European history marked by large-scale migrations that saw the fall of the Western Roman Empire and subsequent settlement of its former territories by various tribes, and the establishment ...
and
Decline of the Roman Empire The fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called the fall of the Roman Empire or the fall of Ancient Rome, Rome) was the loss of central political control in the Western Roman Empire, a process in which the Empire failed to enforce its rul ...
, they migrated towards West allied with a
Sarmatian The Sarmatians (; grc, Σαρμαται, Sarmatai; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally a dialect spoken in the lower Tiber ar ...
Iranian Iranian may refer to: * Iran, a sovereign state * Iranian peoples, the speakers of the Iranian languages. The term Iranic peoples is also used for this term to distinguish the pan ethnic term from Iranian, used for the people of Iran * Iranian lan ...
people, the
Alans The Alans (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally a dialect spoken in the lower Tiber area (then known as Latium) around prese ...
, and founded the Vandalic Kingdom first in the Southern and Western regions of
Hispania Hispania ( la, Hispānia , ; nearly identically pronounced in Spanish language, Spanish, Portuguese language, Portuguese, Catalan language, Catalan, and Italian language, Italian) was the Ancient Rome, Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula and it ...
,
Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula (), ** * Aragonese language, Aragonese and Occitan language, Occitan: ''Peninsula Iberica'' ** ** * french: Péninsule Ibérique * mwl, Península Eibérica * eu, Iberiar penintsula also known as Iberia, is a pe ...
, the
Hasdingi The Hasdingi were one of the Vandals, Vandal peoples of the Roman era. The Vandals were Germanic peoples, who are believed to have spoken an East Germanic languages, East Germanic language, and were first reported during the first centuries of the R ...
Vandals, settled in
Gallaecia Gallaecia, also known as Hispania Gallaecia, was the name of a Roman province in the north-west of Hispania, approximately present-day Galicia (Spain), Galicia, Norte, Portugal, northern Portugal, Asturias and León (province), Leon and the lat ...
, the
Silingi The Silings or Silingi ( la, Silingae; grc, Σιλίγγαι – ) were a Germanic peoples, Germanic tribe, part of the larger Vandals, Vandal group. The Silingi at one point lived in Silesia, and the names ''Silesia'' and ''Silingi'' may be rela ...
vandals settled in
Baetica Hispania Baetica, often abbreviated Baetica, was one of three Roman provinces in Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula). Baetica was bordered to the west by Lusitania, and to the northeast by Hispania Tarraconensis. Baetica remained one of the basic di ...
, roughly today's
Andalusia Andalusia (, ; es, Andalucía ) is the southernmost Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community in Peninsular Spain. It is the most populous and the second-largest autonomous community in the country. It is officially recognised as a ...
; sometime after many left
Hispania Hispania ( la, Hispānia , ; nearly identically pronounced in Spanish language, Spanish, Portuguese language, Portuguese, Catalan language, Catalan, and Italian language, Italian) was the Ancient Rome, Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula and it ...
, and migrated to
North Africa North Africa, or Northern Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. There is no singularly accepted scope for the region, and it is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic shores of Mauritania in t ...
) (they were assimilated by the Hispano-Roman majority in
Hispania Hispania ( la, Hispānia , ; nearly identically pronounced in Spanish language, Spanish, Portuguese language, Portuguese, Catalan language, Catalan, and Italian language, Italian) was the Ancient Rome, Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula and it ...
, however their
ethnonym An ethnonym () is a name applied to a given ethnic group. Ethnonyms can be divided into two categories: exonyms (whose name of the ethnic group has been created by another group of people) and autonyms, or endonyms (whose name is created and used ...
was the origin for the name of the region
Andalusia Andalusia (, ; es, Andalucía ) is the southernmost Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community in Peninsular Spain. It is the most populous and the second-largest autonomous community in the country. It is officially recognised as a ...
- (V)andalusia and for the
Arabic Arabic (, ' ; , ' or ) is a Semitic languages, Semitic language spoken primarily across the Arab world.Semitic languages: an international handbook / edited by Stefan Weninger; in collaboration with Geoffrey Khan, Michael P. Streck, Janet C ...
name of
Hispania Hispania ( la, Hispānia , ; nearly identically pronounced in Spanish language, Spanish, Portuguese language, Portuguese, Catalan language, Catalan, and Italian language, Italian) was the Ancient Rome, Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula and it ...
and the
Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula (), ** * Aragonese language, Aragonese and Occitan language, Occitan: ''Peninsula Iberica'' ** ** * french: Péninsule Ibérique * mwl, Península Eibérica * eu, Iberiar penintsula also known as Iberia, is a pe ...
-
Al-Andalus Al-Andalus translit. ; an, al-Andalus; ast, al-Ándalus; eu, al-Andalus; ber, ⴰⵏⴷⴰⵍⵓⵙ, label=Berber, translit=Andalus; ca, al-Àndalus; gl, al-Andalus; oc, Al Andalús; pt, al-Ândalus; es, al-Ándalus () was the Mus ...
) (they were assimilated by the Berber majority and African-Romans in
North Africa North Africa, or Northern Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. There is no singularly accepted scope for the region, and it is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic shores of Mauritania in t ...
, including the
Moors The term Moor, derived from the ancient Mauri, is an Endonym and exonym, exonym first used by Christianity in Europe, Christian Europeans to designate the Muslims, Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily and Malta duri ...
, in the narrow sense, the descendants of the
Mauri Mauri (from which derives the English term "Moors") was the Latin designation for the Berbers, Berber population of Mauretania, located in the part of North Africa west of Numidia, in present-day northern Morocco and northwestern Algeria. Name ...
) *** Asdingi / Astingi /
Hasdingi The Hasdingi were one of the Vandals, Vandal peoples of the Roman era. The Vandals were Germanic peoples, who are believed to have spoken an East Germanic languages, East Germanic language, and were first reported during the first centuries of the R ...
( Haddingjar?) *** Helvecones / Helveconae / Aelvaeones / Elouaiones (possibly the Ilwan and Eolas of
Widsith "Widsith" ( ang, Wīdsīþ, "far-traveller", lit. "wide-journey"), also known as "The Traveller's Song", is an Old English poem of 143 lines. It survives only in the '' Exeter Book'', a manuscript of Old English poetry compiled in the late-10th ...
; ''Eolas'' was the nominative plural and ''Eolum'' the dative plural) *** Lacringes / Lacringi ***
Nahanarvali The Nahanarvali, also known as the Nahavali, Naha-Narvali, and Nahanavali, were a Germanic tribe This list of ancient Germanic peoples is an inventory of ancient Germanic cultures, tribal groupings and other alliances of Germanic tribes and civili ...
***
Silingi The Silings or Silingi ( la, Silingae; grc, Σιλίγγαι – ) were a Germanic peoples, Germanic tribe, part of the larger Vandals, Vandal group. The Silingi at one point lived in Silesia, and the names ''Silesia'' and ''Silingi'' may be rela ...
(same as the
Nahanarvali The Nahanarvali, also known as the Nahavali, Naha-Narvali, and Nahanavali, were a Germanic tribe This list of ancient Germanic peoples is an inventory of ancient Germanic cultures, tribal groupings and other alliances of Germanic tribes and civili ...
?) (at one point they lived in
Silesia Silesia (, also , ) is a historical region of Central Europe that lies mostly within Poland, with small parts in the Czech Silesia, Czech Republic and Germany. Its area is approximately , and the population is estimated at around 8,000,000. S ...
, and the name of this region could be derived from their
ethnonym An ethnonym () is a name applied to a given ethnic group. Ethnonyms can be divided into two categories: exonyms (whose name of the ethnic group has been created by another group of people) and autonyms, or endonyms (whose name is created and used ...
as well as, although indirectly,
Andalusia Andalusia (, ; es, Andalucía ) is the southernmost Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community in Peninsular Spain. It is the most populous and the second-largest autonomous community in the country. It is officially recognised as a ...
- (V)andal-usia, where
Silingi The Silings or Silingi ( la, Silingae; grc, Σιλίγγαι – ) were a Germanic peoples, Germanic tribe, part of the larger Vandals, Vandal group. The Silingi at one point lived in Silesia, and the names ''Silesia'' and ''Silingi'' may be rela ...
Vandals initially settled in
Hispania Hispania ( la, Hispānia , ; nearly identically pronounced in Spanish language, Spanish, Portuguese language, Portuguese, Catalan language, Catalan, and Italian language, Italian) was the Ancient Rome, Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula and it ...
) *** Victohali / Victuali / Victabali * Rugi /
Rugii The Rugii, Rogi or Rugians ( grc, Ρογοί, Rogoi), were a Roman-era Germanic peoples, Germanic people. They were first clearly recorded by Tacitus, in his ''Germania (book), Germania'' who called them the ''Rugii'', and located them near the ...
/ / Ulmerugi / Variant
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally a dialect spoken in the lower Tiber area (then known as Latium) around present-day Rome, but through ...
name for the Rugians: Rugiclei? /
Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece, a country in Southern Europe: *Greeks, an ethnic group. *Greek language, a branch of the Indo-European language family. **Proto-Greek language, the assumed last common ancestor ...
names and variants for the Rugians: Rougíklioi / Routiklioi *
Sciri The Sciri, or Scirians, were a Germanic people. They are believed to have spoken an East Germanic language. Their name probably means "the pure ones". The Sciri were mentioned already in the late 3rd century BC as participants in a raid on th ...
** Angisciri * Sulones (may have been the same as the
Silingi The Silings or Silingi ( la, Silingae; grc, Σιλίγγαι – ) were a Germanic peoples, Germanic tribe, part of the larger Vandals, Vandal group. The Silingi at one point lived in Silesia, and the names ''Silesia'' and ''Silingi'' may be rela ...
) *
Turcilingi The Turcilingi (also spelled Torcilingi or Thorcilingi) were an obscure barbarian A barbarian (or savage) is someone who is perceived to be either uncivilized or primitive. The designation is usually applied as a generalization based on a pop ...
/ Torcolingi (may have been ancestors of part of the
Thuringians The Thuringii, Toringi or Teuriochaimai, were an early Germanic people that appeared during the late Migration Period The Migration Period was a period in History of Europe, European history marked by large-scale migrations that saw the fa ...
) * Vidivarii * Visburgi / Visburgii


North Germanic peoples North Germanic peoples, commonly called Scandinavians, Nordic peoples and in a medieval context Norsemen, were a Germanic peoples, Germanic linguistic group originating from the Scandinavian Peninsula. They are identified by their cultural simila ...
(
Norsemen The Norsemen (or Norse people) were a North Germanic peoples, North Germanic ethnolinguistic group of the Early Middle Ages, during which they spoke the Old Norse language. The language belongs to the North Germanic languages, North Germanic br ...
)

*East North Germanic (East Scandinavians) **
Ahelmil Scandza was described as a "great island" by Gothic-Byzantine historian Jordanes Jordanes (), also written as Jordanis or Jornandes, was a 6th-century Eastern Roman bureaucrat widely believed to be of Goths, Gothic descent who became a histo ...
**
Aviones The Aviones or Auiones (*''Awioniz'' meaning "island people") were one of the Nerthus-worshipping Germanic peoples, Germanic tribes of the 1st century mentioned by Tacitus in ''Germania (book), Germania'', and they lived either in the southern Jutla ...
/ Chaibones / Eowan (more probably they lived in
Öland Öland (, ; ; sometimes written ''Øland'' in other Scandinavian languages, and often ''Oland'' internationally; la, Oelandia) is the second-largest Swedish island and the smallest of the traditional provinces of Sweden The provinces ...
island, southeastern
Sweden Sweden, formally the Kingdom of Sweden,The United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names states that the country's formal name is the Kingdom of SwedenUNGEGN World Geographical Names, Sweden./ref> is a Nordic countries, Nordic c ...
, and not in
Jutland Jutland ( da, Jylland ; german: Jütland ; ang, Ēota land ), known anciently as the Cimbric or Cimbrian Peninsula ( la, Cimbricus Chersonesus; da, den Kimbriske Halvø, links=no or ; german: Kimbrische Halbinsel, links=no), is a peninsula of ...
Peninsula) ** Bergio ** Brondingas / Brondingar ( Brondings) (East North Germanic tribe that lived in the island of Brännö, west of
Gothenburg Gothenburg (; abbreviated Gbg; sv, Göteborg ) is the List of urban areas in Sweden by population, second-largest city in Sweden, fifth-largest in the Nordic countries, and Capital city, capital of the Västra Götaland County. It is situated ...
in the Kattegatt) **
Danes Danes ( da, danskere, ) are a North Germanic peoples, North Germanic ethnic group and nationality native to Denmark and a modern nation identified with the country of Denmark. This connection may be ancestral, legal, historical, or cultural. D ...
(Germanic tribe): Scyldingas ( Skjöldungar) clan ** Dauciones ** Eunixi ** Evagreotingis / Evagres ** Favonae ** Fervir (in Fyæræ) ** Finnaithae (old name for Finnveden, the name derives from an old Germanic word for hunters - ''finn'', they were not necessarily Finnic or
Saami The Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers' Institute (SAAMI, pronounced "Sammy") is an association of United States, American Manufacturing, manufacturers of firearms, ammunition, and components. SAAMI is an accredited Standards organizatio ...
) (they lived in Finnveden, Western Småland) ** Firaesi / Phiraisoi ** Gevlegas / Gevlegar ( Gefflegas / Gevlegs) (East North Germanic tribe that dwelt in today's Gävleborg County) **
Goths The Goths ( got, 𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌸𐌹𐌿𐌳𐌰, translit=''Gutþiuda''; la, Gothi, grc-gre, Γότθοι, Gótthoi) were a Germanic people who played a major role in the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the emergence of medieval Europe. ...
, Scandinavian ( Scandinavian Goths) ***
Geats The Geats ( ; ang, gēatas ; non, gautar ; sv, götar ), sometimes called ''Geats#Goths, Goths'', were a large North Germanic peoples, North Germanic tribe who inhabited ("land of the Geats") in modern southern Sweden from antiquity until the ...
/ Gautigoths, Scandinavian ( Scandinavian Gautigoths) / Gautae *** Ostrogothae, Scandinavian (Scandinavian Ostrogoths): '' Wulfings'' / '' Ylfings'' clan ***
Gutes The Gutes (old west norse ''Gotar'', old gutnish ''Gutar'') were a North Germanic tribe inhabiting the island of Gotland. The ethnonym is related to that of the '' Goths'' (''Gutans''), and both names were originally Proto-Germanic Pro ...
/ Gotlanders / Vagoths /
Valagoths The Frankish Table of Nations (german: fränkische Völkertafel) is a brief early medieval genealogical text in Latin giving the supposed relationship between thirteen nations descended from three brothers. The nations are the Ostrogoths, Visigot ...
**
Hallin Scandza was described as a "great island" by Gothic-Byzantine historian Jordanes Jordanes (), also written as Jordanis or Jornandes, was a 6th-century Eastern Roman bureaucrat widely believed to be of Goths, Gothic descent who became a histo ...
/
Hilleviones The Hilleviones were a Germanic people The Germanic peoples were historical groups of people that once occupied Central Europe and Scandinavia during antiquity and into the early Middle Ages. Since the 19th century, they have traditionally ...
? (possibly they lived in
Halland Halland () is one of the traditional provinces of Sweden (''landskap''), on the western coast of Götaland, southern Sweden Sweden, formally the Kingdom of Sweden,The United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names states th ...
and were the same as the tribe called
Hallin Scandza was described as a "great island" by Gothic-Byzantine historian Jordanes Jordanes (), also written as Jordanis or Jornandes, was a 6th-century Eastern Roman bureaucrat widely believed to be of Goths, Gothic descent who became a histo ...
by
Jordanes Jordanes (), also written as Jordanis or Jornandes, was a 6th-century Eastern Roman bureaucrat widely believed to be of Goths, Gothic descent who became a historian later in life. Late in life he wrote two works, one on Roman history (''Romana ...
) ** Hälsingas / Hälsingar ( Hälsings) (East North Germanic tribe that lived in Hälsingland) **
Herules The Heruli (or Herules) were an early Germanic people. Possibly originating in Scandinavia, the Heruli are first mentioned by Roman authors as one of several " Scythian" groups raiding Roman provinces in the Balkans The Balkans ( ), ...
, Scandinavian (Scandinavian
Herules The Heruli (or Herules) were an early Germanic people. Possibly originating in Scandinavia, the Heruli are first mentioned by Roman authors as one of several " Scythian" groups raiding Roman provinces in the Balkans The Balkans ( ), ...
/ Erules) ** Hocings (tribe or clan of Hnæf, son of ''Hoc Healfdene'' - Hoc, the Half Dane, mentioned by
Widsith "Widsith" ( ang, Wīdsīþ, "far-traveller", lit. "wide-journey"), also known as "The Traveller's Song", is an Old English poem of 143 lines. It survives only in the '' Exeter Book'', a manuscript of Old English poetry compiled in the late-10th ...
, may have been the same chieftain known as
Haki Haki, Hake (Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian, is a stage of development of North Germanic languages, North Germanic dialects before their final divergence into separate Nordic languages. Old Norse was spoken by inhabitan ...
by the
Norsemen The Norsemen (or Norse people) were a North Germanic peoples, North Germanic ethnolinguistic group of the Early Middle Ages, during which they spoke the Old Norse language. The language belongs to the North Germanic languages, North Germanic br ...
, mentioned in the
Ynglinga Saga ''Ynglinga saga'' ( ) is a Kings' sagas, Kings' saga, originally written in Old Norse by the Icelanders, Icelandic poet and historian Snorri Sturluson about 1225. It is the first section of his ''Heimskringla''. It was first translated into Engl ...
) ** Levoni / Levonii ** Liothida **Mixi ** Njars ** Otingis **
Sitones The Sitones were a Germanic people living somewhere in Northern Europe in the first century Common Era, CE. They are mentioned only by Cornelius Tacitus in 97 CE in Germania (book), Germania. Tacitus considered them similar to Suiones (ancestors of ...
** Suðrmenn (in Södermanland) **
Suiones The Swedes ( sv, svear; Old Norse: ''svíar'') (probably from the PIE reflexive pronoun, reflexive pronominal root *wikt:Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/swé, s(w)e, "one's own ribesmen/kinsmen;Bandle, Oskar. 2002. The Nordic languages: a ...
/ Sviones / Suehans / Suetidi / Suetides (ancient
Swedes Swedes ( sv, svenskar) are a North Germanic peoples, North Germanic ethnic group native to the Nordic region, primarily their nation state of Sweden, who share a common ancestry, culture, history and language. They mostly inhabit Sweden and th ...
) ( Svíar): Wægmunding clan; Ynglings / Scylfings clan ( Scylfingas / ''Skilfingar'') *** Västermännen (in Västmanland) ( Svionic tribe that lived to the west of
Uppland Uppland () is a historical Provinces of Sweden, province or ' on the eastern coast of Sweden, just north of Stockholm, the capital. It borders Södermanland, Västmanland and Gästrikland. It is also bounded by lake Mälaren and the Baltic sea, ...
) (not to be confused with the
Vestmenn {{unreferenced, date=August 2016 Vestmenn (''Westmen'' in English) was the Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian, is a stage of development of North Germanic languages, North Germanic dialects before their final divergence int ...
-
Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian, is a stage of development of North Germanic languages, North Germanic dialects before their final divergence into separate Nordic languages. Old Norse was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and t ...
word for the
Gaels The Gaels ( ; ga, Na Gaeil ; gd, Na Gàidheil ; gv, Ny Gaeil ) are an ethnolinguistic group native to Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man in the British Isles. They are associated with the Goidelic languages, Gaelic languages: a branch o ...
of
Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic Ocean, in Northwestern Europe, north-western Europe. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel (Grea ...
and
Britain Britain most often refers to: * The United Kingdom, a sovereign state in Europe comprising the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland and many smaller islands * Great Britain, the largest island in the United King ...
) ** Virdar (in Småland) ** Theustes ** Vinili / Winnili / Vinoviloth (Scandinavian
Lombards The Lombards () or Langobards ( la, Langobardi) were a Germanic peoples, Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774. The medieval Lombard historian Paul the Deacon wrote in the ''History of the Lombards'' (written ...
or Longobards or
Langobards The Lombards () or Langobards ( la, Langobardi) were a Germanic peoples, Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774. The medieval Lombard historian Paul the Deacon wrote in the ''History of the Lombards'' (written ...
): Hundingas / Hundings clan? **
Normans The Normans (Norman language, Norman: ''Normaunds''; french: Normands; la, Nortmanni/Normanni) were a population arising in the medieval Duchy of Normandy from the intermingling between Norsemen, Norse Viking settlers and indigenous West Fran ...
- they were formed by the merger and assimilation of a
North Germanic The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European languages, Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 millio ...
minority (that mainly came from
Denmark ) , song = ( en, "King Christian stood by the lofty mast") , song_type = National and royal anthem , image_map = EU-Denmark.svg , map_caption = , subdivision_type = Sovereign state , subdivision_name = Danish Realm, Kingdom of Denmark ...
- East North Germanics, but also
Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic countries, Nordic country in Northern Europe, the mainland territory of which comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The remote Arctic island of ...
, and
Iceland Iceland ( is, Ísland; ) is a Nordic countries, Nordic island country in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic Ocean and in the Arctic Ocean. Iceland is the most list of countries and dependencies by population density, sparsely populated coun ...
- West North Germanics) and Frankish (
West Germanic The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches of the Germanic languages, Germanic family of languages (the others being the North Germanic languages, North Germanic and the extinct East Germanic languages, East Germanic ...
) minority with a
Gallo-Roman Gallo-Roman culture was a consequence of the Romanization of Gauls under the rule of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Romanum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the p ...
majority,
ethnogenesis Ethnogenesis (; ) is "the formation and development of an ethnic group". This can originate by group self-identification or by outside identification. The term ''ethnogenesis'' was originally a mid-19th century neologism that was later introdu ...
of the native people inhabiting
Normandy Normandy (; french: link=no, Normandie ; nrf, Normaundie, Nouormandie ; from Old French , plural of ''Normant'', originally from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavian languages) is a geographical and cultural region in Northwestern ...
, in
France France (), officially the French Republic ( ), is a country primarily located in Western Europe. It also comprises of Overseas France, overseas regions and territories in the Americas and the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic, Pacific Ocean, Pac ...
*West North Germanic (West Scandinavians) ** Adogit / Halogit / Háleygir (they lived in Hålogaland) (northernmost Germanic tribe) ** Aprochi ** Arothi (" Arochi") ** Augandii / Augandzi ( Egðir) / Augandxii (in
Agder Agder is a county (''fylke'') and traditional region in the southern part of Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic countries, Nordic country in Northern Europe, the mainland territory of which comprises the ...
, southern
Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic countries, Nordic country in Northern Europe, the mainland territory of which comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The remote Arctic island of ...
) ** Chaedini / Chaedenoi (possibly in Hedemark /
Hedmark Hedmark () was a Counties of Norway, county in Norway before 1 January 2020, bordering Trøndelag to the north, Oppland to the west, Akershus to the south, and Sweden to the east. The county administration is in Hamar. Hedmark and Oppland coun ...
) ** Doelir (possibly a tribe that lived inland, in the valleys of
Dalen, Telemark Dalen is the administrative centre of Tokke municipality, Norway. Its population (Statistics Norway, SSB 2005) is 801. Dalen is located on and around the river delta, delta where the river Tokke (river), Tokke flows into the west end of the lake B ...
,
Tokke Tokke is a Municipalities of Norway, municipality in Telemark in the Counties of Norway, county of Vestfold og Telemark in Norway. It is part of the Districts of Norway, traditional region of Vest-Telemark. The administrative centre of the muni ...
,
Telemark Telemark is a traditional region, a former Counties of Norway, county, and a current electoral district in southern Norway. In 2020, Telemark merged with the former county of Vestfold to form the county of Vestfold og Telemark. Telemark bord ...
, many of the counties were based on older tribal lands or territories) ** Filir / Fjalir ** Firdir (tribe that lived in today's
Sogn og Fjordane Sogn og Fjordane (; English: "Sogn and Fjordane") was, up to 1 January 2020, a Counties of Norway, county in western Norway, when it was merged to become part of Vestland county. Bordering previous counties Møre og Romsdal, Oppland, Buskerud, an ...
county, ''Firdafylke'' was one of two historic counties, many of the counties were based on older tribal lands or territories) ** Granni / Grenir ** Haðar ** Háleygir ** Heinir / Heiðnir (Chaideinoi / Haednas) (in
Hedmark Hedmark () was a Counties of Norway, county in Norway before 1 January 2020, bordering Trøndelag to the north, Oppland to the west, Akershus to the south, and Sweden to the east. The county administration is in Hamar. Hedmark and Oppland coun ...
,
Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic countries, Nordic country in Northern Europe, the mainland territory of which comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The remote Arctic island of ...
) ** Horðar (in
Hordaland Hordaland () was a county in Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic countries, Nordic country in Northern Europe, the mainland territory of which comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavi ...
, known before as ''Hordafylke'', many of the counties were based on older tribal lands or territories) (not originating from the
Charudes The Charudes or Harudes were a Germanic peoples, Germanic group first mentioned by Julius Caesar as one of the tribes who had followed Ariovistus across the Rhine. While Tacitus' Germania (book), ''Germania'' makes no mention of them, Ptolemy's Geo ...
/ Harudes in
Jutland Jutland ( da, Jylland ; german: Jütland ; ang, Ēota land ), known anciently as the Cimbric or Cimbrian Peninsula ( la, Cimbricus Chersonesus; da, den Kimbriske Halvø, links=no or ; german: Kimbrische Halbinsel, links=no), is a peninsula of ...
) ** Hringar (name means "rings", from ''hring'' - "ring") ** Lidingar / Lidingas ** Jamtr / Jamtar ** Ragnaricii / Aeragnaricii ** Rani / Ranii / Renir ** Raumarici / Raumariciae / Raumar ( Heatho-Reams of
Widsith "Widsith" ( ang, Wīdsīþ, "far-traveller", lit. "wide-journey"), also known as "The Traveller's Song", is an Old English poem of 143 lines. It survives only in the '' Exeter Book'', a manuscript of Old English poetry compiled in the late-10th ...
) (they lived in today's Romerike) ** Rugi, Scandinavian ( Scandinavian Rugi) / Rygir ( Holmrygir of
Widsith "Widsith" ( ang, Wīdsīþ, "far-traveller", lit. "wide-journey"), also known as "The Traveller's Song", is an Old English poem of 143 lines. It survives only in the '' Exeter Book'', a manuscript of Old English poetry compiled in the late-10th ...
) ** Taetel ** Throwenas / Throwenar ( Throwens of
Widsith "Widsith" ( ang, Wīdsīþ, "far-traveller", lit. "wide-journey"), also known as "The Traveller's Song", is an Old English poem of 143 lines. It survives only in the '' Exeter Book'', a manuscript of Old English poetry compiled in the late-10th ...
) (West North Germanic tribe that possibly dwelt in
Trøndelag Trøndelag (; sma, Trööndelage) is a Counties of Norway, county in the central part of Norway. It was created in 1687, then named Trondhjem County ( no, Trondhjems Amt); in 1804 the county was split into Nord-Trøndelag and Sør-Trøndelag by ...
) ** Wrosnas (mentioned by
Widsith "Widsith" ( ang, Wīdsīþ, "far-traveller", lit. "wide-journey"), also known as "The Traveller's Song", is an Old English poem of 143 lines. It survives only in the '' Exeter Book'', a manuscript of Old English poetry compiled in the late-10th ...
as a tribe ruled by Holen, possibly from Holen) ** Old Faroese / Old Faroe Islanders (formed by the merger of several West North Germanic tribes with the addition of Celtic
Gaels The Gaels ( ; ga, Na Gaeil ; gd, Na Gàidheil ; gv, Ny Gaeil ) are an ethnolinguistic group native to Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man in the British Isles. They are associated with the Goidelic languages, Gaelic languages: a branch o ...
that settled in the
Faroe islands The Faroe Islands ( ), or simply the Faroes ( fo, Føroyar ; da, Færøerne ), are a North Atlantic archipelago, island group and an autonomous territory of the Danish Realm, Kingdom of Denmark. They are located north-northwest of Scotlan ...
) ** Old Icelanders (formed by the merger of several West North Germanic tribes with the addition of Celtic
Gaels The Gaels ( ; ga, Na Gaeil ; gd, Na Gàidheil ; gv, Ny Gaeil ) are an ethnolinguistic group native to Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man in the British Isles. They are associated with the Goidelic languages, Gaelic languages: a branch o ...
that settled in
Iceland Iceland ( is, Ísland; ) is a Nordic countries, Nordic island country in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic Ocean and in the Arctic Ocean. Iceland is the most list of countries and dependencies by population density, sparsely populated coun ...
) (they were organized in clans in the
Icelandic Commonwealth The Icelandic Commonwealth, also known as the Icelandic Free State, was the political unit existing in Iceland between the establishment of the Althing in 930 and the pledge of fealty to the Norwegian language, Norwegian king with the Old Coven ...
- Icelandic clans: Ásbirningar; Haukdælir; Oddaverjar; Sturlungar; Svínfellingar; Vatnsfirðingar) *** Greenland Norsemen (mainly descendants from Old Icelanders that settled in
Norse Greenland The Norse exploration of North America began in the late 10th century, when Norsemen explored areas of the North Atlantic colonizing Greenland and creating a short term settlement near the northern tip of Newfoundland (island), Newfoundland. Thi ...
) *
Vikings Vikings ; non, víkingr is the modern name given to seafaring people originally from Scandinavia (present-day Denmark, Norway and Sweden), who from the late 8th to the late 11th centuries raided, pirated, traded and se ...
(in the Western Europe) /
Varangians The Varangians (; non, Væringjar; gkm, Βάραγγοι, ''Várangoi'';Varangian
" Online Etymo ...
(in the Eastern Europe) (generic word for warriors, marauders and traders of Scandinavian or Norse i.e.
North Germanic The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European languages, Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 millio ...
origin that went to or returned from other lands regardless of the tribe, they were not a specific Norse tribe or a Norse ethnic group, their arising in History is called
Viking Age The Viking Age () was the period during the Middle Ages when Norsemen known as Vikings undertook large-scale raiding, colonizing, conquest, and trading throughout Europe and reached North America. It followed the Migration Period and the Germ ...
) (they contributed to the formation of the Rus’ people and
Kievan Rus' Kievan Rusʹ, also known as Kyivan Rusʹ ( orv, , Rusĭ, or , , ; Old Norse: ''Garðaríki''), was a state in Eastern Europe, Eastern and Northern Europe from the late 9th to the mid-13th century.John Channon & Robert Hudson, ''Penguin Hist ...
loose
federation A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central federal government (federalism). In a federation, the self-govern ...
that was ruled by the
Varangian The Varangians (; non, Væringjar; gkm, Βάραγγοι, ''Várangoi''; is a Nordic countries, Nordic c .... Between the 9th and 11th centuries, Varangians ruled the medieval In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medie ...
Rurik dynasty The Rurik dynasty ( be, Ру́рыкавічы, Rúrykavichy; russian: Рю́риковичи, Ryúrikovichi, ; uk, Рю́риковичі, Riúrykovychi, ; literally "sons/scions of Rurik"), also known as the Rurikid dynasty or Rurikids, was ...
) / Ascomanni (name for the
Vikings Vikings ; non, víkingr is the modern name given to seafaring people originally from Scandinavia (present-day Denmark, Norway and Sweden), who from the late 8th to the late 11th centuries raided, pirated, traded and se ...
by
Adam of Bremen Adam of Bremen ( la, Adamus Bremensis; german: Adam von Bremen) (before 1050 – 12 October 1081/1085) was a German medieval chronicler. He lived and worked in the second half of the eleventh century. Adam is most famous for his chronicle ''Gesta ...
)


West Germanic peoples The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches of the Germanic family of language Language is a structured system of communication. The structure of a language is its grammar and the free components are its vocab ...

Image:Tribal Hidage 2.svg, 400px, alt=insert description of map here, Map 15: The tribes of the Tribal Hidage. Where an appropriate article exists, it can be found by clicking on the name. rect 275 75 375 100 w:Elmet rect 375 100 450 150 w:Hatfield Chase rect 425 150 525 175 w:Kingdom of Lindsey rect 200 170 300 195 w:Pecsaetan rect 250 250 425 275 w:Mercia rect 475 300 550 315 Spalding rect 460 300 550 375 North & South Gyrwa rect 75 315 200 340 w:Wreocensæte rect 350 350 425 375 w:Sweordora rect 40 375 125 400 w:Magonsæte rect 575 375 700 400 w:Kingdom of East Anglia rect 185 400 275 425 w:Arosæte rect 410 450 460 475 w:River Ivel rect 410 475 460 500 w:Hitchin rect 175 500 225 550 w:Hwicce rect 250 475 360 525 w:Charlbury rect 365 525 425 575 w:Cilternsæte rect 430 530 575 565 w:Kingdom of Essex rect 520 650 675 675 w:Kingdom of Kent rect 150 675 295 700 w:Wessex rect 400 725 550 750 w:Kingdom of Sussex rect 285 775 375 800 w:Isle of Wight * Elbe Germanics (
Herminones The Irminones, also referred to as Herminones or Hermiones ( grc, Ἑρμίονες), were a large group of early Germanic tribes The Germanic peoples were historical groups of people that once occupied Central Europe and Scandinavia during ...
/ Hermiones /
Irminones The Irminones, also referred to as Herminones or Hermiones ( grc, Ἑρμίονες), were a large group of early Germanic tribes settling in the Elbe The Elbe (; cs, Labe ; nds, Ilv or ''Elv''; Upper and dsb, Łobjo) is one of the major ...
) **
Baemi The Baemi or Baimoi (Ancient Greek Βαῖμοι), were a large Germanic people The Germanic peoples were historical groups of people that once occupied Central Europe and Scandinavia during antiquity and into the early Middle Ages. Since the ...
-
Baenochaemae The 'Baenochaemae, Bainochaimai (Ancient Greek Βαινοχαῖμαι) were a Germanic people The Germanic peoples were historical groups of people that once occupied Central Europe and Scandinavia during antiquity and into the early Middle ...
***
Baemi The Baemi or Baimoi (Ancient Greek Βαῖμοι), were a large Germanic people The Germanic peoples were historical groups of people that once occupied Central Europe and Scandinavia during antiquity and into the early Middle Ages. Since the ...
/ Baimoi ***
Baenochaemae The 'Baenochaemae, Bainochaimai (Ancient Greek Βαινοχαῖμαι) were a Germanic people The Germanic peoples were historical groups of people that once occupied Central Europe and Scandinavia during antiquity and into the early Middle ...
/ Banochaemae ** Bateinoi ** Calucones (ancient Germanic tribe, not to be confuse with the Calucones, a
Rhaetian The Rhaetian is the latest age of the Triassic The Triassic ( ) is a geologic period and system (stratigraphy), system which spans 50.6 million years from the end of the Permian Period 251.902 million years ago (Year#Abbreviations yr and ya, M ...
tribe) ** Caritni / Carini **
Chatti The Chatti (also Chatthi or Catti) were an ancient Germanic peoples, Germanic tribe whose homeland was near the upper Weser (''Visurgis''). They lived in central and northern Hesse and southern Lower Saxony, along the upper reaches of that rive ...
-
Mattiaci The Mattiaci were by Tacitus recorded as an ancient Germanic peoples, Germanic tribe and related to the Chatti, their Germanic peoples, Germanic neighbors to the east. There is no clear definition of what the tribe's name meant. The ''Dictionary o ...
(originally they were an Elbe Germanic people later assimilated by the
Istvaeones The Istaevones (also spelled Istvaeones) were a Germanic group of tribes living near the banks of the Rhine The Rhine ; french: Rhin ; nl, Rijn ; wa, Rén ; li, Rien; rm, label=Sursilvan, Rein, rm, label=Sutsilvan and Surmiran, Ragn, rm, ...
or Wesser-Rhine peoples, it was by the merger of the
Istvaeones The Istaevones (also spelled Istvaeones) were a Germanic group of tribes living near the banks of the Rhine The Rhine ; french: Rhin ; nl, Rijn ; wa, Rén ; li, Rien; rm, label=Sursilvan, Rein, rm, label=Sutsilvan and Surmiran, Ragn, rm, ...
tribes with the
Chatti The Chatti (also Chatthi or Catti) were an ancient Germanic peoples, Germanic tribe whose homeland was near the upper Weser (''Visurgis''). They lived in central and northern Hesse and southern Lower Saxony, along the upper reaches of that rive ...
and related tribes that the
Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples whose name was first mentioned in 3rd-century Roman sources, and associated with tribes between the Lower Rhine and the Ems River, on the edge of the Roman Empire.H. Schutz: Tools, ...
were formed) ***
Chatti The Chatti (also Chatthi or Catti) were an ancient Germanic peoples, Germanic tribe whose homeland was near the upper Weser (''Visurgis''). They lived in central and northern Hesse and southern Lower Saxony, along the upper reaches of that rive ...
/ Hatti (their
ethnonym An ethnonym () is a name applied to a given ethnic group. Ethnonyms can be divided into two categories: exonyms (whose name of the ethnic group has been created by another group of people) and autonyms, or endonyms (whose name is created and used ...
may have originated the name
Hesse Hesse (, , ) or Hessia (, ; german: Hessen ), officially the State of Hessen (german: links=no, Land Hessen), is a States of Germany, state in Germany. Its capital city is Wiesbaden, and the largest urban area is Frankfurt. Two other major histor ...
by phonetic change over time) ***
Mattiaci The Mattiaci were by Tacitus recorded as an ancient Germanic peoples, Germanic tribe and related to the Chatti, their Germanic peoples, Germanic neighbors to the east. There is no clear definition of what the tribe's name meant. The ''Dictionary o ...
*** Batavi- Cananefates **** Batavi **** Cananefates /
Canninefates The Cananefates, or Canninefates, Caninefates, or Canenefatae, meaning "leek masters", were a Germanic peoples, Germanic tribe, who lived in the Rhine delta, in western Betuwe , Batavia (later Betuwe), in the Roman Empire, Roman province of ''Ger ...
**
Chasuarii The Chasuarii were an ancient Germanic tribe This list of ancient Germanic peoples is an inventory of ancient Germanic cultures, tribal groupings and other alliances of Germanic tribes and civilisations in ancient times. The information comes fro ...
/ Hasuarii (closely related or not to the
Chatti The Chatti (also Chatthi or Catti) were an ancient Germanic peoples, Germanic tribe whose homeland was near the upper Weser (''Visurgis''). They lived in central and northern Hesse and southern Lower Saxony, along the upper reaches of that rive ...
) **
Chattuarii The Chattuarii, also spelled Attoarii, were a Germanic tribe This list of ancient Germanic peoples is an inventory of ancient Germanic cultures, tribal groupings and other alliances of Germanic tribes and civilisations in ancient times. The inf ...
/ Attoarii / Hattuarii / Hetware (possibly mentioned in
Beowulf ''Beowulf'' (; ang, Bēowulf ) is an Old English Epic poetry, epic poem in the tradition of Germanic heroic legend consisting of 3,182 Alliterative verse, alliterative lines. It is one of the most important and List of translations of Beo ...
as ''Hetwaras'') (they lived in Hettergouw or Hetter gouw) (closely related or not to the
Chatti The Chatti (also Chatthi or Catti) were an ancient Germanic peoples, Germanic tribe whose homeland was near the upper Weser (''Visurgis''). They lived in central and northern Hesse and southern Lower Saxony, along the upper reaches of that rive ...
) ** Chatvores **
Cherusci The Cherusci were a Germanic peoples, Germanic Germanic tribes, tribe that inhabited parts of the plains and forests of northwestern Germany in the area of the Weser River and present-day Hanover during the first centuries BC and AD. Roman histori ...
(some were assimilated by the Mainland
Saxons The Saxons ( la, Saxones, german: Sachsen, ang, Seaxan, osx, Sahson, nds, Sassen, nl, Saksen) were a group of Germanic peoples, Germanic * * * * peoples whose name was given in the early Middle Ages to a large country (Old Saxony, la, Saxo ...
to the north) ** Fosi ** Marvingi / Marouingoi ** Suebes /
Suebi The Suebi (or Suebians, also spelled Suevi, Suavi) were a large group of Germanic peoples originally from the Elbe river region in what is now Germany and the Czech Republic. In the early Roman era they included many peoples with their own names ...
or
Alemanni The Alemanni or Alamanni, were a confederation of Germanic tribes * * * on the Upper Rhine River. First mentioned by Cassius Dio Lucius Cassius Dio (), also known as Dio Cassius ( ), was a Roman historian and senator of maternal Greek ori ...
(synonymous with the Suebes in the broad sense) (large tribal confederation) *** Brisgavi *** Bucinobantes *** Butones / Boutones *** Corconti ***
Hermunduri The Hermunduri, Hermanduri, Hermunduli, Hermonduri, or Hermonduli were an ancient Germanic tribe This list of ancient Germanic peoples is an inventory of ancient Germanic cultures, tribal groupings and other alliances of Germanic tribes and civi ...
**** Armalausi **** Campi (tribe on the river
Cham Cham or CHAM may refer to: Ethnicities and languages *Chams, people in Vietnam and Cambodia **Cham language, the language of the Cham people ***Cham script ***Cham (Unicode block), a block of Unicode characters of the Cham script *Cham Albanian ...
or Chamb, tributary of the Regen, close to
Cham Cham or CHAM may refer to: Ethnicities and languages *Chams, people in Vietnam and Cambodia **Cham language, the language of the Cham people ***Cham script ***Cham (Unicode block), a block of Unicode characters of the Cham script *Cham Albanian ...
city) *****
Adrabaecampi Adrabaecampi is the scholarly transliteration into Latin of Ptolemy, Ptolemy's Adrabaikampoi, a tribe, he says, of greater Germany, dwelling on the north bank of the Danube south of the Gabreta Forest after the Marcomanni and Sudini. Early German ...
/ Campi ***** Parmaecampi **** Curiones **** Danduti ****
Vangiones The Vangiones appear first in history as an ancient Germanic tribe This list of ancient Germanic peoples is an inventory of ancient Germanic cultures, tribal groupings and other alliances of Germanic tribes and civilisations in ancient times. The ...
/ Vargiones / Woingas (of
Widsith "Widsith" ( ang, Wīdsīþ, "far-traveller", lit. "wide-journey"), also known as "The Traveller's Song", is an Old English poem of 143 lines. It survives only in the '' Exeter Book'', a manuscript of Old English poetry compiled in the late-10th ...
) ****
Thuringians The Thuringii, Toringi or Teuriochaimai, were an early Germanic people that appeared during the late Migration Period The Migration Period was a period in History of Europe, European history marked by large-scale migrations that saw the fa ...
(
Thuringii The Thuringii, Toringi or Teuriochaimai, were an early Germanic peoples, Germanic people that appeared during the late Migration Period in the Harz Mountains of central Germania, a region still known today as Thuringia. It became a kingdom, whic ...
/ Toringi) (formed by the merging of
Hermunduri The Hermunduri, Hermanduri, Hermunduli, Hermonduri, or Hermonduli were an ancient Germanic tribe This list of ancient Germanic peoples is an inventory of ancient Germanic cultures, tribal groupings and other alliances of Germanic tribes and civi ...
tribes, a tribal
confederation A confederation (also known as a confederacy or league) is a union of sovereign groups or states united for purposes of common action. Usually created by a treaty A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in ...
part of the Elbe Germanic peoples) (some
Turcilingi The Turcilingi (also spelled Torcilingi or Thorcilingi) were an obscure barbarian A barbarian (or savage) is someone who is perceived to be either uncivilized or primitive. The designation is usually applied as a generalization based on a pop ...
or Torcolingi were assimilated to the
Thuringians The Thuringii, Toringi or Teuriochaimai, were an early Germanic people that appeared during the late Migration Period The Migration Period was a period in History of Europe, European history marked by large-scale migrations that saw the fa ...
) (some
Thuringians The Thuringii, Toringi or Teuriochaimai, were an early Germanic people that appeared during the late Migration Period The Migration Period was a period in History of Europe, European history marked by large-scale migrations that saw the fa ...
joined the Longobardian migration towards south) ***** Graffelti (a late
Thuringian Thuringian is an East Central German dialect group spoken in much of the modern German Free State of Thuringia north of the Rennsteig ridge, southwestern Saxony-Anhalt and adjacent territories of Hesse and Bavaria. It is close to Upper Saxon Ger ...
tribe that lived in
Grabfeld The Grabfeld is a region in Germany, on the border between Bavaria and Thuringia. It is situated southeast of the Rhön Mountains. Its highest elevation is 679 metres high in the little Gleichberge mountain range. The Grabfeld gave its name to th ...
) ***
Lentienses The Lentienses (German ''Lentienser'') were a 4th-century Germanic tribe This list of ancient Germanic peoples is an inventory of ancient Germanic cultures, tribal groupings and other alliances of Germanic tribes and civilisations in ancient times ...
***
Lombards The Lombards () or Langobards ( la, Langobardi) were a Germanic peoples, Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774. The medieval Lombard historian Paul the Deacon wrote in the ''History of the Lombards'' (written ...
/
Langobards The Lombards () or Langobards ( la, Langobardi) were a Germanic peoples, Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774. The medieval Lombard historian Paul the Deacon wrote in the ''History of the Lombards'' (written ...
/ Longobards ( Vinili) (
Elbe Germanic Elbe The Elbe (; cs, Labe ; nds, Ilv or ''Elv''; Upper and dsb, Łobjo) is one of the major rivers of Central Europe. It rises in the Giant Mountains of the northern Czech Republic The Czech Republic, or simply Czechia, is ...
Lombards) (they lived in Lüneburg Heath) (at the time of the
Migration Period The Migration Period was a period in History of Europe, European history marked by large-scale migrations that saw the fall of the Western Roman Empire and subsequent settlement of its former territories by various tribes, and the establishment ...
and
Decline of the Roman Empire The fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called the fall of the Roman Empire or the fall of Ancient Rome, Rome) was the loss of central political control in the Western Roman Empire, a process in which the Empire failed to enforce its rul ...
, they founded the
Lombard Kingdom The Kingdom of the Lombards ( la, Regnum Langobardorum; it, Regno dei Longobardi; lmo, Regn di Lombard) also known as the Lombard Kingdom; later the Kingdom of (all) Italy ( la, Regnum totius Italiae), was an Early Middle Ages, early medieval ...
) (they were assimilated by the Italo-Roman majority, however their
ethnonym An ethnonym () is a name applied to a given ethnic group. Ethnonyms can be divided into two categories: exonyms (whose name of the ethnic group has been created by another group of people) and autonyms, or endonyms (whose name is created and used ...
was the origin for name of the region
Lombardy Lombardy ( it, Lombardia, Lombard language, Lombard: ''Lombardia'' or ''Lumbardia' '') is an administrative regions of Italy, region of Italy that covers ; it is located in the northern-central part of the country and has a population of about 10 ...
- ''
Lombardia (man), (woman) lmo, lumbard, links=no (man), (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , ...
'') **** Bardes **** Heaðobards / Hadubardes / Heaðubeardan ( Headubarden) ***
Marcomanni The Marcomanni were a Germanic people * * * that established a powerful kingdom north of the Danube The Danube ( ; ) is a river that was once a long-standing frontier of the Roman Empire and today connects 10 European countries, running ...
****
Baiuvarii The Baiuvarii or Bavarians (german: Bajuwaren) were a Germanic people The Germanic peoples were historical groups of people that once occupied Central Europe and Scandinavia during antiquity and into the early Middle Ages. Since the 19th c ...
(
Bavarians Bavarians (Bavarian language, Bavarian: ''Boarn'', Standard German: ''Baiern'') are an ethnographic group of Germans of the Bavaria region, a state within Germany. The group's dialect or speech is known as the Bavarian language, native to Alt ...
) *** Mugilones *** Nertereanes ***
Quadi The Quadi were a Germanic peoples, Germanic * * * people who lived approximately in the area of modern Moravia in the time of the Roman Empire. The only surviving contemporary reports about the Germanic tribe are those of the Romans, whose em ...
/ Coldui / Danube Suebi ****Old
Swabians Swabians (german: Schwaben, singular ''Schwabe'') are a Germanic peoples, Germanic people who are native to the ethnocultural and linguistic region of Swabia, which is now mostly divided between the modern states of Baden-Württemberg and Bavari ...
( Danube Suebi that migrated westward) (they had a close relation with the Upper Rhine Alemanni and were descendants from common ancestors but they migrated in an East towards West migration route through the
Danube The Danube ( ; ) is a river that was once a long-standing frontier of the Roman Empire and today connects 10 European countries, running through their territories or being a border. Originating in Germany, the Danube flows southeast for , pa ...
from what is today's
Moravia Moravia ( , also , ; cs, Morava ; german: link=yes, Mähren ; pl, Morawy ; szl, Morawa; la, Moravia) is a historical region in the east of the Czech Republic and one of three historical Czech lands, with Bohemia and Czech Silesia. The me ...
and from there from the
Elbe The Elbe (; cs, Labe ; nds, Ilv or ''Elv''; Upper and dsb, Łobjo) is one of the major rivers of Central Europe. It rises in the Giant Mountains of the northern Czech Republic The Czech Republic, or simply Czechia, is a landloc ...
basin in even older times, until they settled in
Swabia Swabia ; german: Schwaben , colloquially ''Schwabenland'' or ''Ländle''; archaic English also Suabia or Svebia is a cultural, Historical region, historic and linguistic region in southwestern Germany. The name is ultimately derived from the ...
) (ancestors of
Swabian German Swabian (german: Schwäbisch ) is one of the dialect groups of Alemannic German that belong to the High German languages, High German dialect continuum. It is mainly spoken in Swabia, which is located in central and southeastern Baden-Württember ...
speakers) **** Suebi, Gallaecian ( Gallaecian Suebi) (at the time of the
Migration Period The Migration Period was a period in History of Europe, European history marked by large-scale migrations that saw the fall of the Western Roman Empire and subsequent settlement of its former territories by various tribes, and the establishment ...
and
Decline of the Roman Empire The fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called the fall of the Roman Empire or the fall of Ancient Rome, Rome) was the loss of central political control in the Western Roman Empire, a process in which the Empire failed to enforce its rul ...
, they founded the
Kingdom of the Suebi The Kingdom of the Suebi ( la, Regnum Suevorum), also called the Kingdom of Galicia ( la, Regnum Galicia) or Suebi Kingdom of Galicia ( la, Galicia suevorum regnum), was a Germanic peoples, Germanic Migration period, post-Roman kingdom that was ...
in
Gallaecia Gallaecia, also known as Hispania Gallaecia, was the name of a Roman province in the north-west of Hispania, approximately present-day Galicia (Spain), Galicia, Norte, Portugal, northern Portugal, Asturias and León (province), Leon and the lat ...
, Northwestern
Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula (), ** * Aragonese language, Aragonese and Occitan language, Occitan: ''Peninsula Iberica'' ** ** * french: Péninsule Ibérique * mwl, Península Eibérica * eu, Iberiar penintsula also known as Iberia, is a pe ...
, roughly in today's Galicia, North Portugal and North
Central Portugal The Central Region ( pt, Região do Centro, ) or Central Portugal is one of the NUTS statistical regions of Portugal, statistical regions of Portugal. The cities with major administrative status inside this region are Coimbra, Aveiro, Portugal, Ave ...
,
Asturias Asturias (, ; ast, Asturies ), officially the Principality of Asturias ( es, Principado de Asturias; ast, Principáu d'Asturies; Galician-Asturian: ''Principao d'Asturias''), is an autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community in nor ...
and León) (''Suevos'') *** Racatriae / Racatae *** Raetovari *** Scotingi *** Sedusii (a Germanic tribe that dwelled across the eastern region of the
Rhine The Rhine ; french: Rhin ; nl, Rijn ; wa, Rén ; li, Rien; rm, label=Sursilvan, Rein, rm, label=Sutsilvan and Surmiran, Ragn, rm, label=Rumantsch Grischun, Vallader and Puter, Rain; it, Reno ; gsw, Rhi(n), including in Alsatian dialect, Al ...
river and was part of the
Suebi The Suebi (or Suebians, also spelled Suevi, Suavi) were a large group of Germanic peoples originally from the Elbe river region in what is now Germany and the Czech Republic. In the early Roman era they included many peoples with their own names ...
c tribal confederation, mentioned by
Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; ; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), was a Roman people, Roman general and statesman. A member of the First Triumvirate, Caesar led the Roman armies in the Gallic Wars before defeating his political rival Pompey in Caes ...
) ***
Semnones The Semnones were a Germanic peoples, Germanic and specifically a Suebi, Suevian people, who were settled between the Elbe and the Oder in the 1st century when they were described by Tacitus in ''Germania (book), Germania'': "The Semnones give the ...
**** Iuthungi /
Juthungi The Juthungi (Greek: ''Iouthungoi'', Latin: ''Iuthungi'') were a Germanic peoples, Germanic tribe in the region north of the rivers Danube and Altmühl in what is now the modern German state of Bavaria. The tribe was mentioned by the Roman Empire ...
(descendants of the
Semnones The Semnones were a Germanic peoples, Germanic and specifically a Suebi, Suevian people, who were settled between the Elbe and the Oder in the 1st century when they were described by Tacitus in ''Germania (book), Germania'': "The Semnones give the ...
) *** Sibini *** Sidini *** Suarines / Suardones (they may have lived in
Schwerin Schwerin (; Mecklenburgisch dialect, Mecklenburgian Low German: ''Swerin''; Latin: ''Suerina'', ''Suerinum'') is the Capital city, capital and List of cities and towns in Germany, second-largest city of the northeastern States of Germany, German ...
region) *** Suebi Nicrenses / Suebi, Neckar ( Neckar Suebi) / Nictrenses / Upper Alemanni ( Upper Rhine Alemanni, ancestors of
Alemannic German Alemannic, or rarely Alemannish (''Alemannisch'', ), is a group of High German dialects. The name derives from the ancient Germanic tribal confederation known as the Alemanni, Alamanni ("all men"). Distribution Alemannic dialects are spoken by ...
speakers -
Alemanni The Alemanni or Alamanni, were a confederation of Germanic tribes * * * on the Upper Rhine River. First mentioned by Cassius Dio Lucius Cassius Dio (), also known as Dio Cassius ( ), was a Roman historian and senator of maternal Greek ori ...
in the narrow sense) (they had a close relation with the Old Swabians and were descendants from common ancestors but they migrated in a direct North towards South migration route from the
Elbe The Elbe (; cs, Labe ; nds, Ilv or ''Elv''; Upper and dsb, Łobjo) is one of the major rivers of Central Europe. It rises in the Giant Mountains of the northern Czech Republic The Czech Republic, or simply Czechia, is a landloc ...
basin until they settled in Alemannia or
Alamannia Alamannia, or Alemannia, was the kingdom established and inhabited by the Alemanni, a Germanic peoples, Germanic tribal confederation that had broken through the Roman ''Upper Germanic Limes, limes'' in 213. The Alemanni expanded from the Main ...
and Eastern
Upper Burgundy The Kingdom of Upper Burgundy was a Frankish dominion established in 888 by the Welf king Rudolph I of Burgundy on the territory of former Middle Francia. It grew out of the Carolingian Empire, Carolingian margraviate of Transjurane Burgundy ...
, roughly in today's Western and Western Central Baden-Wurtenberg - Neckar river basin,
Baden Baden (; ) is a historical territory in South Germany, in earlier times on both sides of the Upper Rhine but since the Napoleonic Wars only East of the Rhine. History The margraves of Baden originated from the House of Zähringen. Baden is ...
,
Alsace Alsace (, ; ; Low Alemannic German/ gsw-FR, Elsàss ; german: Elsass ; la, Alsatia) is a cultural region and a territorial collectivity in eastern France, on the west bank of the upper Rhine next to Germany and Switzerland. In 2020, it had ...
,
Lake Constance Lake Constance (german: Bodensee, ) refers to three Body of water, bodies of water on the Rhine at the northern foot of the Alps: Upper Lake Constance (''Obersee''), Lower Lake Constance (''Untersee''), and a connecting stretch of the Rhine, ca ...
-
Bodensee Lake Constance (german: Bodensee, ) refers to three Body of water, bodies of water on the Rhine at the northern foot of the Alps: Upper Lake Constance (''Obersee''), Lower Lake Constance (''Untersee''), and a connecting stretch of the Rhine, ca ...
region, and Central
Switzerland ). Swiss law does not designate a ''capital'' as such, but the federal parliament and government are in Bern, while other federal institutions, such as the federal courts, are in other cities (Bellinzona, Lausanne, Luzern, Neuchâtel, St. Gall ...
): Ahalolfings or Alaholfings *** Sudini *** Teuriochaemae / Teuriochaimai *** Triboci *** Varisti / Varisci / Narisci / Naristi *** Victophalians / Victofalians / Victophali / Victofali *** Zumi ** Teutonari / Teutonoari **
Varini The Varini, Warni or Warini were one or more Germanic peoples who originally lived in what is now northeastern Germany, near the Baltic sea. They are first named in the Roman era, and appear to have survived into the Middle Ages. It is proposed ...
/ Warini / Auarinoi (may have been the same as the
Varini The Varini, Warni or Warini were one or more Germanic peoples who originally lived in what is now northeastern Germany, near the Baltic sea. They are first named in the Roman era, and appear to have survived into the Middle Ages. It is proposed ...
, a variant name in Greek) / Viruni / Quirounoi? or Oúírounoi (possibly a mistaken transliteration of the
Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece, a country in Southern Europe: *Greeks, an ethnic group. *Greek language, a branch of the Indo-European language family. **Proto-Greek language, the assumed last common ancestor ...
Ούίρουνοι = Oúírounoi - Viruni in
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally a dialect spoken in the lower Tiber area (then known as Latium) around present-day Rome, but through ...
) /
Warni The Varini, Warni or Warini were one or more Germanic peoples who originally lived in what is now northeastern Germany, near the Baltic sea. They are first named in the Roman era, and appear to have survived into the Middle Ages. It is proposed ...
/ Viruni / Pharodini? / Farodini? (may have been the same as the
Varini The Varini, Warni or Warini were one or more Germanic peoples who originally lived in what is now northeastern Germany, near the Baltic sea. They are first named in the Roman era, and appear to have survived into the Middle Ages. It is proposed ...
or Viruni) * North Sea Germanics (
Ingaevones The Ingaevones were a Germanic peoples, West Germanic cultural group living in the Northern Germania along the North Sea coast in the areas of Jutland, Holstein, and Frisia in classical antiquity. Tribes in this area included the Angles, Frisii ...
/
Ingvaeones The Ingaevones were a West Germanic The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches of the Germanic languages, Germanic family of languages (the others being the North Germanic languages, North Germanic and the extin ...
) **
Ambrones The Ambrones ( grc, Ἄμβρωνες) were an ancient tribe mentioned by Ancient Rome, Roman authors. They are generally believed to have been a Germanic peoples, Germanic tribe from Jutland. In the late 2nd century BC, along with the fellow Ci ...
(possibly the Imbers / Ymbers / Ymbrum of
Widsith "Widsith" ( ang, Wīdsīþ, "far-traveller", lit. "wide-journey"), also known as "The Traveller's Song", is an Old English poem of 143 lines. It survives only in the '' Exeter Book'', a manuscript of Old English poetry compiled in the late-10th ...
, tribe that dwelt in
Jutland Jutland ( da, Jylland ; german: Jütland ; ang, Ēota land ), known anciently as the Cimbric or Cimbrian Peninsula ( la, Cimbricus Chersonesus; da, den Kimbriske Halvø, links=no or ; german: Kimbrische Halbinsel, links=no), is a peninsula of ...
or in the
Emmer Emmer wheat or hulled wheat is a type of Awn (botany), awned wheat. Emmer is a tetraploid (4''n'' = 4''x'' = 28 chromosomes). The domesticated types are ''Triticum turgidum'' subsp. ''dicoccum'' and ''Triticum turgidum ''conv.'' durum''. The w ...
(Ambriuna) river region; also they could have lived in the Island of
Amrum Amrum (; ''Öömrang'' North Frisian: ''Oomram'') is one of the North Frisian Islands on the German North Sea The North Sea lies between Great Britain, Norway, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands and Belgium. An epeiric sea, epeiric sea on ...
, in the
Atlantic The Atlantic Ocean is the second-largest of the world's five oceans, with an area of about . It covers approximately 20% of Earth's surface and about 29% of its water surface area. It is known to separate the " Old World" of Africa, Europe ...
coast, or in the island of Imbra, now known as
Fehmarn Fehmarn (, da, Femern; from Old Wagrian Slavic languages, Slavic "''Fe More''", meaning "''In the Sea''") is an island in the Baltic Sea, off the eastern coast of Germany's northernmost state of Schleswig-Holstein. It is Germany's third-largest i ...
, in the Baltic coast) **
Ampsivarii The Ampsivarii, sometimes referenced by modern writers as Ampsivari (a simplification not warranted by the sources), were a Germanic tribe This list of ancient Germanic peoples is an inventory of ancient Germanic cultures, tribal groupings and o ...
/ Amsivarii **
Angles The Angles ( ang, Ængle, ; la, Angli) were one of the main Germanic peoples who settled in Great Britain Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of , it i ...
/ Anglies *** Island Angles / Insular Angles (in
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. It is separa ...
they merged with
Saxons The Saxons ( la, Saxones, german: Sachsen, ang, Seaxan, osx, Sahson, nds, Sassen, nl, Saksen) were a group of Germanic peoples, Germanic * * * * peoples whose name was given in the early Middle Ages to a large country (Old Saxony, la, Saxo ...
and
Jutes The Jutes (), Iuti, or Iutæ ( da, Jyder, non, Jótar, ang, Ēotas) were one of the Germanic people, Germanic tribes who settled in Great Britain after the end of Roman rule in Britain, departure of the Roman Empire, Romans. According to Bede ...
to form the new ethnolinguistic group of the
Anglo-Saxons The Anglo-Saxons were a Cultural identity, cultural group who inhabited England in the Early Middle Ages. They traced their origins to settlers who came to Britain from mainland Europe in the 5th century. However, the ethnogenesis of the Anglo- ...
) *** Mainland Angles / Continental Angles (later assimilated by the
Danes Danes ( da, danskere, ) are a North Germanic peoples, North Germanic ethnic group and nationality native to Denmark and a modern nation identified with the country of Denmark. This connection may be ancestral, legal, historical, or cultural. D ...
in
Angeln Anglia (German language, German and Low German: ''Angeln''; Danish language, Danish and South Jutlandic: ''Angel''; ang, Engla land) is a small peninsula on the eastern coast of Jutland (the Cimbric Peninsula). Jutland consists of the mainlan ...
,
Schleswig The Duchy of Schleswig ( da, Hertugdømmet Slesvig; german: Herzogtum Schleswig; nds, Hartogdom Sleswig; frr, Härtochduum Slaswik) was a duchy in Southern Jutland () covering the area between about 60 km (35 miles) north and 70 km ( ...
, North part of
Schleswig-Holstein Schleswig-Holstein (; da, Slesvig-Holsten; nds, Sleswig-Holsteen; frr, Slaswik-Holstiinj) is the Northern Germany, northernmost of the 16 states of Germany, comprising most of the historical duchy of Holstein and the southern part of the form ...
and by
Frisians The Frisians are a Germanic peoples, Germanic ethnic group native to the German Bight, coastal regions of the Netherlands and northwestern Germany. They inhabit an area known as Frisia and are concentrated in the Dutch provinces of Friesland an ...
, North Frisians, in Southern
Jutland Peninsula Jutland ( da, Jylland ; german: Jütland ; ang, Ēota land ), known anciently as the Cimbric or Cimbrian Peninsula ( la, Cimbricus Chersonesus; da, den Kimbriske Halvø, links=no or ; german: Kimbrische Halbinsel, links=no), is a peninsula of ...
Atlantic coast and islands) ( Aglies? a possible variant of the name
Angles The Angles ( ang, Ængle, ; la, Angli) were one of the main Germanic peoples who settled in Great Britain Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of , it i ...
) ** Anglevarii /
Angrivarii The Angrivarii (or ''Angrivari'') were a Germanic people The Germanic peoples were historical groups of people that once occupied Central Europe and Scandinavia during antiquity and into the early Middle Ages. Since the 19th century, they ha ...
( Angrarii / Angarii) (later assimilated by the
Saxons The Saxons ( la, Saxones, german: Sachsen, ang, Seaxan, osx, Sahson, nds, Sassen, nl, Saksen) were a group of Germanic peoples, Germanic * * * * peoples whose name was given in the early Middle Ages to a large country (Old Saxony, la, Saxo ...
) **
Angrivarii The Angrivarii (or ''Angrivari'') were a Germanic people The Germanic peoples were historical groups of people that once occupied Central Europe and Scandinavia during antiquity and into the early Middle Ages. Since the 19th century, they ha ...
( Angrarii / Angarii) (later assimilated by the
Saxons The Saxons ( la, Saxones, german: Sachsen, ang, Seaxan, osx, Sahson, nds, Sassen, nl, Saksen) were a group of Germanic peoples, Germanic * * * * peoples whose name was given in the early Middle Ages to a large country (Old Saxony, la, Saxo ...
) ** Caulci (possibly a
North Sea Germanic North Sea Germanic, also known as Ingvaeonic , is a postulated grouping of the northern West Germanic languages that consists of Old Frisian, Old English language, Old English, and Old Saxon, and their descendants. Ingvaeonic is named after the ...
tribe mentioned by
Strabo Strabo''Strabo'' (meaning "squinty", as in strabismus) was a term employed by the Romans for anyone whose eyes were distorted or deformed. The father of Pompey was called "Pompeius Strabo". A native of Sicily so clear-sighted that he could see ...
, he wrote that they lived close to the Ocean - the
North Sea The North Sea lies between Great Britain, Norway, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands and Belgium. An epeiric sea, epeiric sea on the European continental shelf, it connects to the Atlantic Ocean through the English Channel in the south and the ...
, they are mentioned along with North Sea Germanic tribes -
Ingaevones The Ingaevones were a Germanic peoples, West Germanic cultural group living in the Northern Germania along the North Sea coast in the areas of Jutland, Holstein, and Frisia in classical antiquity. Tribes in this area included the Angles, Frisii ...
) ** Chali / Hallinger **
Charudes The Charudes or Harudes were a Germanic peoples, Germanic group first mentioned by Julius Caesar as one of the tribes who had followed Ariovistus across the Rhine. While Tacitus' Germania (book), ''Germania'' makes no mention of them, Ptolemy's Geo ...
/ Harudes / Arochi ** Chaubi (possibly a
North Sea Germanic North Sea Germanic, also known as Ingvaeonic , is a postulated grouping of the northern West Germanic languages that consists of Old Frisian, Old English language, Old English, and Old Saxon, and their descendants. Ingvaeonic is named after the ...
tribe mentioned by
Strabo Strabo''Strabo'' (meaning "squinty", as in strabismus) was a term employed by the Romans for anyone whose eyes were distorted or deformed. The father of Pompey was called "Pompeius Strabo". A native of Sicily so clear-sighted that he could see ...
, he wrote that they lived close to the Ocean - the
North Sea The North Sea lies between Great Britain, Norway, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands and Belgium. An epeiric sea, epeiric sea on the European continental shelf, it connects to the Atlantic Ocean through the English Channel in the south and the ...
, they are mentioned along with North Sea Germanic tribes -
Ingaevones The Ingaevones were a Germanic peoples, West Germanic cultural group living in the Northern Germania along the North Sea coast in the areas of Jutland, Holstein, and Frisia in classical antiquity. Tribes in this area included the Angles, Frisii ...
) **
Chauci The Chauci (german: Chauken, and identical or similar in other regional modern languages) were an ancient Germanic peoples, Germanic tribe living in the low-lying region between the Rivers Ems (river), Ems and Elbe, on both sides of the Weser and ...
*** Chauci Maiores *** Chauci Minores / Hugas ( Saxon Hugas) **
Cherusci The Cherusci were a Germanic peoples, Germanic Germanic tribes, tribe that inhabited parts of the plains and forests of northwestern Germany in the area of the Weser River and present-day Hanover during the first centuries BC and AD. Roman histori ...
(some were assimilated by the Mainland
Saxons The Saxons ( la, Saxones, german: Sachsen, ang, Seaxan, osx, Sahson, nds, Sassen, nl, Saksen) were a group of Germanic peoples, Germanic * * * * peoples whose name was given in the early Middle Ages to a large country (Old Saxony, la, Saxo ...
) ** Cobandi **
Cimbri The Cimbri (Greek Κίμβροι, ''Kímbroi''; Latin ''Cimbri'') were an ancient tribe in Europe. Ancient authors described them variously as a Celts, Celtic people (or Gauls, Gaulish), Germanic peoples, Germanic people, or even Cimmerian. Sever ...
/ Cymbri ** Dulgibini / Dulgubnii ** Eudoses / Eutes / Euthiones (ancestors of the
Jutes The Jutes (), Iuti, or Iutæ ( da, Jyder, non, Jótar, ang, Ēotas) were one of the Germanic people, Germanic tribes who settled in Great Britain after the end of Roman rule in Britain, departure of the Roman Empire, Romans. According to Bede ...
or a variant name of "Jutes"; Eutes > Iutes > Yutes > Jutes) ( Endoses? possibly a variant of the name "Eudoses") ***
Jutes The Jutes (), Iuti, or Iutæ ( da, Jyder, non, Jótar, ang, Ēotas) were one of the Germanic people, Germanic tribes who settled in Great Britain after the end of Roman rule in Britain, departure of the Roman Empire, Romans. According to Bede ...
**** Island Jutes (in
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. It is separa ...
they merged with the
Angles The Angles ( ang, Ængle, ; la, Angli) were one of the main Germanic peoples who settled in Great Britain Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of , it i ...
and
Saxons The Saxons ( la, Saxones, german: Sachsen, ang, Seaxan, osx, Sahson, nds, Sassen, nl, Saksen) were a group of Germanic peoples, Germanic * * * * peoples whose name was given in the early Middle Ages to a large country (Old Saxony, la, Saxo ...
to form the new ethnolinguistic group of the
Anglo-Saxons The Anglo-Saxons were a Cultural identity, cultural group who inhabited England in the Early Middle Ages. They traced their origins to settlers who came to Britain from mainland Europe in the 5th century. However, the ethnogenesis of the Anglo- ...
) **** Mainland Jutes (later assimilated by the
Danes Danes ( da, danskere, ) are a North Germanic peoples, North Germanic ethnic group and nationality native to Denmark and a modern nation identified with the country of Denmark. This connection may be ancestral, legal, historical, or cultural. D ...
in
Jutland Jutland ( da, Jylland ; german: Jütland ; ang, Ēota land ), known anciently as the Cimbric or Cimbrian Peninsula ( la, Cimbricus Chersonesus; da, den Kimbriske Halvø, links=no or ; german: Kimbrische Halbinsel, links=no), is a peninsula of ...
, today's Mainland
Denmark ) , song = ( en, "King Christian stood by the lofty mast") , song_type = National and royal anthem , image_map = EU-Denmark.svg , map_caption = , subdivision_type = Sovereign state , subdivision_name = Danish Realm, Kingdom of Denmark ...
) **
Frisii The Frisii were an ancient Germanic peoples, Germanic tribe living in the low-lying region between the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta and the Ems (river), River Ems, and the presumed or possible ancestors of the modern-day ethnic Dutch people, Du ...
*** Frisiavones /
Frisiabones The Frisiavones (also Frisaevones or Frisaebones) were a Germanic people The Germanic peoples were historical groups of people that once occupied Central Europe and Scandinavia during antiquity and into the early Middle Ages. Since the 19th c ...
( Frisii Minores) ***
Frisii The Frisii were an ancient Germanic peoples, Germanic tribe living in the low-lying region between the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta and the Ems (river), River Ems, and the presumed or possible ancestors of the modern-day ethnic Dutch people, Du ...
( Frisii Maiores) (possible ancestors of the
Frisians The Frisians are a Germanic peoples, Germanic ethnic group native to the German Bight, coastal regions of the Netherlands and northwestern Germany. They inhabit an area known as Frisia and are concentrated in the Dutch provinces of Friesland an ...
) **** Old Frisians ** Fundusi (a Germanic tribe that lived in
Jutland Jutland ( da, Jylland ; german: Jütland ; ang, Ēota land ), known anciently as the Cimbric or Cimbrian Peninsula ( la, Cimbricus Chersonesus; da, den Kimbriske Halvø, links=no or ; german: Kimbrische Halbinsel, links=no), is a peninsula of ...
) ** Guiones (a tribe mentioned by the Massiliot
Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece, a country in Southern Europe: *Greeks, an ethnic group. *Greek language, a branch of the Indo-European language family. **Proto-Greek language, the assumed last common ancestor ...
sea traveler and explorer
Pytheas Pytheas of Massalia (; Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the followin ...
in his work - ''The Ocean'' that possibly lived in
Jutland Jutland ( da, Jylland ; german: Jütland ; ang, Ēota land ), known anciently as the Cimbric or Cimbrian Peninsula ( la, Cimbricus Chersonesus; da, den Kimbriske Halvø, links=no or ; german: Kimbrische Halbinsel, links=no), is a peninsula of ...
) ** Hæleþan (Haelethan) (tribe that lived near the
Randers Randers () is a city in Randers Municipality, Central Denmark Region on the Jutland peninsula. It is Denmark's sixth-largest city, with a population of 62,802 (as of 1 January 2022).Jutland Jutland ( da, Jylland ; german: Jütland ; ang, Ēota land ), known anciently as the Cimbric or Cimbrian Peninsula ( la, Cimbricus Chersonesus; da, den Kimbriske Halvø, links=no or ; german: Kimbrische Halbinsel, links=no), is a peninsula of ...
) ** Nuithones / Nuitones ** Sabalingioi / Sabalingi **
Saxons The Saxons ( la, Saxones, german: Sachsen, ang, Seaxan, osx, Sahson, nds, Sassen, nl, Saksen) were a group of Germanic peoples, Germanic * * * * peoples whose name was given in the early Middle Ages to a large country (Old Saxony, la, Saxo ...
( Old Saxons) *** Island Saxons / Insular Saxons (in
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. It is separa ...
they merged with the
Angles The Angles ( ang, Ængle, ; la, Angli) were one of the main Germanic peoples who settled in Great Britain Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of , it i ...
and
Jutes The Jutes (), Iuti, or Iutæ ( da, Jyder, non, Jótar, ang, Ēotas) were one of the Germanic people, Germanic tribes who settled in Great Britain after the end of Roman rule in Britain, departure of the Roman Empire, Romans. According to Bede ...
to form the new ethnolinguistic group of the
Anglo-Saxons The Anglo-Saxons were a Cultural identity, cultural group who inhabited England in the Early Middle Ages. They traced their origins to settlers who came to Britain from mainland Europe in the 5th century. However, the ethnogenesis of the Anglo- ...
) *** Mainland Saxons / Continental Saxons (the variants Ga,
Gao Gao , or Gawgaw/Kawkaw, is a city in Mali Mali (; ), officially the Republic of Mali,, , ff, 𞤈𞤫𞤲𞥆𞤣𞤢𞥄𞤲𞤣𞤭 𞤃𞤢𞥄𞤤𞤭, Renndaandi Maali, italics=no, ar, جمهورية مالي, Jumhūriyyāt Māl ...
, Gau, Gabi, Go, Gowe, Gouw, Ge were the word for Gau -
Old Saxon Old Saxon, also known as Old Low German, was a Germanic language and the earliest recorded form of Low German (spoken nowadays in Northern Germany Northern Germany (german: link=no, Norddeutschland) is a linguistic, geographic, socio-cultura ...
or
Old Low German Old Saxon, also known as Old Low German, was a Germanic language The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European languages, Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europ ...
and
Old High German Old High German (OHG; german: Althochdeutsch (Ahd.)) is the earliest stage of the German language, conventionally covering the period from around 750 to 1050. There is no standardised or supra-regional form of German at this period, and Old High ...
term (in modern times '' Kreis'') equivalent of the English
Shire Shire is a traditional term for an administrative division of land in Great Britain and some other English-speaking countries such as Australia and New Zealand. It is generally synonymous with county. It was first used in Wessex from the beginn ...
, regional administration, many times they matched a tribal land or territory,
Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family, with its earliest forms spoken by the inhabita ...
had some traces, some Germanic cognates like ''Ga'' / ''Gа̄'' or ''Ge'', of this meaning which was ousted by
Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family, with its earliest forms spoken by the inhabita ...
''Scire'' -
Shire Shire is a traditional term for an administrative division of land in Great Britain and some other English-speaking countries such as Australia and New Zealand. It is generally synonymous with county. It was first used in Wessex from the beginn ...
, from an early time) **** Agradingun (same as the
Angrivarii The Angrivarii (or ''Angrivari'') were a Germanic people The Germanic peoples were historical groups of people that once occupied Central Europe and Scandinavia during antiquity and into the early Middle Ages. Since the 19th century, they ha ...
or Angarii) **** Myrgingas / Myrgings (tribe of
Widsith "Widsith" ( ang, Wīdsīþ, "far-traveller", lit. "wide-journey"), also known as "The Traveller's Song", is an Old English poem of 143 lines. It survives only in the '' Exeter Book'', a manuscript of Old English poetry compiled in the late-10th ...
, the wandering bard) **** Later Saxons (after merger and assimilation of several
North Sea Germanic North Sea Germanic, also known as Ingvaeonic , is a postulated grouping of the northern West Germanic languages that consists of Old Frisian, Old English language, Old English, and Old Saxon, and their descendants. Ingvaeonic is named after the ...
and
Elbe Germanic Elbe The Elbe (; cs, Labe ; nds, Ilv or ''Elv''; Upper and dsb, Łobjo) is one of the major rivers of Central Europe. It rises in the Giant Mountains of the northern Czech Republic The Czech Republic, or simply Czechia, is ...
peoples and tribes) ***** Nordalbingi (
Nordalbingia Nordalbingia (german: Nordalbingien) (also Northern Albingia) was one of the four administrative regions of the medieval Duchy of Saxony, the others being Angria, Eastphalia, and Westphalia. The region's name is based on the Latin name ''Alba'' f ...
ns) / Nordliudi / Transalbingians (North of the
Elbe The Elbe (; cs, Labe ; nds, Ilv or ''Elv''; Upper and dsb, Łobjo) is one of the major rivers of Central Europe. It rises in the Giant Mountains of the northern Czech Republic The Czech Republic, or simply Czechia, is a landloc ...
, called before
Alba ''Alba'' ( , ) is the Scottish Gaelic name for Scotland. It is also, in English language historiography, used to refer to the polity of Picts and Scottish people, Scots united in the ninth century as the Kingdom of Alba, until it developed i ...
or
Albis The Albis is a chain of hills in the Canton of Zürich, Switzerland ). Swiss law does not designate a ''capital'' as such, but the federal parliament and government are in Bern, while other federal institutions, such as the federal courts, ...
river, in
Holstein Holstein (; nds, label=Northern Low Saxon, Holsteen; da, Holsten; Latin and historical en, Holsatia, italic=yes) is the region between the rivers Elbe and Eider (river), Eider. It is the southern half of Schleswig-Holstein, the northernmost S ...
) (the original land of the
Saxons The Saxons ( la, Saxones, german: Sachsen, ang, Seaxan, osx, Sahson, nds, Sassen, nl, Saksen) were a group of Germanic peoples, Germanic * * * * peoples whose name was given in the early Middle Ages to a large country (Old Saxony, la, Saxo ...
) (their land included the Limes Saxonicus and the
Danish March The terms Danish March and March of Schleswig (german: Dänische Mark or ') are used to refer to a territory in modern-day Schleswig-Holstein north of the Eider (river), Eider and south of the Danevirke. It was established in the early Middle Ag ...
) ****** Holtsaetan / Holtsaeten / Holtsati / Holsatians / Holcetae (''Holt Saetan'' - "Forest / Wood Settlement" or "Forest / Wood Settlers" - from which
Holstein Holstein (; nds, label=Northern Low Saxon, Holsteen; da, Holsten; Latin and historical en, Holsatia, italic=yes) is the region between the rivers Elbe and Eider (river), Eider. It is the southern half of Schleswig-Holstein, the northernmost S ...
originate its name, and not from "Forest Stone") (a Nordalbingian tribe, North of the Elbe river, part of the
Saxon The Saxons ( la, Saxones, german: Sachsen, ang, Seaxan, osx, Sahson, nds, Sassen, nl, Saksen) were a group of Germanic peoples, Germanic * * * * peoples whose name was given in the early Middle Ages to a large country (Old Saxony, la, Saxo ...
tribal confederation) ****** Thietmaresca / Thiadmariska / Men of Ditmarsch (in
Dithmarschen Dithmarschen (, Northern Low Saxon, Low Saxon: ; archaic English: ''Ditmarsh''; da, Ditmarsken; la, label=Medieval Latin, Tedmarsgo) is a district in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. It is bounded by (from the north and clockwise) the districts of ...
) ****** Sturmarians ( Sturmarii / Sturmera) ****** Bardi / Bardongavenses (they lived in Bardengawi / Barden gawi / Bardengau or Barden Gau) ***** Angarians / Angrians (same as the
Angrivarii The Angrivarii (or ''Angrivari'') were a Germanic people The Germanic peoples were historical groups of people that once occupied Central Europe and Scandinavia during antiquity and into the early Middle Ages. Since the 19th century, they ha ...
or Angarii) (in Angaria) (in the plain of
Old Saxony "Old Saxony" is the original homeland of the Saxons. It corresponds roughly to the modern German states of Lower Saxony, eastern part of modern North Rhine-Westphalia state ( Westphalia), Nordalbingia ( Holstein, southern part of Schleswig-H ...
south of the
Elbe The Elbe (; cs, Labe ; nds, Ilv or ''Elv''; Upper and dsb, Łobjo) is one of the major rivers of Central Europe. It rises in the Giant Mountains of the northern Czech Republic The Czech Republic, or simply Czechia, is a landloc ...
and along
Weser The Weser () is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without ...
river valley) ****** Agradingun / Agradine (lived in Agradingo / Agradingo go) ****** Almangas (they lived in Almango or Almango go) ****** Ammeri ****** Bursibani ****** Bucki ****** Dersi ****** Derve ****** Heilungun (they lived in Heilanga / Heilanga ga) ****** Hessi (in Hessa) (a North Hessian tribe assimilated by the Mainland
Saxons The Saxons ( la, Saxones, german: Sachsen, ang, Seaxan, osx, Sahson, nds, Sassen, nl, Saksen) were a group of Germanic peoples, Germanic * * * * peoples whose name was given in the early Middle Ages to a large country (Old Saxony, la, Saxo ...
) ****** Hlisgas (they lived in Hlisgo or Hlisgo go) ****** Hostingabi / Hostinga (they lived in Hostingabi / Hostinga gabi) ****** Huettas (they lived in Huettago or Huetta go) ****** Lagni ****** Lara ****** Lidbeke (they lived in Lidbekegowe or Lidbeke gowe) ****** Lohingi (they lived in Lohingao or Lohingi gao) ****** Moronas (they lived in Moronga or Moron ga) ****** Mosde ****** Netga / Nete (they lived in Netga or Net ga) ****** Pathergi / Padergi (they lived in Patherga or Pather ga) ****** Sturmi ****** Tilithi ****** Waldseti / Waldseton ****** Wehsige (in Wehsigo or Wehsi go) ****** Wigmodia / Wihmodi ( Bremon, today's
Bremen Bremen (Low German also: ''Breem'' or ''Bräm''), officially the City Municipality of Bremen (german: Stadtgemeinde Bremen, ), is the capital of the Germany, German States of Germany, state Bremen (state), Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (''Freie H ...
was in their land) ***** Phalians (in
Phalia Phalia (Urdu ) is a city and headquarters of Phalia Tehsil of Mandi Bahauddin, Mandi Bahauddin District, Punjab (Pakistan), Punjab, Pakistan. History Alexander the Great and his army crossed the Jhelum in July 326 BC at the Battle of the H ...
) (in the plateau of
Old Saxony "Old Saxony" is the original homeland of the Saxons. It corresponds roughly to the modern German states of Lower Saxony, eastern part of modern North Rhine-Westphalia state ( Westphalia), Nordalbingia ( Holstein, southern part of Schleswig-H ...
) ****** Eastphalians ( Ostfalahi) (in
Eastphalia Eastphalia (german: Ostfalen; Eastphalian language, Eastphalian: ''Oostfalen'') is a historical region in northern Germany, encompassing the eastern ''Gau (country subdivision), Gaue'' (shires) of the historic stem duchy of Duchy of Saxony, Saxon ...
) ******* Derlinas (they lived in Derlingowe or Derlin Gowe - Derlingau or Derlin Gau) ******* Flutwide ******* Frisonovel ******* Gretingun / Gretingas (they lived in Gretinga / Gretinga ga) ******* Guottingi / Guddinges / Gotingi (a Gothic tribe that merged and assimilated to the
Saxons The Saxons ( la, Saxones, german: Sachsen, ang, Seaxan, osx, Sahson, nds, Sassen, nl, Saksen) were a group of Germanic peoples, Germanic * * * * peoples whose name was given in the early Middle Ages to a large country (Old Saxony, la, Saxo ...
) (they lived in Guotinga or Guotinga ga or Gotinga ga,
Göttingen Göttingen (, , ; nds, Chöttingen) is a college town, university city in Lower Saxony, central Germany, the Capital (political), capital of Göttingen (district), the eponymous district. The River Leine runs through it. At the end of 2019, t ...
region) ******* Hartinas (lived in Hartingowe or Hartin gowe) ******* Hasi (they lived in Hasigowe or Hasi gowe) *******Hastfalon / Astfalon (they lived in Hastfalagowe or Hastfala gowe) *******Maerstem *******Nordsuavi (in Suavia) (a Northern
Suebi The Suebi (or Suebians, also spelled Suevi, Suavi) were a large group of Germanic peoples originally from the Elbe river region in what is now Germany and the Czech Republic. In the early Roman era they included many peoples with their own names ...
/ Suebi, Suevi tribe that merged and assimilated to the
Saxons The Saxons ( la, Saxones, german: Sachsen, ang, Seaxan, osx, Sahson, nds, Sassen, nl, Saksen) were a group of Germanic peoples, Germanic * * * * peoples whose name was given in the early Middle Ages to a large country (Old Saxony, la, Saxo ...
) *******Nortthuringun (a Northern
Thuringian Thuringian is an East Central German dialect group spoken in much of the modern German Free State of Thuringia north of the Rennsteig ridge, southwestern Saxony-Anhalt and adjacent territories of Hesse and Bavaria. It is close to Upper Saxon Ger ...
tribe that merged and assimilated to the
Saxons The Saxons ( la, Saxones, german: Sachsen, ang, Seaxan, osx, Sahson, nds, Sassen, nl, Saksen) were a group of Germanic peoples, Germanic * * * * peoples whose name was given in the early Middle Ages to a large country (Old Saxony, la, Saxo ...
) (lived in Nortthuringowe or Nort Thurin gowe) *******Salthgas (they lived in Salthga or Salth ga) ******Westphalians (Westphalia, Westfalahi / Westfali) (in Westphalia) *******Angeron (they lived in Angeron) *******Auas (they lived in Auga (Gau), Auga or Au ga) *******Dreini (they lived in Dreini) *******Grainas (they lived in Grainga or Grain ga) *******Hama (tribe), Hama (a tribe descendant of the Chamavi / Chamavi, Hamavi, a Rhine-Weser Germanic peoples, Rhine-Weser Germanic tribe, one component of the
Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples whose name was first mentioned in 3rd-century Roman sources, and associated with tribes between the Lower Rhine and the Ems River, on the edge of the Roman Empire.H. Schutz: Tools, ...
, that was later assimilated by the Mainland
Saxons The Saxons ( la, Saxones, german: Sachsen, ang, Seaxan, osx, Sahson, nds, Sassen, nl, Saksen) were a group of Germanic peoples, Germanic * * * * peoples whose name was given in the early Middle Ages to a large country (Old Saxony, la, Saxo ...
) (they lived in Hamaland or Hama land) ******* Hasi (they lived in Hasagowe) *******Lerige (lived in Lerige or Leri ge) *******Nihthersi *******Scopingun *******Sudergo (lived in Sudergo or Suder go) *******Theotmalli *******Threcwiti *******Westfalon proper *****Aringon *****Firihsetan / Virsedi *****Sahslingun *****Scotelingun *****Steoringun *****Thiadmthora *****Waledungun **Reudigni / Rendingi / Rendingi, Randingi / Rondings, Rondingas / Rondings / Reudigni, Reudignes / Reudingi / Reudigni, Reudinges **Singulones / Sigulones **Sturii (a Germanic tribe that lived south of the
Frisii The Frisii were an ancient Germanic peoples, Germanic tribe living in the low-lying region between the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta and the Ems (river), River Ems, and the presumed or possible ancestors of the modern-day ethnic Dutch people, Du ...
) **Teutones (Teutons) **Anglo-Saxons, Anglo-Jutes-Saxons (Anglo-Saxons, Anglian-Jutish-Saxonian tribes, organized in Tribal Hidages, tribal lands) (new ethnolinguistic group formed by migration toward and settlement of Germanic tribes in Britannia, today's
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. It is separa ...
, and also by assimilation of the conquered Britons (ancient), British Celts) ***
Angles The Angles ( ang, Ængle, ; la, Angli) were one of the main Germanic peoples who settled in Great Britain Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of , it i ...
( Island Angles) ****Northumbrians (North of the Humber River, England, Humber estuary) *****Amoþingas / Amothingas (Emmotland in Yorkshire, anciently ''Aet Eamotum'', perhaps also Amotherley, also in Yorkshire) *****Sunderland, Beodarsæte (Anglian tribe that lived in Sunderland region) *****Elmet, Elmedsætan / Elmetsaete (Elmet) *****Loidis (Anglian tribe that lived in Leeds region) ****Southumbrians (South of the Humber River, England, Humber estuary) *****East Angles / East Anglians (in East Anglia) ******Herstingas (Anglian tribe that lived in Cambridge region) ******Ikelgas (Anglian tribe that lived in Icklingham region) ******Norfolk (tribe), Norfolk (Anglian tribe - "North folk" of East Anglia that lived in Norfolk region) ******Suffolk (tribe), Suffolk (Anglian tribe - "South folk" of East Anglia that lived in Suffolk region) *****Middle Angles / Midlanders (in Mercia, roughly today's Midlands) ******Middle Angles, East Middle Angles / Middle Angles, Middle Angles Proper (roughly in today's Cambridgeshire, Bedfordshire, Hertfordshire, Buckinghamshire and South Oxfordshire) *******Bilmingas / Bilmigas (part of south Lincolnshire) *******Cilternsæte / Cilternsæte, Cilternsætan (Settlers of Chiltern Hills – Middle Anglian tribe or clan) *******Dornwaras (Settlers of river Dorn – Middle Anglian tribe or clan) *******Færpingas / Feppingas / Faerpinga in Middelenglum (Charlbury and near Thame) *******Giflas / Giflas (tribe), Gifle (River Ivel, near Bedford) *******Gyrwas / Gyrwas, Gyrwe (Angle tribe or clan that dwelt in the fen) (in the The Fens, Fens) (near Peterborough region) ********Gyrwas, North Gyrwas / Gyrwas, North Gyrwe ********Gyrwas, Suth Gyrwas / Gyrwas, Suth Gyrwe *********Elge (tribe), Elge (Anglian tribe that lived in ''Isle of Ely, Elge'' - Isle of Ely) *******Hiccas / Hiccas (tribe), Hicce (around today's Hitchin) *******Hurstingas (River Ivel, near Bedford) *******Spaldas / Spaldingas (Anglian tribe that lived in Spalding, Lincolnshire, Spalding region) *******Sweordoras (Whittlesey Mere) *******Wideringas (near Stamford, Lincolnshire, Stamford) *******Wigestas *******Willas / Willas (tribe), Wille ********East Willas / Willas (tribe), East Wille ********West Willas / Willas (tribe), West Wille *******Wixnas ********East Wixnas ********West Wixnas ******Lindisfaras (Anglian tribe that lived in Lindisfarona Tribal Hidage, Lindsey (British subdivision), Lindsey and North Lincolnshire) *******Gaininingas / Gaini (Gainsborough, Lincolnshire) *******Lindisfarningas (an outlier tribe that lived in the Lindisfarne island and region in the Northumbrian kingdom, Northumbrian coast) ******Mercians / Mercia, Mercians Proper (they founded the Kingdom of Mercia, with Mercian conquests of other Middle Angles in the 7th and 8th centuries AD, "Mercian" and "Middle Angles" became almost synonymal) *******North Mercians (the Mercians dwelling north of the River Trent, roughly in today's East Staffordshire, Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire) ********Repton, Reagesate (Anglian tribe that lived in Repton) ********Snotingas (Anglian tribe that occupied the settlement of Nottingham, Snottengaham or Nottingham, Snodengaham - modern Nottingham, Nottinghamshire) *******South Mercians (the Mercians dwelling south of the River Trent, roughly in today's South Staffordshire and North Warwickshire) ********Beormingas (Anglian tribe that lived in Birmingham region) ********Bilsaete (Bilston) ********Pencersaete (Penkridge) ********Tomsaete (Tamworth, Staffordshire) *******Outer Mercians (an early phase of Mercian expansion, possibly 6th century AD, roughly in today's South Lincolnshire, Leicestershire, Rutland, Northamptonshire and North Oxfordshire) ********Undalas (Anglian tribe that lived in Oundle, Undaium region, modern-day Oundle, in Northamptonshire) ********Wideriggas ******Pecsæte / Pecsæte, Pecsætan (Anglian tribe that lived in today's Peak District, roughly in North Derbyshire) *******Herefinnas (Derbyshire) ******Hwicce, Hwiccians / Hwicce, Hwincas (Hwicce) (roughly in today's Gloucestershire, Worcestershire and South Warwickshire) *******Arosæte / Arosæte, Arosaetan (in and around today's Droitwich Spa, Arosætna Tribal Hidage) *******Duddensaete (Dudley) *******Husmerae (Kidderminster) *******Stoppingas (Anglian tribe that lived in Wootton Wawen and the valley of the River Alne in modern-day Warwickshire) *******Weorgoran (Worcester, England, Worcester) ******Westernas (Anglian tribe), Westernas *******Magonsæte / Magonsæte, Magonsætan (roughly in today's Herefordshire and South Shropshire) ********Hahlsæte (Ludlow) ********Temersæte (Hereford) *******Wreocensæte (Wreocensæte, Wrekinsets) (Wreocensæte, Wrēocensǣte, Wreocensæte, Wrōcensǣte, Wreocensæte, Wrōcesǣte, Wreocensæte, Wōcensǣte, Wreocensæte, Wocansaete) (Anglian tribe that lived in Wocansaetna Tribal Hidage) (roughly in today's Northern Shropshire, Flintshire and Cheshire) ********Meresæte (in and around Chester) ********Rhiwsæte (in and around Wroxeter, Shropshire) *******Lancashire, Tribes of the Land Between Ribble and Mersey (Anglian tribes that lived in what is today's Merseyside, in the Mersey Valley Land, today's Manchester and Liverpool region - Greater Manchester, and in south of the Ribble Valley, Ribble Valley Land, today's South Lancashire, roughly today's Lancashire) (a disorganized region under Mercian control from the 7th century AD) ***
Jutes The Jutes (), Iuti, or Iutæ ( da, Jyder, non, Jótar, ang, Ēotas) were one of the Germanic people, Germanic tribes who settled in Great Britain after the end of Roman rule in Britain, departure of the Roman Empire, Romans. According to Bede ...
( Island Jutes) ****Cantwara / Kentish Men, Centingas (Kentish people, Kentish / Kentish Men, in Kent, Cantwarena Tribal Hidage, Kent) *****Andredes Leag (Jute tribe that lived in Andredsley and Newenden region in Kent) *****Boroware (Jute tribe that lived in Canterbury region) *****Ceasterware (Jute tribe that lived in Rochester, Kent region) *****Eastorege (Jute tribe that lived in Sandwich, Kent region) *****Limenwara *****Merscware (Dwellers of Romney Marsh, Kent) ****Wihtwara (Wight Islanders) (Wihtgara Tribal Hidage) (in the Isle of Wight) *****Meonwara / Meonwara, Meonware / Meonwara, Meonsæte (south-east Hampshire and Southampton, mainly on the River Meon, Meon valley) *****Ytenesæte (Jute tribe that lived in what is today's New Forest) ***
Saxons The Saxons ( la, Saxones, german: Sachsen, ang, Seaxan, osx, Sahson, nds, Sassen, nl, Saksen) were a group of Germanic peoples, Germanic * * * * peoples whose name was given in the early Middle Ages to a large country (Old Saxony, la, Saxo ...
( Island Saxons) ****East Saxons (East Saxons, East Secsenas) (in Essex) *****Brahhingas (Saxon tribe centred on the settlement of Braughing in modern-day Hertfordshire) *****Maldon, Essex, Dæningas / Dengie, Daenningas / Dengie, Deningei / Deningel *****Ingatestone, Gegingas *****Harringay, Haeringas *****Royal Liberty of Havering, Haueringas (Saxon tribe or clan that lived in today's London Borough of Havering, East End, London) *****The Rodings, Hroðingas *****Tewingas *****Tooting, Tota *****Waeclingas ****Middle Saxons (in Middlesex, roughly in what is today's Greater London, Hertfordshire, Surrey) *****Bedingas (Bedfordshire) *****Geddingas-Gillingas-Mimmas ******Geddingas ******Ealing, Gillingas (Saxon tribe or clan that lived in today's Ealing, West End, London, West End, London) ******Mimmas *****Harrow on the Hill, Gumeningas (Saxon tribe or clan that lived in today's Harrow on the Hill, West End, London, West End, London) *****Hackney, London, Hakas (Saxon tribe that lived in Hackney, London, Hackney, London) *****Noxgaga / Noxga gā (''gā'' is cognate of '' Gau'') (Berkshire / Thames Valley, Thames Valley Saxons) ******Æbbingas, Æbbingas / Aebbingas (Abingdon-on-Thames, Abingdon) ******Braccingas (Bracknell) ******Readingas (Reading, Berkshire, Reading) ******Sunningas (Sonning) ******Woccingas (Wokingham) *****Paddington, Padendene (Saxon tribe or clan that lived in Paddington, Pæding-tun, modern-day Paddington, London) *****Suther-ge (''ge'' is cognate of '' Gau'') (Surrey) ******Ælffingas (Effingham, Surrey, Effingham) ******Godhelmingas (Godalming) ******Ohtgaga / Ohtga gā (Somewhere in Surrey) ******Totingas (Tooting) ******Wochingas (Woking) ****South Saxons (South Saxons') (Sussex) *****Haestingas (Hastings) ****West Saxons (in Wessex) *****Basingas (Basingstoke) *****Eorlingas (tribe), Eorlingas (Arlingham) *****Glasteningas / Glestingas (Glastonbury) *****Dorset, Dornsaete / Dorset, Dorsætan (Dorset) *****Gewisse (Dorchester on Thames) *****Hendricas (Wiltshire or Test Valley) *****Sumortūnsǣte / Sumorsǣte / Sumorsaete, Sumorsætan (Somerset) *****Unecunga / Unecung (they lived in Unecunga Ga - Unecunga Gau or Land, in the Upper Thames region) *****Wilsæte, Wilsætan (Wiltshire) *Istvaeones, Wesser-Rhine Germanics (
Istvaeones The Istaevones (also spelled Istvaeones) were a Germanic group of tribes living near the banks of the Rhine The Rhine ; french: Rhin ; nl, Rijn ; wa, Rén ; li, Rien; rm, label=Sursilvan, Rein, rm, label=Sutsilvan and Surmiran, Ragn, rm, ...
) **Baetasii / Betasii **Bructeri / Bructeri, Bructeres / Bructeri, Bructuarii / Borthari? (a possible changed name of Bructeri) **Chamavi / Hamavi (they lived in the region today called Hamaland, in the Gelderland province of the Netherlands, between the IJssel and Ems (river), Ems rivers) **Cugerni **Falchovarii **Gambrivii, Gamabrivii / Gambrivii **Incriones **Landoudioi / Landi **Sicambri / Sicambri, Sigambres / Sugambri ***Marsi (Germanic), Marsi ***Marsaci / Marsacii **Salii (tribe), Salii / Salians (before formation of the
Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples whose name was first mentioned in 3rd-century Roman sources, and associated with tribes between the Lower Rhine and the Ems River, on the edge of the Roman Empire.H. Schutz: Tools, ...
) (originally they only inhabited the northern Low
Rhine The Rhine ; french: Rhin ; nl, Rijn ; wa, Rén ; li, Rien; rm, label=Sursilvan, Rein, rm, label=Sutsilvan and Surmiran, Ragn, rm, label=Rumantsch Grischun, Vallader and Puter, Rain; it, Reno ; gsw, Rhi(n), including in Alsatian dialect, Al ...
area, in Salland) (later, those that stayed in Salland, were conquered and assimilated by the
Saxons The Saxons ( la, Saxones, german: Sachsen, ang, Seaxan, osx, Sahson, nds, Sassen, nl, Saksen) were a group of Germanic peoples, Germanic * * * * peoples whose name was given in the early Middle Ages to a large country (Old Saxony, la, Saxo ...
) **Sunici / Sunuci **Tencteri (etymology of the tribe's name is Celtic languages, Celtic) **Tubantes / Tuihanti **Ubii **Usipetes / Usipii / Vispi (etymology of the tribe's name is Celtic languages, Celtic) **
Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples whose name was first mentioned in 3rd-century Roman sources, and associated with tribes between the Lower Rhine and the Ems River, on the edge of the Roman Empire.H. Schutz: Tools, ...
/ Franks, Hugones (formed by the merging of Wesser-Rhine Germanic tribes -
Istvaeones The Istaevones (also spelled Istvaeones) were a Germanic group of tribes living near the banks of the Rhine The Rhine ; french: Rhin ; nl, Rijn ; wa, Rén ; li, Rien; rm, label=Sursilvan, Rein, rm, label=Sutsilvan and Surmiran, Ragn, rm, ...
tribes and by the merging and assimilation of the
Chatti The Chatti (also Chatthi or Catti) were an ancient Germanic peoples, Germanic tribe whose homeland was near the upper Weser (''Visurgis''). They lived in central and northern Hesse and southern Lower Saxony, along the upper reaches of that rive ...
and related tribes) (at the time of the
Migration Period The Migration Period was a period in History of Europe, European history marked by large-scale migrations that saw the fall of the Western Roman Empire and subsequent settlement of its former territories by various tribes, and the establishment ...
and
Decline of the Roman Empire The fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called the fall of the Roman Empire or the fall of Ancient Rome, Rome) was the loss of central political control in the Western Roman Empire, a process in which the Empire failed to enforce its rul ...
, they founded the Frankish Kingdom) (those living in what is today's West Central Germany and the Low Countries, mainly Ripuarian Franks, are the ancestors of the Franconian Germans (traditionally they spoke Franconian languages) and many of the Dutch people, Dutch, those living in what is today's
France France (), officially the French Republic ( ), is a country primarily located in Western Europe. It also comprises of Overseas France, overseas regions and territories in the Americas and the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic, Pacific Ocean, Pac ...
, mainly Salian Franks, were assimilated by the
Gallo-Roman Gallo-Roman culture was a consequence of the Romanization of Gauls under the rule of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Romanum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the p ...
majority, however their
ethnonym An ethnonym () is a name applied to a given ethnic group. Ethnonyms can be divided into two categories: exonyms (whose name of the ethnic group has been created by another group of people) and autonyms, or endonyms (whose name is created and used ...
was the origin for another
ethnonym An ethnonym () is a name applied to a given ethnic group. Ethnonyms can be divided into two categories: exonyms (whose name of the ethnic group has been created by another group of people) and autonyms, or endonyms (whose name is created and used ...
"French people, French" of the French people) ***Ripuarian Franks (originally Rhine river, Rhine river banks Franks, Eastern Austrasia
Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples whose name was first mentioned in 3rd-century Roman sources, and associated with tribes between the Lower Rhine and the Ems River, on the edge of the Roman Empire.H. Schutz: Tools, ...
, Rhineland
Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples whose name was first mentioned in 3rd-century Roman sources, and associated with tribes between the Lower Rhine and the Ems River, on the edge of the Roman Empire.H. Schutz: Tools, ...
in Rhineland,
Hesse Hesse (, , ) or Hessia (, ; german: Hessen ), officially the State of Hessen (german: links=no, Land Hessen), is a States of Germany, state in Germany. Its capital city is Wiesbaden, and the largest urban area is Frankfurt. Two other major histor ...
, Palatinate (region), Palatinate and also in Upper Franconia, that before was
Thuringian Thuringian is an East Central German dialect group spoken in much of the modern German Free State of Thuringia north of the Rennsteig ridge, southwestern Saxony-Anhalt and adjacent territories of Hesse and Bavaria. It is close to Upper Saxon Ger ...
) ****Hessian Franks / Hessians (tribe), Hessians ****Lognai (late Frankish tribe that lived in Lahngau, west of Taunus Mountains) ****Moselle Franks ****Nistresi (Nister (river), Nister Franks? Diemel Franks?) (a late Frankish tribe) ****Suduodi (late Frankish tribe) ****Upper Franconia Franks (originally it was a
Thuringian Thuringian is an East Central German dialect group spoken in much of the modern German Free State of Thuringia north of the Rennsteig ridge, southwestern Saxony-Anhalt and adjacent territories of Hesse and Bavaria. It is close to Upper Saxon Ger ...
region before Frankish conquest) ****Wedrecii (late Frankish tribe that lived in around Wetter (river), Wetter river or Wetterau, east of the Taunus Mountains) ***Salian Franks (originally they inhabited the northern Low
Rhine The Rhine ; french: Rhin ; nl, Rijn ; wa, Rén ; li, Rien; rm, label=Sursilvan, Rein, rm, label=Sutsilvan and Surmiran, Ragn, rm, label=Rumantsch Grischun, Vallader and Puter, Rain; it, Reno ; gsw, Rhi(n), including in Alsatian dialect, Al ...
area, specifically today's Salland, later they expanded in the Low Countries, and most stayed there; even later, many migrated outside Eastern Austrasia, that included Rhineland, and beyond Silva Carbonaria and the Arduenna Silva, outside the original area of Frankish settlement where Gallo-Romans were the majority, scattered throughout the territory of the Kingdom of the Franks, roughly today's
France France (), officially the French Republic ( ), is a country primarily located in Western Europe. It also comprises of Overseas France, overseas regions and territories in the Americas and the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic, Pacific Ocean, Pac ...
, especially the northern regions, Western Austrasia and Neustria, they were later assimilated by the
Gallo-Roman Gallo-Roman culture was a consequence of the Romanization of Gauls under the rule of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Romanum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the p ...
majority) (later, those that stayed in Salland, were conquered and assimilated by the
Saxons The Saxons ( la, Saxones, german: Sachsen, ang, Seaxan, osx, Sahson, nds, Sassen, nl, Saksen) were a group of Germanic peoples, Germanic * * * * peoples whose name was given in the early Middle Ages to a large country (Old Saxony, la, Saxo ...
) ****Low Rhine Franks (Salian Franks that stayed in the Low
Rhine The Rhine ; french: Rhin ; nl, Rijn ; wa, Rén ; li, Rien; rm, label=Sursilvan, Rein, rm, label=Sutsilvan and Surmiran, Ragn, rm, label=Rumantsch Grischun, Vallader and Puter, Rain; it, Reno ; gsw, Rhi(n), including in Alsatian dialect, Al ...
region of Eastern Austrasia, later known as the Low Countries, ancestors of many of the Dutch people, Dutch and Flemish people, Flemish) ****Salians, Western Austrasian Franks (in Western Austrasia, out of the Frank majority regions) ****Salians, Neustrian Franks (in Neustria or Neustrasia, out of the Frank majority regions)


Germanic peoples or tribes of unknown ethnolinguistic kinship

Eight tribes or peoples are only mentioned by the Old Mainland
Saxon The Saxons ( la, Saxones, german: Sachsen, ang, Seaxan, osx, Sahson, nds, Sassen, nl, Saksen) were a group of Germanic peoples, Germanic * * * * peoples whose name was given in the early Middle Ages to a large country (Old Saxony, la, Saxo ...
wandering bard, of the Myrgingas tribe, named
Widsith "Widsith" ( ang, Wīdsīþ, "far-traveller", lit. "wide-journey"), also known as "The Traveller's Song", is an Old English poem of 143 lines. It survives only in the '' Exeter Book'', a manuscript of Old English poetry compiled in the late-10th ...
- Aenenes; Baningas; Deanas (they are differentiated from the
Danes Danes ( da, danskere, ) are a North Germanic peoples, North Germanic ethnic group and nationality native to Denmark and a modern nation identified with the country of Denmark. This connection may be ancestral, legal, historical, or cultural. D ...
); Frumtingas; Herefaran; Hronas or Hronan; Mofdingas and Sycgas (not to be confused with ''Secgan'', short name for the work in
Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family, with its earliest forms spoken by the inhabita ...
called ''On the Resting-Places of the Saints'' about saints' resting places in
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. It is separa ...
).


Ancient peoples with partially Germanic background


Germano-Celtic

*Norse-Gaels (''Austmenn'' - "Eastmen" - "People of the East", people who had come from the East - Scandinavia;
Gaels The Gaels ( ; ga, Na Gaeil ; gd, Na Gàidheil ; gv, Ny Gaeil ) are an ethnolinguistic group native to Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man in the British Isles. They are associated with the Goidelic languages, Gaelic languages: a branch o ...
of
Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic Ocean, in Northwestern Europe, north-western Europe. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel (Grea ...
, Scotland and the Isle of Man were called ''
Vestmenn {{unreferenced, date=August 2016 Vestmenn (''Westmen'' in English) was the Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian, is a stage of development of North Germanic languages, North Germanic dialects before their final divergence int ...
'' - "Westmen" - "People of the West" - British Islands) (people of mixed Gaels, Gaelic and Norse ancestry and culture that was formed in the
Viking Age The Viking Age () was the period during the Middle Ages when Norsemen known as Vikings undertook large-scale raiding, colonizing, conquest, and trading throughout Europe and reached North America. It followed the Migration Period and the Germ ...
) **Norse-Gaels, Norn people (Norðr - People of the North Islands) ***Shetlanders (Shetland, Hjaltar) ***Orcadians **Norse-Gaels, Sodor people (Norse-Gaels, Hebridians-Manese Norse-Gaels) (Sodor - People of the South Islands) ***Norse-Gaels, Hebridians Norse-Gaels ****Norse-Gaels, Outer Hebridians Norse-Gaels ****Norse-Gaels, Inner Hebridians Norse-Gaels ***Norse-Gaels, Man Norse-Gaels **Norse-Gaels, Ireland Norse-Gaels ***Norse-Gaels, Dublin Norse-Gaels ***Norse-Gaels, Wexford Norse-Gaels ***Norse-Gaels, Waterford Norse-Gaels ***Norse-Gaels, Cork Norse-Gaels ***Norse-Gaels, Limerick Norse-Gaels


Germano-Slavic

*Osterwalde (a Mainland Saxon tribe living in the same land and in close contact with the Drevani = "Wood" or "Wood Tribe", the Lipani and the Belesem or Byelozem = "White Earth" or "White Earth Tribe" Slavs, Slavic tribes of the Obotrites, Obodrite confederacy that lived scattered in the west banks of the Elbe river, part of the Polabian Slavs or Elbe Slavs, West Slavs) (they lived in Oster Walde / Osterwalde - "Eastern Woods" in the Old Mainland
Saxon The Saxons ( la, Saxones, german: Sachsen, ang, Seaxan, osx, Sahson, nds, Sassen, nl, Saksen) were a group of Germanic peoples, Germanic * * * * peoples whose name was given in the early Middle Ages to a large country (Old Saxony, la, Saxo ...
view) (Osterwalde and Luneburg Heath also matched the land where the
Langobards The Lombards () or Langobards ( la, Langobardi) were a Germanic peoples, Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774. The medieval Lombard historian Paul the Deacon wrote in the ''History of the Lombards'' (written ...
lived for a time before most of them migrated towards South) (mostly in today's Lower Saxony, in the Hanoverian Wendland, Germany) * Rus’ people, of
Kievan Rus' Kievan Rusʹ, also known as Kyivan Rusʹ ( orv, , Rusĭ, or , , ; Old Norse: ''Garðaríki''), was a state in Eastern Europe, Eastern and Northern Europe from the late 9th to the mid-13th century.John Channon & Robert Hudson, ''Penguin Hist ...
, loose
federation A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central federal government (federalism). In a federation, the self-govern ...
that was ruled by the
Varangian The Varangians (; non, Væringjar; gkm, Βάραγγοι, ''Várangoi''; is a Nordic countries, Nordic c .... Between the 9th and 11th centuries, Varangians ruled the medieval In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medie ...
Rurik dynasty The Rurik dynasty ( be, Ру́рыкавічы, Rúrykavichy; russian: Рю́риковичи, Ryúrikovichi, ; uk, Рю́риковичі, Riúrykovychi, ; literally "sons/scions of Rurik"), also known as the Rurikid dynasty or Rurikids, was ...
(they were formed by a mainly Norsemen, East Norse or North Germanic peoples, East North Germanic minority, the
Varangians The Varangians (; non, Væringjar; gkm, Βάραγγοι, ''Várangoi'';Varangian
" Online Etymo ...
, that came from East Middle Sweden, coastal eastern Sweden or coastal Svealand, around the 8th century AD, from Roslagen in
Sweden Sweden, formally the Kingdom of Sweden,The United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names states that the country's formal name is the Kingdom of SwedenUNGEGN World Geographical Names, Sweden./ref> is a Nordic countries, Nordic c ...
or Roden, Sweden, Roden, that was assimilated by the East Slavic people, East Slavic majority)


Ancient peoples of uncertain origin with possible Germanic or partially Germanic background


Mixed peoples that had some Germanic component


Celtic-Germanic-Iranian

*Bastarnae, an ancient people who between 200 BC and 300 AD inhabited the region between the Carpathian Mountains and the river Dnieper, to the north and east of ancient Dacia, possibly they were originally a Celtic tribe later mixed with Germanic peoples, Germanics and Sarmatians (a group of ancient Iranian peoples) - one possible origin of the name is from Avestan and Old Persian cognate ''bast''- "bound, tied; slave" (cf. Ossetian language, Ossetic ''bættən'' "bind", bast "bound") and Proto-Iranian language, Proto-Iranian *''arna''- "offspring") **Atmoni / Atmoli **Peucini / Peucini, Peucini Bastarnae (a branch of the Bastarnae that lived in the region north of the Danube Delta) (Peucmi? possibly a variant of the name "Peucini") **Sidoni


Possible Germanic or non-Germanic peoples


Germanic or Slavic

*Vistula Veneti / Venedi (more probably a Balto-Slavic people)


Germanic or Celtic

*Anartes (more probably a Celtic tribe later assimilated by Dacians) *Campsiani (originally Celtic people, Celtic, assimilated by Germanic peoples, Germanics) *Cotini / Gotini (more probably a Celtic tribe) *Daliterni, their name was based on a river called Dala in older times (early name of the Veragri, a probable Gauls, Gallic tribe located in present-day
Switzerland ). Swiss law does not designate a ''capital'' as such, but the federal parliament and government are in Bern, while other federal institutions, such as the federal courts, are in other cities (Bellinzona, Lausanne, Luzern, Neuchâtel, St. Gall ...
, in the Valais Swiss canton, canton, however there is the possibility, according to Livy, that they were a half Germanic peoples, Germanic tribe) *Germani Cisrhenani / Tungri? (a collective name for 7 tribes) (names' etymologies of many of the tribes were Celtic languages, Celtic; Belgic people? Chiefs anthroponyms were also Celtic languages, Celtic) **Aduatuci / Atuatuci **Ambivaretes / Ambivareti **Caemani / Paemani **Caeraesi / Caeroesi / Caerosi **Condrusi **Eburones (later Toxandri / Texuandri?) **Segni *Graioceli (more probably a Celtic tribe) *Maeatae / Maeatae, Maiates / Maeatae, Maiatae / Maeatae, Maiati / Maeatae, Miathi (probably a Southern Picts, Pictish tribal confederation beyond and north the Antonine Wall that lived in the land between the Firth of Forth and the Firth of Tay or parts of what is now Clackmannanshire, Fife and Stirlingshire and also in the Isle of May from the 2nd century AD to the 6th and 7th centuries AD; there is also the possibility, although weaker, that they were of Norse origin) *Nemeti / Nemetes / Nemetes, Nemetai (Νεμῆται) (more probably a Celtic tribe by its name Etymology, Toponyms and Theonyms) *Nervii (more probably a Belgic tribal confederation) *Treveri (more probably a Belgic tribe) *Tulingi, Tylangii (more probably a Celtic tribe related to the Tulingi or descendant from them)


Germanic or Dacian

*Carpi (people), Carpi / Carpiani (more probably a Dacian people, Dacian tribe)


Germanic or Iranian

*Taifals (possibly they were a
Sarmatian The Sarmatians (; grc, Σαρμαται, Sarmatai; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally a dialect spoken in the lower Tiber ar ...
Iranian Iranian may refer to: * Iran, a sovereign state * Iranian peoples, the speakers of the Iranian languages. The term Iranic peoples is also used for this term to distinguish the pan ethnic term from Iranian, used for the people of Iran * Iranian lan ...
people assimilated by the
Goths The Goths ( got, 𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌸𐌹𐌿𐌳𐌰, translit=''Gutþiuda''; la, Gothi, grc-gre, Γότθοι, Gótthoi) were a Germanic people who played a major role in the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the emergence of medieval Europe. ...
, before the
Goths The Goths ( got, 𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌸𐌹𐌿𐌳𐌰, translit=''Gutþiuda''; la, Gothi, grc-gre, Γότθοι, Gótthoi) were a Germanic people who played a major role in the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the emergence of medieval Europe. ...
settled in what is today the steppe area of Ukraine, including Crimea, in the 2nd century AD, this area was inhabited by the Sarmatians)


Germanic or Balto-Finnic

*Idumingas / Idumings (more probably a Livonians, Livonian tribe, called Ydumaei by Henricus Lettus or Henricus de Lettis or Henricus Lettus, Heinrich von Lettland, who wrote the ''Livonian Chronicle of Henry, Chronicon Livoniae'' or ''Livonian Chronicle of Henry'') *Kainulaiset, Kvenir / Kainulaiset, Kvænir mentioned in ''Egils Saga'' / Kainulaiset, Kvanes / Kainulaiset, Cwenas mentioned by Ohthere (more probably they were the Kainulaiset, that dwelt in Kvenland, a probable reference to
Saami The Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers' Institute (SAAMI, pronounced "Sammy") is an association of United States, American Manufacturing, manufacturers of firearms, ammunition, and components. SAAMI is an accredited Standards organizatio ...
peoples also called ''Saami peoples, Scridefinnas'' / ''Saami peoples, Screrefennae'' or speakers of a related Uralic language) (over time their name became confused with the
Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian, is a stage of development of North Germanic languages, North Germanic dialects before their final divergence into separate Nordic languages. Old Norse was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and t ...
word ''kván'' or ''kvæn'' - "woman", genitive plural ''kvenna'', and became mistakenly confused with the legendary Amazons, a mythical all-women tribe that had relations with the Gargareans, a mythical all-men tribe)


Mythical founders

Many of the authors relating ethnic names of Germanic peoples speculated concerning their origin, from the earliest writers to approximately the Renaissance. One cross-cultural approach over this more than a millennium of historical speculation was to assign an eponymous ancestor of the same name as, or reconstructed from, the name of the people. For example, Hellen was the founder of the Greeks, Hellenes. Although some Age of Enlightenment, Enlightenment historians continued to repeat these ancient stories as though fact, today they are recognised as manifestly mythological. There was, for example, no Franko, or Francio, ancestor of the Franks. The convergence of data from history, linguistics and archaeology have made this conclusion inevitable. A list of the mythical founders of Germanic peoples follows. *Angul (king), Angul —
Angles The Angles ( ang, Ængle, ; la, Angli) were one of the main Germanic peoples who settled in Great Britain Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of , it i ...
(the List of monarchs of Mercia, Kings of Mercia, according to the ''Anglo-Saxon Chronicle'', other Anglo-Saxon dynasties are derived from other descendants of Woden) *Ask and Embla, Ask —
Istvaeones The Istaevones (also spelled Istvaeones) were a Germanic group of tribes living near the banks of the Rhine The Rhine ; french: Rhin ; nl, Rijn ; wa, Rén ; li, Rien; rm, label=Sursilvan, Rein, rm, label=Sutsilvan and Surmiran, Ragn, rm, ...
*Aurvandil —
Vandals The Vandals were a Germanic peoples, Germanic people who first inhabited what is now southern Poland. They established Vandal Kingdom, Vandal kingdoms on the Iberian Peninsula, Mediterranean islands, and North Africa in the fifth century. The ...
*Burgundus —
Burgundians The Burgundians ( la, Burgundes, Burgundiōnes, Burgundī; on, Burgundar; ang, Burgendas; grc-gre, Βούργουνδοι) were an early Germanic peoples, Germanic tribe or group of tribes. They appeared in the middle Rhine region, near the R ...
(''Historia Brittonum'') *Dan (king), Dan —
Danes Danes ( da, danskere, ) are a North Germanic peoples, North Germanic ethnic group and nationality native to Denmark and a modern nation identified with the country of Denmark. This connection may be ancestral, legal, historical, or cultural. D ...
(''Chronicon Lethrense'') *Francio (king), Francio —
Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples whose name was first mentioned in 3rd-century Roman sources, and associated with tribes between the Lower Rhine and the Ems River, on the edge of the Roman Empire.H. Schutz: Tools, ...
(''Liber Historiae Francorum'') *Gothus —
Goths The Goths ( got, 𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌸𐌹𐌿𐌳𐌰, translit=''Gutþiuda''; la, Gothi, grc-gre, Γότθοι, Gótthoi) were a Germanic people who played a major role in the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the emergence of medieval Europe. ...
/
Geats The Geats ( ; ang, gēatas ; non, gautar ; sv, götar ), sometimes called ''Geats#Goths, Goths'', were a large North Germanic peoples, North Germanic tribe who inhabited ("land of the Geats") in modern southern Sweden from antiquity until the ...
/
Gutes The Gutes (old west norse ''Gotar'', old gutnish ''Gutar'') were a North Germanic tribe inhabiting the island of Gotland. The ethnonym is related to that of the '' Goths'' (''Gutans''), and both names were originally Proto-Germanic Pro ...
*Ingve —
Ingvaeones The Ingaevones were a West Germanic The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches of the Germanic languages, Germanic family of languages (the others being the North Germanic languages, North Germanic and the extin ...
, Ynglings *Irmin (king), Irmin —
Irminones The Irminones, also referred to as Herminones or Hermiones ( grc, Ἑρμίονες), were a large group of early Germanic tribes settling in the Elbe The Elbe (; cs, Labe ; nds, Ilv or ''Elv''; Upper and dsb, Łobjo) is one of the major ...
*Mannus — Manni, or "men", a name fragment as in the later
Alemanni The Alemanni or Alamanni, were a confederation of Germanic tribes * * * on the Upper Rhine River. First mentioned by Cassius Dio Lucius Cassius Dio (), also known as Dio Cassius ( ), was a Roman historian and senator of maternal Greek ori ...
(''
Germania Germania ( ; ), also called Magna Germania (English: ''Great Germania''), Germania Libera (English: ''Free Germania''), or Germanic Barbaricum to distinguish it from the Roman province of the same name, was a large historical region in nort ...
'') *Nór — Norwegians (''Chronicon Lethrense'') *Seaxnēat —
Saxons The Saxons ( la, Saxones, german: Sachsen, ang, Seaxan, osx, Sahson, nds, Sassen, nl, Saksen) were a group of Germanic peoples, Germanic * * * * peoples whose name was given in the early Middle Ages to a large country (Old Saxony, la, Saxo ...


See also

*
Germania Germania ( ; ), also called Magna Germania (English: ''Great Germania''), Germania Libera (English: ''Free Germania''), or Germanic Barbaricum to distinguish it from the Roman province of the same name, was a large historical region in nort ...
*Germanic peoples *Norse clans *Sippe * Tribal Hidage *
Widsith "Widsith" ( ang, Wīdsīþ, "far-traveller", lit. "wide-journey"), also known as "The Traveller's Song", is an Old English poem of 143 lines. It survives only in the '' Exeter Book'', a manuscript of Old English poetry compiled in the late-10th ...
*
Beowulf ''Beowulf'' (; ang, Bēowulf ) is an Old English Epic poetry, epic poem in the tradition of Germanic heroic legend consisting of 3,182 Alliterative verse, alliterative lines. It is one of the most important and List of translations of Beo ...


Notes


References

*Thorsten Andersson: ''Altgermanische Ethnika''. In: ''Namn och bygd. Tidskrift för nordisk ortnamnsforskning''. 97 (2009), , pp. 5–39
PDF; 9.7 MB
total year). *Otto Bremer: ''Ethnographie der germanischen Stämme''. In: Hermann Paul (editor): ''Grundriss der Germanischen Philologie''. volume 2, part 1: ''Literaturgeschichte''. 2nd, improved and enlarged edition. Karl Trübner Verlag, Strasbourg 1900, pp. 735–930. *Ernst Künzl: ''Die Germanen'' (= ''Theiss WissenKompakt''). Konrad Theiss Verlag, Stuttgart 2008, . *Günter Neumann (philologist), Günter Neumann: ''Namenstudien zum Altgermanischen'' (= ''Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde – Ergänzungsbände''. volume 59). Edited by Heinrich Hettrich, Astrid van Nahl. de Gruyter, Berlin/New York 2008, , . *Rudolf Much: ''Die Germania des Tacitus''. 3rd considerable adult edition. Edited by Wolfgang Lange (philologist), Wolfgang Lange in collaboration with Herbert Jankuhn and Hans Fromm. Universitätsverlag Winter, Heidelberg 1967, . *Rudolf Much: ''Deutsche Stammeskunde''. 3rd verb edition. Scientific association. Publisher, Berlin/Leipzig 1920, ; outlook Verlag, Bremen 2015, . *Heinrich Beck (philologist), Heinrich Beck et al. (editor): ''Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde.'' 2nd edition. de Gruyter, Berlin/New York 1972–2008. *Hermann Reichert: ''Lexikon der altgermanischen Namen.'' Publisher of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna 1987, . *Ludwig Rübekeil: ''Völkernamen Europas''. In: Ernst Eichler et al. (editor): ''Namenforschung. Ein internationales Handbuch zur Onomastik''. volume 2, de Gruyter, Berlin/New York 1996, , pp. 1330–1343. *Moritz Schönfeld: ''Wörterbuch der altgermanischen Personen- und Völkernamen nach der Überlieferung des klassischen Altertums'' (= ''Germanische Bibliothek''. department 1: ''Elementar- und Handbücher''. series 4: ''Wörterbücher''. volume 2). Universitätsverlag Winter, Heidelberg 1911, ; Reprints each as 2nd, unchanged edition: (= ''Germanische Bibliothek''. series 3 [much 2]). Winter, Heidelberg 1965, ; Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 1965, . *Ernst Schwarz (Germanist), Ernst Schwarz: ''Germanische Stammeskunde'' (= ''Germanische Bibliothek''. volume 5). Universitätsverlag Winter, Heidelberg 1956, ; reprint: VMA-Verlag, Wiesbaden 2009, . *Alexander Sitzmann, Friedrich E. Grünzweig: ''Altgermanische Ethnonyme. Ein Handbuch zu ihrer Etymologie''. Using a bibliography by Robert Nedoma editor of Hermann Reichert (= ''Philologica Germanica.'' volume 29). Fassbaender, Vienna 2008, . *Reinhard Wenskus: ''Stammesbildung und Verfassung. Das Werden der frühmittelalterlichen gentes''. 2nd, unchanged edition. Böhlau Verlag, Cologne/Vienna 1977, .


External links


Germania of TacitusA speculative Findlay map of 1849
(Geographica). Book 7, Chapters 1 and 2, are about Germania. {{Germanic peoples Early Germanic peoples, Lists of ancient Indo-European peoples and tribes Lists of ancient people, Germanic