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The List of World Heritage in Danger
List of World Heritage in Danger
is compiled by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) through the World Heritage Committee
World Heritage Committee
according to Article 11.4 of the World Heritage Convention,[nb 1] which was established in 1972 to designate and manage World Heritage Sites. Entries in the list are threatened World Heritage Sites for the conservation of which major operations are required and for which "assistance has been requested".[1] The list is intended to increase international awareness of the threats and to encourage counteractive measures.[2] Threats to a site can be either proven imminent threats or potential dangers that could have adverse effects on a site. In the case of natural sites, ascertained dangers include the serious decline in the population of an endangered or other valuable species or the deterioration of natural beauty or scientific value of a property caused by human activities such as logging, pollution, settlement, mining, agriculture and major public works. Ascertained dangers for cultural properties include serious deterioration of materials, structure, ornaments or architectural coherence and the loss of historical authenticity or cultural significance. Potential dangers for both cultural and natural sites include development projects, armed conflicts, insufficient management systems or changes in the legal protective status of the properties. In the case of cultural sites, gradual changes due to geology, climate or environment can also be potential dangers.[3] Before a property is inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger, its condition is assessed and a potential programme for corrective measures is developed in cooperation with the State Party involved. The final decision about inscription is made by the committee. Financial support from the World Heritage Fund may be allocated by the committee for listed properties. The state of conservation is reviewed on a yearly basis, after which the committee may request additional measures, delete the property from the list if the threats have ceased or consider deletion from both the List of World Heritage in Danger and the World Heritage List.[3] Of the two Former UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Sites, the Dresden Elbe Valley
Dresden Elbe Valley
was delisted after placement on the List of World Heritage in Danger
List of World Heritage in Danger
while the Arabian Oryx Sanctuary was directly delisted.[4][5] As of 2017, there are 54 entries (17 natural, 37 cultural) on the List of World Heritage in Danger.[6] Some sites have been designated as World Heritage Sites and World Heritage in Danger in the same year, such as the Church of the Nativity, traditionally considered to be the birthplace of Jesus. Arranged by the UNESCO
UNESCO
regions 22 of the listed sites are located in the Arab States (of which 7 are located in Syria and 5 in Libya), 15 in Africa (of which 5 are in the Democratic Republic of the Congo), 7 in Latin America and the Caribbean, 6 in Asia and the Pacific, and 4 in Europe and North America (all by 2017). The majority of the endangered natural sites (11) are located in Africa.[7] In some cases, danger listing has sparked conservation efforts and prompted the release of funds, resulting in a positive development for sites such as the Galápagos Islands
Galápagos Islands
and Yellowstone National Park, both of which have subsequently been removed from the List of World Heritage in Danger. Despite this, the list itself and UNESCO's implementation of it have been the focus of criticism.[8][9] In particular, States Parties and other stakeholders of World Heritage Sites have questioned the authority of the Committee to declare a site in danger without their consent.[10] Until 1992, when UNESCO
UNESCO
set a precedent by placing several sites on the danger list against their wishes, States Parties would have submitted a programme of corrective measures before a site could be listed.[11] Instead of being used as intended, the List of World Heritage in Danger
List of World Heritage in Danger
is perceived by some states as a black list and according to Christina Cameron, Professor at the School of Architecture, Canada Research Chair on Built Heritage, University of Montreal, has been used as political tool to get the attention of States Parties.[12][13] The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) notes that UNESCO
UNESCO
has referenced the List of World Heritage in Danger
List of World Heritage in Danger
(without actually listing the site) in a number of cases where the threat could be easily addressed by the State Party.[14] The Union also argues that keeping a site listed as endangered over a long period is questionable and that other mechanisms for conservation should be sought in these cases.[15]

Contents

1 Currently listed sites 2 Previously listed sites 3 Notes 4 References 5 External links

Currently listed sites[edit]

Map this section's coordinates using: OpenStreetMap · Google Maps

Download coordinates as: KML · GPX

Table legend

Name: as listed by the World Heritage Committee[16] Location: at city or provincial level and country name, with coordinates; column sorts by state[nb 2] Criteria: the site was listed under Area: in hectares and acres if provided by UNESCO Year (WHS): the year the site was inscribed on the World Heritage List Endangered: the year the site appeared on the List of World Heritage in Danger Reason: threats to the site which prompted UNESCO
UNESCO
to list it as in danger

  * Trans-border site

Name Image Location Criteria Area ha (acre) Year (WHS) Endangered Reason Refs

Abu Mena

EgyAbusir,  Egypt 30°50′30″N 29°39′50″E / 30.84167°N 29.66389°E / 30.84167; 29.66389 (Abu Mena) Cultural: (iv) 7006182000000000000♠182 (450) 1979 2001– Cave-ins in the area caused by the clay at the surface, which becomes semi-liquid when met with "excess water" [17][18] [19]

Air and Ténéré Natural Reserves

Niger1Arlit Department,  Niger 18°17′N 8°0′E / 18.283°N 8.000°E / 18.283; 8.000 (Air and Ténéré Natural Reserves) Natural: (vii), (ix), (x) 7010773600000000000♠7,736,000 (19,120,000) 1991 1992– Military conflict and civil disturbance in the region as well as a reduction of wildlife population and degradation of the vegetation cover [20][21]

Ancient City of Aleppo

Syria
Syria
!Aleppo Governorate,  Syria 36°14′N 37°10′E / 36.233°N 37.167°E / 36.233; 37.167 (Ancient City of Aleppo) Cultural: (iii)(iv) 7006350000000000000♠350 (860) 1986 2013– Syrian Civil War, currently held by the government. Bombings continue threatening the site. [22]

Ancient City of Bosra

Syria
Syria
!Daraa Governorate,  Syria 32°31′5″N 36°28′54″E / 32.51806°N 36.48167°E / 32.51806; 36.48167 (Ancient City of Bosra) Cultural: (i)(iii)(vi) — 1980 2013– Syrian Civil War, held by the government. [23]

Ancient City of Damascus

Syria
Syria
!Damascus Governorate,  Syria 33°30′41″N 36°18′23″E / 33.51139°N 36.30639°E / 33.51139; 36.30639 (Ancient City of Damascus) Cultural: (i)(ii)(iii)(iv)(vi) 7005860000000000000♠86 (210) 1979 2013– Syrian Civil War, rebel gunfire and mortar shelling, mainly from adjacent Jobar
Jobar
suburb endangers foundations. [24]

Ancient Villages of Northern Syria

Syria
Syria
! Syria 36°20′3″N 36°50′39″E / 36.33417°N 36.84417°E / 36.33417; 36.84417 (Ancient Villages of Northern Syria) Cultural: (iii)(iv)(v) 7008122900000000000♠12,290 (30,400) 2011 2013– Syrian Civil War, some held by rebels. Reports of looting and demolitions by Islamist groups. [25]

Archaeological Site of Cyrene

LibJebel Akhdar,  Libya 32°49′30″N 21°51′30″E / 32.82500°N 21.85833°E / 32.82500; 21.85833 (Archaeological Site of Cyrene) Cultural: (ii), (iii), (vi) 5000000000000000000♠— 1982 2016– Libyan Civil War, presence of armed groups, already incurred and potential further damage. [26][27]

Archaeological Site of Leptis Magna

LibKhoms,  Libya 32°38′18″N 14°17′35″E / 32.63833°N 14.29306°E / 32.63833; 14.29306 (Archaeological Site of Leptis Magna) Cultural: (i), (ii), (iii) 5000000000000000000♠— 1982 2016– Libyan Civil War, presence of armed groups, already incurred and potential further damage. [27][28]

Archaeological Site of Sabratha

LibSabratha,  Libya 32°48′19″N 12°29′6″E / 32.80528°N 12.48500°E / 32.80528; 12.48500 (Archaeological Site of Sabratha) Cultural: (iii) 5000000000000000000♠— 1982 2016– Libyan Civil War, presence of armed groups, already incurred and potential further damage. [27][29]

Ashur (Qal'at Sherqat)

IraqSalah ad Din,  Iraq 35°27′24″N 43°15′45″E / 35.45667°N 43.26250°E / 35.45667; 43.26250 (Ashur) Cultural: (iii), (iv) 7005700000000000000♠70 (170) 2003 2003– A planned reservoir that would have partially flooded the site was suspended in the wake of the Iraq War
Iraq War
by the new administration; lack of adequate protection. [30][31]

Belize Barrier Reef Reserve System

BelBelize, Stann Creek and Toledo  Belize 17°19′N 87°32′W / 17.317°N 87.533°W / 17.317; -87.533 (Belize Barrier Reef Reserve System) Natural: (vii), (ix), (x) 7008963000000000000♠96,300 (238,000) 1996 2009– Mangrove cutting and excessive development [32][33]

Chan Chan Archaeological Zone

PerLa Libertad,  Peru 8°6′40″S 79°4′30″W / 8.11111°S 79.07500°W / -8.11111; -79.07500 (Chan Chan Archaeological Zone) Cultural: (i), (iii) 7006600000000000000♠600 (1,500) 1986 1986– Natural erosion [34][35]

Birthplace of Jesus: Church of the Nativity
Church of the Nativity
and the Pilgrimage Route, Bethlehem

Pal Bethlehem,  Palestine 31°42′16″N 35°12′27″E / 31.70444°N 35.20750°E / 31.70444; 35.20750 (Birthplace of Jesus: Church of the Nativity
Church of the Nativity
and the Pilgrimage Route, Bethlehem) Cultural: (iv), (vi) 7004298000000000000♠2.98 (7.4) 2012 2012– Damage due to water leaks; however current restoration work is taking place to save the site. [36][37]

City of Potosí

Potosí,  Bolivia 19°35′1″S 65°45′11″W / 19.58361°S 65.75306°W / -19.58361; -65.75306

Cultural: (ii), (iv), (vi)

5000000000000000000♠5000000000000000000♠5000000000000000000♠ 1987 2014– Continued mining has left the mountain porous and unstable, causing portions of the summit to collapse, also the target of future mining by the Bolivian Mining Corp. Recommendations to preserve the site have not been followed through. [38]

Coro and its Port

VenFalcón,  Venezuela 11°25′N 69°40′W / 11.417°N 69.667°W / 11.417; -69.667 (Coro and its Port) Cultural: (iv), (v) 7006107000000000000♠107 (260) 1993 2005– Damage to a great number of structures due to heavy rain between November 2004 and February 2005 as well as the construction of a new monument, a beach walkway and an entrance gate to the city in the buffer zone which could have considerable impact on the value of the site [39][40]

Crac des Chevaliers and Qal’at Salah El-Din

Syria
Syria
!Homs and Latakia Governorates,  Syria 34°46′54″N 36°15′47″E / 34.78167°N 36.26306°E / 34.78167; 36.26306 (Crac des Chevaliers and Qal’at Salah El-Din) Cultural: (ii)(iv) 7004900000000000000♠9 (22) 2006 2013– Syrian Civil War, once held by Al-Nusra Front
Al-Nusra Front
and other Islamist groups, reclaimed by Syrian Arab Army
Syrian Arab Army
and Hezbollah
Hezbollah
fighters. Reports of damages and looting caused by Islamist groups was released by the government. [41]

Cultural Landscape and Archaeological Remains of the Bamiyan Valley

AfgBamyan,  Afghanistan 34°49′55″N 67°49′36″E / 34.83194°N 67.82667°E / 34.83194; 67.82667 (Cultural Landscape and Archaeological Remains of the Bamiyan Valley) Cultural: (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (vi) 7006159000000000000♠159 (390) 2003 2003– Fragile conservation state due to abandonment, military action and dynamite explosions; causing dangers such as risk of collapse of Buddha niches, further deterioration of cave murals, looting and illicit excavations. Destruction during the rule of Taliban
Taliban
due to their teachings that the statues are abominations to Islam. [42][43]

East Rennell

Solomon IslandRennell and Bellona Province,  Solomon Islands 11°40′59″S 160°10′59″E / 11.68306°S 160.18306°E / -11.68306; 160.18306 (East Rennell) Natural: (ix) 7008370000000000000♠37,000 (91,000) 1998 2013– Damage to the site due to logging and its effect on the local ecoystem [44]

Everglades National Park

United StatesFlorida,  United States 25°19′N 80°56′W / 25.317°N 80.933°W / 25.317; -80.933 (Everglades National Park) Natural: (viii), (ix), (x) 7009592920000000000♠592,920 (1,465,100) 1979 1993–2007, 2010– Damage due to Hurricane Andrew
Hurricane Andrew
and deterioration of water flow and quality due to agricultural and urban development (1993); continued degradation of the site resulting in a loss of marine habitat and decline in marine species (2010) [45][46] [47]

Fortifications on the Caribbean Side of Panama: Portobelo-San Lorenzo

PanColón Province,  Panama 9°33′14″N 79°39′21″W / 9.55389°N 79.65583°W / 9.55389; -79.65583 (Fortifications on the Caribbean Side of Panama: Portobelo-San Lorenzo) Cultural: (i), (iv) 5000000000000000000♠— 1980 2012– Environmental factors, lack of maintenance and urban development [48][49]

Garamba National Park

DemOrientale,  Democratic Republic of the Congo 4°0′N 29°15′E / 4.000°N 29.250°E / 4.000; 29.250 (Garamba National Park) Natural: (vii), (x) 7009500000000000000♠500,000 (1,200,000) 1980 1984–1992, 1996– Reduction of Northern White Rhinoceros
Northern White Rhinoceros
population (1984); poaching of two white rhinos, killing of three rangers and no plan for corrective measures by the authorities (1996) [50][51] [52]

Hatra

IrqNineveh Governorate,  Iraq 35°35′17″N 42°43′6″E / 35.58806°N 42.71833°E / 35.58806; 42.71833 (Hatra) Cultural: (ii), (iii), (iv), (vi) 7006324000000000000♠324 (800) 1985 2015– Damage inflicted to the property by armed groups [53]

Hebron/Al-Khalil Old Town

Pal Hebron
Hebron
Governorate,  Palestine 31°31′27″N 35°6′32″E / 31.52417°N 35.10889°E / 31.52417; 35.10889 (Hebron/Al-Khalil Old Town) Cultural: (ii), (iv), (vi) 7005206000000000000♠20.6 (51) 2017 2017–

[54]

Historic Centre of Shakhrisyabz

UzbQashqadaryo Region,  Uzbekistan 39°3′0″N 66°50′0″E / 39.05000°N 66.83333°E / 39.05000; 66.83333 (Historic Centre of Shakhrisyabz) Cultural: (iii), (iv) 7006240000000000000♠240 (590) 2000 2016– Destruction of buildings in its medieval neighbourhoods and continuing urban development. [55][56]

Historic Centre of Vienna

Aut Vienna,  Austria 48°12′N 16°22′E / 48.200°N 16.367°E / 48.200; 16.367 (Vienna) Cultural: (ii)(iv)(vi) 7006371000000000000♠371 (920) 2001 2017– New high-rise projects [57]

Historic Town of Zabīd

YemAl Hudaydah,  Yemen 14°12′N 43°19′E / 14.200°N 43.317°E / 14.200; 43.317 (Historic Town of Zabīd) Cultural: (ii), (iv), (vi) 5000000000000000000♠— 1993 2000– Deteriorating state of historic buildings, inscribed on request of the State Party [58][59]

Humberstone and Santa Laura Saltpeter Works

ChilTarapacá,  Chile 20°12′30″S 69°47′40″W / 20.20833°S 69.79444°W / -20.20833; -69.79444 (Humberstone and Santa Laura Saltpeter Works) Cultural: (ii), (iii), (iv) 5000000000000000000♠— 2005 2005– Fragile nature of structures due to lack of maintenance for 40 years; also damage, vandalism and some dismantling; looting [60][61]

Kahuzi-Biega National Park

DemSouth Kivu and Maniema,  Democratic Republic of the Congo 2°30′S 28°45′E / 2.500°S 28.750°E / -2.500; 28.750 (Kahuzi-Biega National Park) Natural: (x) 7009600000000000000♠600,000 (1,500,000) 1980 1997– Deforestation, hunting as well as war and civil strife [62][63]

Liverpool
Liverpool
– Maritime Mercantile City

United KingdomLiverpool England,  United Kingdom 53°24′24″N 2°50′40″W / 53.40667°N 2.84444°W / 53.40667; -2.84444 ( Liverpool
Liverpool
– Maritime Mercantile City) Cultural: (ii), (iii), (iv) 7006136000000000000♠136 (340) 2004 2012– Due to the proposed redevelopment of historic docklands known as Liverpool
Liverpool
Waters [64][65]

Manovo-Gounda St Floris National Park

CenBamingui-Bangoran,  Central African Republic 9°0′N 21°30′E / 9.000°N 21.500°E / 9.000; 21.500 (Manovo-Gounda St Floris National Park) Natural: (ix), (x) 7010174000000000000♠1,740,000 (4,300,000) 1988 1997– Illegal grazing and poaching, deteriorating security situation [66][67]

Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam

AfgGhōr,  Afghanistan 34°23′48″N 64°30′58″E / 34.39667°N 64.51611°E / 34.39667; 64.51611 (Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam) Cultural: (ii), (iii), (iv) 7005700000000000000♠70 (170) 2002 2002– Lack of legal protection, lack of protection measure or management plan, poor condition of the site [68][69]

Medieval Monuments in Kosovo

Kosovo[a] 42°39′40″N 20°15′56″E / 42.66111°N 20.26556°E / 42.66111; 20.26556 (Medieval Monuments in Kosovo) Cultural: (ii), (iii), (iv) 7004288000000000000♠2.88 (7.1) 2004 2006– Lack of legal protection and management; political instability and security [70][71]

Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve

CotLola Prefecture,  Côte d'Ivoire*  Guinea* 7°36′N 8°23′W / 7.600°N 8.383°W / 7.600; -8.383 (Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve) Natural: (ix), (x) 7008180000000000000♠18,000 (44,000) 1981 1992– Iron ore mining concession on part of the World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
and influx of large number of refugees on the Guinean part of the site [72][73]

Nan Madol: Ceremonial Centre of Eastern Micronesia

MicronesiaTemwen Island,  Micronesia 6°50′23″N 158°19′51″E / 6.83972°N 158.33083°E / 6.83972; 158.33083 (Nan Madol: Ceremonial Centre of Eastern Micronesia) Cultural: (i), (iii), (iv), (vi) 7005767000000000000♠76.7 (190) 2016 2016– Continuing siltation of waterways contributing to overgrowth and undermining existing structures. [74][75]

Niokolo-Koba National Park

SenTambacounda Region and Kédougou Region,  Senegal 13°0′N 12°40′W / 13.000°N 12.667°W / 13.000; -12.667 (Niokolo-Koba National Park) Natural: (x) 7009913000000000000♠913,000 (2,260,000) 1981 2007– Degradation of property, low mammal population, management problems and impact of a proposed dam on the Gambia River [76][77]

Okapi Wildlife Reserve

Dem Orientale,  Democratic Republic of the Congo 2°0′N 28°30′E / 2.000°N 28.500°E / 2.000; 28.500 (Okapi Wildlife Reserve) Natural: (x) 7010137262500000000♠1,372,625 (3,391,830) 1996 1997– Looting of park facilities and killing of elephants as a result of an armed conflict in the area [78][79]

Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls

JerJerusalem District (no nation named by UNESCO)[nb 3] 31°46′36″N 35°14′3″E / 31.77667°N 35.23417°E / 31.77667; 35.23417 (Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls) Cultural: (ii), (iii), (vi) 5000000000000000000♠— 1981 1982– Uncontrolled urban development, general deterioration of the state of conservation due to tourism and lack of maintenance. [80][81][82]

Old City of Sana'a

Yem Sana'a
Sana'a
Governorate,  Yemen 15°21′20″N 44°12′29″E / 15.35556°N 44.20806°E / 15.35556; 44.20806 (Sana'a) Cultural: (iv), (v), (vi) 5000000000000000000♠— 1986 2015– Yemeni Civil War [83]

Old Town of Ghadamès

LibGhadames,  Libya 30°08′00″N 9°30′00″E / 30.13333°N 9.50000°E / 30.13333; 9.50000 (Old Town of Ghadamès) Cultural: (v) 5000000000000000000♠— 1986 2016– Libyan Civil War, presence of armed groups, already incurred and potential further damage. [27][84]

Old Towns of Djenné

MalDjenné,  Mali 13°54′23″N 4°33′18″W / 13.90639°N 4.55500°W / 13.90639; -4.55500 (Old Towns of Djenné) Cultural: (iii), (iv) 5000000000000000000♠— 1988 2016– Regional insecurity, deteriorating state of the historic town, urbanization and erosion. [85][86]

Palestine: Land of Olives and Vines – Cultural Landscape of Southern Jerusalem, Battir

Pal Battir,  Palestine 31°43′11″N 35°7′50″E / 31.71972°N 35.13056°E / 31.71972; 35.13056 (Palestine: Land of Olives and Vines – Cultural Landscape of Southern Jerusalem, Battir) Cultural: (iv)(v) 7006349000000000000♠349 (860) 2014 2014– The Israeli West Bank barrier
Israeli West Bank barrier
"may isolate farmers from fields they have cultivated for centuries". [87][88]

Old Walled City of Shibam

YemHadhramaut Governorate,  Yemen 15°55′37″N 48°37′36″E / 15.92694°N 48.62667°E / 15.92694; 48.62667 (Shibam) Cultural: (iii), (iv), (v) 5000000000000000000♠— 1982 2015– Potential threat from the armed conflict, compounding safeguarding and management problems already observed at the site [83]

Rainforests of the Atsinanana

MadEastern Madagascar,  Madagascar 14°28′S 49°42′E / 14.467°S 49.700°E / -14.467; 49.700 (Rainforests of the Atsinanana) Natural: (ix), (x) 7009479660000000000♠479,660 (1,185,300) 2007 2010– Illegal logging and hunting of endangered lemurs [89][90]

Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve

HonLa Mosquitia,  Honduras 15°44′40″N 84°40′30″W / 15.74444°N 84.67500°W / 15.74444; -84.67500 (Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve) Natural: (vii), (viii), (ix), (x) 5000000000000000000♠— 1982 1996–2007, 2011– Logging, fishing and land occupation; poaching and the reduced capacity of the state to manage the site; largely due to the deterioration of law and to the presence of drug traffickers [91][92]

Rock-Art Sites of Tadrart Acacus

LibFezzan,  Libya 24°50′N 10°20′E / 24.833°N 10.333°E / 24.833; 10.333 (Rock-Art Sites of Tadrart Acacus) Cultural: (iii) 5000000000000000000♠— 1985 2016– Libyan Civil War, presence of armed groups, already incurred and potential further damage. [27][93]

Salonga National Park

DemÉquateur and Bandundu Province,  Democratic Republic of the Congo 2°S 21°E / 2°S 21°E / -2; 21 (Salonga National Park) Natural: (vii), (ix) 7010360000000000000♠3,600,000 (8,900,000) 1984 1999– Breakdown of civil order [94][95] [96]

Samarra Archaeological City

IraqSalah ad Din,  Iraq 34°12′N 43°52′E / 34.200°N 43.867°E / 34.200; 43.867 (Samarra Archaeological City) Cultural: (ii), (iii), (iv) 7008150580000000000♠15,058 (37,210) 2007 2007– Security situation following the Iraq War
Iraq War
and lack of state control for protection or management of the site [97][98]

Selous Game Reserve

Coast, Morogoro, Lindi, Mtwara and Ruvuma Regions,  Tanzania, 9°0′0″S 37°24′0″E / 9.00000°S 37.40000°E / -9.00000; 37.40000

Natural: (ix), (x)

5,120,000 1982 2014– Exploration and extraction of minerals, large infrastructure projects [99]

Site of Palmyra

Syria
Syria
!Homs Governorate,  Syria 34°33′15″N 38°16′0″E / 34.55417°N 38.26667°E / 34.55417; 38.26667 (Site of Palmyra) Cultural: (i)(ii)(iv) 7003360000000000000♠0.36 (0.89) 1980 2013– Syrian Civil War, captured by the notoriously iconoclastic Islamic State terrorist organization (ISIS). [100]

Timbuktu

MalTimbuktu, Timbuktu
Timbuktu
Region,  Mali 16°46′24″N 2°59′58″W / 16.77333°N 2.99944°W / 16.77333; -2.99944 (Timbuktu) Cultural: (ii), (iv), (v) 5000000000000000000♠— 1988 2012– Threat of destruction by the Islamist groups like Al-Qaeda in Islamic Maghreb, Ansar Dine
Ansar Dine
and Boko Haram. Some monuments are now pillaged and destroyed. [101][102]

Tomb of Askia

MalGao, Gao
Gao
Region,  Mali 16°17′22″N 0°2′42″E / 16.28944°N 0.04500°E / 16.28944; 0.04500 (Tomb of Askia) Cultural: (ii), (iii), (iv) 7004424000000000000♠4.24 (10.5) 2004 2012– Damaged by Islamist groups like Al-Qaeda in Islamic Maghreb
Al-Qaeda in Islamic Maghreb
and Ansar Dine. Reported destroyed by Ansar Dine
Ansar Dine
when they captured Timbuktu. [102][103]

Tombs of Buganda Kings at Kasubi

UgandaKampala District,  Uganda 0°19′45″N 32°33′12″E / 0.32917°N 32.55333°E / 0.32917; 32.55333 (Tombs of Buganda Kings at Kasubi) Cultural: (i), (iii), (iv), (vi) 7005270000000000000♠27 (67) 2001 2010– Destruction of the Muzibu Azaala Mpanga, the main building of the site, by fire in March 2010 [104][105]

Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra

IndonesiaSumatra,  Indonesia 02°30′S 101°30′E / 2.500°S 101.500°E / -2.500; 101.500 (Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra) Natural: (vii), (ix), (x) 7010259512400000000♠2,595,124 (6,412,690) 2004 2011– Poaching, illegal logging, agricultural encroachment, and plans to build roads through the site [106][107]

Virunga National Park

DemNorth Kivu and Orientale,  Democratic Republic of the Congo 0°55′N 29°10′E / 0.917°N 29.167°E / 0.917; 29.167 (Virunga National Park) Natural: (vii), (viii), (x) 7009800000000000000♠800,000 (2,000,000) 1979 1994– Deforestation and poaching as a result of the influx of refugees due to the Rwandan Civil War [108][109]

Previously listed sites[edit]

Map this section's coordinates using: OpenStreetMap · Google Maps

Download coordinates as: KML · GPX

There are a number of sites that were previously listed as being in danger, but they were later removed from the list after improvements in management and conservation. The Everglades National Park
Everglades National Park
was listed from 1993 to 2007 and again since 2010; the Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve was listed from 1996 to 2007 and again since 2011. Both are therefore included in the list of currently listed sites (above).

  Delisted as a World Heritage Site

Name Image Location Criteria Area ha (acre) Year (WHS) Endangered Reason Refs

Angkor

Cambodia !Siem Reap Province,  Cambodia 13°26′N 103°50′E / 13.433°N 103.833°E / 13.433; 103.833 (Angkor) Cultural: (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) 5000000000000000000♠ —

1992 1992–2004 Inscription initially limited to a three-year period (1993–1995) during which effective legal protection, boundary and buffer zones were to be established and international conservation efforts were to be monitored and coordinated; at the time of inscription, Cambodia was UN-controlled following the civil war in the 1980s. [110][111] [112]

Bagrati Cathedral
Bagrati Cathedral
and Gelati Monastery

GeorImereti,  Georgia 42°15′44″N 42°42′59″E / 42.26222°N 42.71639°E / 42.26222; 42.71639 ( Bagrati Cathedral
Bagrati Cathedral
and Gelati Monastery) Cultural: (iv) 7004787000000000000♠7.87 (19.4) 1994 2010–2017 Major reconstruction project that will lead to irreversible interventions. The boundaries of the site was modified in 2017.[nb 4] [113][114][115]

Bahla
Bahla
Fort

Oman !Bahla,  Oman 22°58′N 57°18′E / 22.967°N 57.300°E / 22.967; 57.300 ( Bahla
Bahla
Fort) Cultural: (iv) 5000000000000000000♠ —

1987 1988–2004 Degradation of earth structures of the fort and of the oasis of Bahla [116][117] [118][119]

Bam and its Cultural Landscape

IranKerman,  Iran 29°07′01″N 58°22′07″E / 29.11694°N 58.36861°E / 29.11694; 58.36861 (Bam and its Cultural Landscape) Cultural: (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) 5000000000000000000♠— 2004 2004–2013 Following the damage due to the 2003 Bam earthquake [120][121][122]

Butrint

Albania !Sarandë District,  Albania 39°45′N 20°1′E / 39.750°N 20.017°E / 39.750; 20.017 (Butrint) Cultural: (iii) 7007398000000000000♠3,980 (9,800) 1992 1997–2005 Damages due to management and conservation [123][124] [125]

Cologne Cathedral

Germany !North Rhine-Westphalia,  Germany 50°56′29″N 6°57′29″E / 50.94139°N 6.95806°E / 50.94139; 6.95806 (Cologne Cathedral) Cultural: (i), (ii), (iv) 5000000000000000000♠ —

1996 2004–2006 High-rise building plan near the cathedral threatening to inflict damage to the integrity of the property; delisted[nb 4] after the building plan was halted and a buffer zone introduced [126][127] [128]

Comoé National Park

CotZanzan,  Côte d'Ivoire 9°10′N 3°40′W / 9.167°N 3.667°W / 9.167; -3.667 (Comoé National Park) Natural: (ix), (x) 7010115000000000000♠1,150,000 (2,800,000) 1983 2003–2017 Civil unrest, poaching and lack of effective management mechanisms [129][130]

Djoudj National Bird Sanctuary

Senegal !Biffeche,  Senegal 16°30′N 16°10′W / 16.500°N 16.167°W / 16.500; -16.167 (Djoudj National Bird Sanctuary) Natural: (vii), (x) 7008160000000000000♠16,000 (40,000) 1981 1984–1988, 2000–2006 Long term threat by construction plan for a down-stream dam (1984); delisted[nb 4] (1988) as water supply to the park was insured by the construction of a sluice and a management plan was being prepared; relisted[nb 5] (2000) due to environmental and economical threats posed by the introduced species Salvinia molesta
Salvinia molesta
and Pistia stratiotes as well as issues with water management in the park [51][131] [132][133] [134][135]

Dresden Elbe Valley

Germany !Saxony,  Germany 51°3′N 13°49′E / 51.050°N 13.817°E / 51.050; 13.817 (Dresden Elbe Valley) Cultural: (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) 7007193000000000000♠1,930 (4,800) 2004 2006–2009 Construction plans for the Waldschlösschen Bridge
Waldschlösschen Bridge
in the core area of the cultural landscape; removed from the list of World Heritage Sites in 2009 after construction commenced at the end of 2007 [136][137]

Dubrovnik

Croatia !Dubrovnik-Neretva County,  Croatia 42°38′25″N 18°06′30″E / 42.64028°N 18.10833°E / 42.64028; 18.10833 (Dubrovnik) Cultural: (i), (iii), (iv) 7005970000000000000♠97 (240) 1979 1991–1998 Croatian War of Independence [138][139] [140]

Fort and Shalamar Gardens in Lahore

PakPunjab,  Pakistan 31°35′25″N 74°18′35″E / 31.59028°N 74.30972°E / 31.59028; 74.30972 (Fort and Shalamar Gardens in Lahore) Cultural: (i), (ii), (iii) 5000000000000000000♠— 1981 2000–2012 Destruction of historic water tanks in 1999 to widen a road and deteriorating perimeter walls of the Garden, listed on request of the Pakistan government [141][142]

Galápagos Islands

Ecuador !Galápagos Province,  Ecuador 0°40′S 90°30′W / 0.667°S 90.500°W / -0.667; -90.500 (Galápagos Islands) Natural: (vii), (viii), (ix), (x) 7011140665140000000♠14,066,514 (34,759,110) 1978 2007–2010 Various threats including insufficient prevention of possibilities for the introduction of alien species, insufficient resource allocation for conservation agencies and park management, presence of a large number of illegal immigrants, rapid uncontrolled growth of tourism, fishing over-capacity and sports fishing [143][144] [145][146]

Group of Monuments at Hampi

India !Bellary district,  India 15°20′6″N 76°27′43″E / 15.33500°N 76.46194°E / 15.33500; 76.46194 (Group of Monuments at Hampi) Cultural: (i), (iii), (iv) 5000000000000000000♠ —

1986 1999–2006 Partial construction of two cable-suspended bridges within the protected archaeological areas of Hampi
Hampi
threatening the integrity and authenticity of the site [147][148] [149]

Historical Monuments of Mtskheta

GeorMtskheta-Mtianeti,  Georgia 41°51′N 44°43′E / 41.850°N 44.717°E / 41.850; 44.717 (Historical Monuments of Mtskheta) Cultural: (iii), (iv) 5000000000000000000♠— 1994 2009–2016 Deterioration of stonework and frescoes, mismanagement and urban development [150][151]

Ichkeul National Park

Tunisia !Bizerta,  Tunisia 37°10′N 9°40′E / 37.167°N 9.667°E / 37.167; 9.667 (Ichkeul National Park) Natural: (x) 7008126000000000000♠12,600 (31,000) 1980 1996–2006 Construction of dams limiting the freshwater flow to the area and causing an increased salinity of the lake and the marshes as well as a decrease in the number of migrating bird populations [152][153] [154]

Iguaçu National Park

Brazil !Paraná State,  Brazil 25°41′S 54°26′W / 25.683°S 54.433°W / -25.683; -54.433 (Iguaçu National Park) Natural: (vii), (x) 7009170086000000000♠170,086 (420,290) 1986 1999–2001 Illegally opened road ("Estrada do Colono", Portuguese for "Settler's Road") through the park, dams on the Iguazu River
Iguazu River
and helicopter flights. [96][155] [156]

Kathmandu Valley

Nepal !Kathmandu Valley,    Nepal 27°42′14″N 85°18′31″E / 27.70389°N 85.30861°E / 27.70389; 85.30861 (Kathmandu Valley) Cultural: (iii), (iv), (vi) 7006167000000000000♠167 (410) 1979 2003–2007 Partial or substantial loss of the traditional elements of six out of seven monument zones and resulting general loss of authenticity and integrity of the whole property. [157][158] [159]

Los Katíos National Park

Colombia !Antioquia and Chocó,  Colombia 7°40′0″N 77°0′0″W / 7.66667°N 77.00000°W / 7.66667; -77.00000 (Los Katíos National Park) Natural: (ix), (x) 7008720000000000000♠72,000 (180,000) 1994 2009–2015 Deforestation, illegal fishing and hunting. Removed following significant improvements to Park management [160]

Manas Wildlife Sanctuary

India !Assam,  India 26°30′N 91°51′E / 26.500°N 91.850°E / 26.500; 91.850 (Manas Wildlife Sanctuary) Natural: (vii), (ix), (x) 7008391000000000000♠39,100 (97,000) 1985 1992–2011 Poaching, damage to the park's infrastructure and decrease in the population of some species particularly the Greater One Horned Rhino following an invasion by militants of the Bodo tribe in 1992 [161][162] [163]

Natural and Culturo-Historical Region of Kotor

Montenegro !Bay of Kotor, Kotor
Kotor
and surrounding territory,  Montenegro 42°29′N 18°42′E / 42.483°N 18.700°E / 42.483; 18.700 (Natural and Culturo-Historical Region of Kotor) Cultural: (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) 5000000000000000000♠ —

1979 1979–2003 Damage following the earthquake from 15 April 1979 [164][165] [166]

Ngorongoro Conservation Area

Tanzania
Tanzania
!Arusha Region,  Tanzania 3°11′S 35°32′E / 3.183°S 35.533°E / -3.183; 35.533 (Ngorongoro Conservation Area) Natural: (iv), (vii), (viii), (ix), (x) 5000000000000000000♠ —

1978 1984–1989 Declining conservation status [167][168] [169]

Plitvice Lakes
Plitvice Lakes
National Park

Croatia !Lika-Senj County,  Croatia 44°53′N 15°37′E / 44.883°N 15.617°E / 44.883; 15.617 ( Plitvice Lakes
Plitvice Lakes
National Park) Natural: (vii), (viii), (ix) 7008192000000000000♠19,200 (47,000) 1979 1992–1997 Potential threat due to the Croatian War of Independence [170][171] [172]

Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras

PhiIfugao,  Philippines 16°55′N 121°3′E / 16.917°N 121.050°E / 16.917; 121.050 (Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras) Cultural: (iii), (iv), (v) 7009500000000000000♠500,000 (1,200,000) 1995 2001–2012 Absence of systematic monitoring programme or a comprehensive management plan [173][174]

Royal Palaces of Abomey

Benin !Zou Department,  Benin 7°11′26″N 1°59′36″E / 7.19056°N 1.99333°E / 7.19056; 1.99333 (Royal Palaces of Abomey) Cultural: (iii), (iv) 7005480000000000000♠48 (120) 1985 1985–2007 General state of deterioration due to the elements and inappropriate restoration which are in conflict with the authenticity of the site [175][176] [177][178]

Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani
Kilwa Kisiwani
and Ruins of Songo Mnara

TanKilwa District,  Tanzania 8°57′28″S 39°31′22″E / 8.95778°S 39.52278°E / -8.95778; 39.52278 (Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani
Kilwa Kisiwani
and Ruins of Songo Mnara) Cultural: (iii) 5000000000000000000♠— 1981 2004–2014 Continuing deterioration of the site due to various agents such as erosion or plants [179][180]

Rwenzori Mountains National Park

Uganda !Bundibugyo, Kabarole and Kasese District,  Uganda 0°13′N 29°55′E / 0.217°N 29.917°E / 0.217; 29.917 (Rwenzori Mountains National Park) Natural: (vii), (ix) 7008996000000000000♠99,600 (246,000) 1994 1999–2004 Security situation and lack of monitoring of a major part of the park [96][181] [182]

Sangay National Park

Ecuador !Chimborazo, Morona-Santiago and Tungurahua Province,  Ecuador 1°50′S 78°20′W / 1.833°S 78.333°W / -1.833; -78.333 (Sangay National Park) Natural: (vii), (viii), (ix), (x) 7009271925000000000♠271,925 (671,940) 1983 1992–2005 Heavy poaching, illegal livestock grazing, encroachment and potential threat through a road construction project [183][184] [185]

Simien National Park

EthAmhara Region,  Ethiopia 13°11′N 38°4′E / 13.183°N 38.067°E / 13.183; 38.067 (Simien National Park) Natural: (vii), (x) 7008220000000000000♠22,000 (54,000) 1978 1996–2017 Deterioration of population of Walia ibex [186][187]

Srebarna Nature Reserve

Bulgaria !Srebarna, Silistra Province,  Bulgaria 44°06′50″N 27°04′40″E / 44.11389°N 27.07778°E / 44.11389; 27.07778 (Srebarna Nature Reserve) Natural: (x) 7006638000000000000♠638 (1,580) 1983 1992–2003 Prevention of seasonal flooding and agricultural use causing a decline or disappearance of the water and passerine bird populations [188][189] [190]

Timbuktu

Mali
Mali
!Circle and Region of Tombouctou,  Mali 16°46′24″N 2°59′58″W / 16.77333°N 2.99944°W / 16.77333; -2.99944 (Timbuktu) Cultural: (ii), (iv), (v) 5000000000000000000♠ —

1988 1990–2005 Threat of sand encroachment [191][192] [193]

Tipasa

Algeria !Tipaza Province,  Algeria 36°33′24″N 2°23′00″E / 36.55667°N 2.38333°E / 36.55667; 2.38333 (Tipasa) Cultural: (iii), (iv) 7005520000000000000♠52 (130) 1982 2002–2006 Inadequate maintenance affecting the integrity of the site and its buffer zone [194][195] [196]

Walled City of Baku
Baku
with Shirvanshah's Palace and Maiden Tower

Azerbaijan !Baku,  Azerbaijan 40°21′59″N 49°50′7″E / 40.36639°N 49.83528°E / 40.36639; 49.83528 (Baku) Cultural: (iv) 5000000000000000000♠ —

2000 2003–2009 Damage sustained during the 2000 Baku
Baku
earthquake, urban development and inadequate conservation efforts [197]

Wieliczka
Wieliczka
Salt Mine

Poland !Wieliczka, Wieliczka
Wieliczka
County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship,  Poland 49°58′45″N 20°03′50″E / 49.97917°N 20.06389°E / 49.97917; 20.06389 ( Wieliczka
Wieliczka
Salt Mine) Cultural: (iv) 7006969000000000000♠969 (2,390) 1978 1989–1998 Humidity problem [169][198] [199]

Yellowstone National Park

United States ! Wyoming
Wyoming
and small areas of Montana
Montana
and Idaho,  United States 44°30′N 110°50′W / 44.500°N 110.833°W / 44.500; -110.833 (Yellowstone National Park) Natural: (vii), (viii), (ix), (x) 7009898349000000000♠898,349 (2,219,870) 1978 1995–2003 Ascertained dangers to Yellowstone cutthroat trout
Yellowstone cutthroat trout
as well as sewage leakage and waste contamination in parts of the park; potential threats to water quantity and quality, past and proposed mining activities, a proposed control programme to eradicate brucellosis in the bison herds [200][201] [202]

Notes[edit]

^ Full title: Convention concerning the protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage ^ The Jerusalem site is not associated with a state by UNESCO
UNESCO
and sorts as "Jerusalem". ^ Site proposed by Jordan. UNESCO
UNESCO
has stated that "In line with relevant UN resolutions, East Jerusalem
East Jerusalem
remains part of the occupied Palestinian territory, and the status of Jerusalem must be resolved in permanent status negotiations between Israel and the Palestinians." ^ a b c From the List of World Heritage in Danger ^ On the List of World Heritage in Danger

^ Kosovo
Kosovo
is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo
Kosovo
and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the Brussels Agreement. Kosovo
Kosovo
has received formal recognition as an independent state from 113 out of 193 United Nations
United Nations
member states.

References[edit]

Citations

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IUCN
2009, pp. 2–3 ^ Chape, Spalding & Jenkins 2008, p. 86 ^ Thorsell, J. W.; Sawyer, Jacqueline (1992). World heritage 20 years later (illustrated ed.). IUCN. p. 23. ISBN 978-2-8317-0109-7. Retrieved 5 September 2011.  ^ IUCN
IUCN
2009, p. 0 ^ IUCN
IUCN
2009, pp. 18–19 ^ IUCN
IUCN
2009, pp. 19–20 ^ "List of World Heritage in Danger". UNESCO. Retrieved 10 December 2010.  ^ "Abu Mena". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010.  ^ "Abu Mena–Threats to the Site (2001)". UNESCO. Retrieved 27 August 2010.  ^ 25th session 2001, p. 134 ^ "Air and Ténéré Natural Reserves". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010.  ^ 16th session 1992, p. 29 ^ "Ancient City of Aleppo". UNESCO. Retrieved 17 August 2011.  ^ "Ancient City of Bosra". UNESCO. Retrieved 17 August 2011.  ^ "Ancient City of Damascus". UNESCO. Retrieved 17 August 2011.  ^ "Ancient Villages of Northern Syria". UNESCO. Retrieved 17 August 2011.  ^ "Archaeological Site of Cyrene". UNESCO. Retrieved 17 July 2016.  ^ a b c d e "Libya's five World Heritage sites put on List of World Heritage in Danger". UNESCO. 13 July 2016. Retrieved 17 July 2016.  ^ "Archaeological Site of Leptis Magna". UNESCO. Retrieved 17 July 2016.  ^ "Archaeological Site of Sabratha". UNESCO. Retrieved 17 July 2016.  ^ "Ashur (Qal'at Sherqat)". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010.  ^ 27th session 2003, pp. 123–124 ^ "Belize Barrier Reef Reserve System". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010.  ^ 33rd session 2009, pp. 81–82 ^ "Chan Chan Archaeological Zone". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010.  ^ "World Heritage Committee: Tenth session" (PDF). UNESCO. p. 6. Retrieved 26 June 2011.  ^ "Birthplace of Jesus: Church of the Nativity
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Liverpool
– Maritime Mercantile City". UNESCO. Retrieved 27 October 2012.  ^ " World Heritage Committee
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places Liverpool
Liverpool
on List of World Heritage in Danger". UNESCO. Retrieved 27 October 2012.  ^ "Manovo-Gounda St Floris National Park". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010.  ^ 21st session 1997, pp. 18–19 ^ "Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010.  ^ "World Heritage Committee: Twenty-sixth session" (PDF). UNESCO. p. 55. Retrieved 26 June 2011.  ^ "Medieval Monuments in Kosovo". UNESCO. Retrieved 3 December 2010.  ^ 30th session 2006, pp. 157–158 ^ "Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010.  ^ 16th session 1992, pp. 26–28 ^ "Nan Madol: Ceremonial Centre of Eastern Micronesia". UNESCO. Retrieved 18 July 2016.  ^ "Four sites inscribed on UNESCO's World Heritage List". UNESCO. 15 July 2016. Retrieved 18 July 2016.  ^ "Niokolo-Koba National Park". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010.  ^ 31st session 2007, pp. 41–43 ^ "Okapi Wildlife Reserve". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010.  ^ 21st session 1997, p. 19 ^ "Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010.  ^ "World Heritage Committee: Sixth session" (PDF). UNESCO. pp. 10–12. Retrieved 26 June 2011.  ^ " UNESCO
UNESCO
replies to allegations". UNESCO. 15 July 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2011.  ^ a b World Heritage Committee. "Yemen's Old City of Sana'a
Sana'a
and Old Walled City of Shibam
Shibam
added to List of World Heritage in Danger". United Nations
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Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Retrieved 15 July 2015.  ^ "Old Town of Ghadamès". UNESCO. Retrieved 17 July 2016.  ^ "Old Towns of Djenné". UNESCO. Retrieved 17 July 2016.  ^ "Mali's Old Towns of Djenné
Djenné
on List of World Heritage in Danger". UNESCO. 13 July 2016. Retrieved 17 July 2016.  ^ "Palestine: Land of Olives and Vines – Cultural Landscape of Southern Jerusalem, Battir". UNESCO. Retrieved 25 February 2015.  ^ "Palestine: Land of Olives and Vines - Cultural Landscape of Southern Jerusalem, Battir, inscribed on World Heritage List and on List of World Heritage in Danger". UNESCO. Retrieved 25 February 2015.  ^ "Rainforests of the Atsinanana". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 27 August 2011. Retrieved 28 May 2010.  ^ 34th session 2010, pp. 57–58 ^ "Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve". UNESCO. Retrieved 25 June 2011.  ^ 20th session 1996, p. 29 ^ "Rock-Art Sites of Tadrart Acacus". UNESCO. Retrieved 17 July 2016.  ^ "Salonga National Park". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010.  ^ 8th session 1984, p. 14 ^ a b c 23rd session 1999, p. 29 ^ "Samarra Archaeological City". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010.  ^ 31st session 2007, pp. 152–153 ^ Centre, UNESCO
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World Heritage. "Selous Game Reserve". whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 2018-03-30.  ^ "Site of Palmyra". UNESCO. Retrieved 17 August 2011.  ^ "Timbuktu". UNESCO. Retrieved 27 October 2012.  ^ a b "Heritage sites in northern Mali
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placed on List of World Heritage in Danger". UNESCO. Retrieved 27 October 2012.  ^ "Tomb of Askia". UNESCO. Retrieved 27 October 2012.  ^ "Tombs of Buganda Kings at Kasubi". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010.  ^ 34th session 2010, pp. 103–105 ^ "Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra". UNESCO. Retrieved 25 June 2011.  ^ "Danger listing for Indonesia's Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra". UNESCO. Retrieved 26 July 2011.  ^ "Virunga National Park". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010.  ^ "World Heritage Committee: Eighteenth session" (PDF). UNESCO. pp. 21, 51. Retrieved 26 June 2011.  ^ "Angkor". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010.  ^ 16th session 1992, pp. 37–38, annex VI ^ 28th session 2004, pp. 66–67 ^ " Bagrati Cathedral
Bagrati Cathedral
and Gelati Monastery". UNESCO. Retrieved 3 December 2010.  ^ 34th session 2010, pp. 130–133 ^ "Gelati Monastery, Georgia, removed from UNESCO's List of World Heritage in Danger". UNESCO. Retrieved 13 July 2017.  ^ " Bahla
Bahla
Fort". UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2010.  ^ "World Heritage Committee: Twelfth session" (PDF). UNESCO. p. 19. Retrieved 28 May 2010.  ^ 28th session 2004, p. 64 ^ "World Heritage Committee: Eleventh session" (PDF). UNESCO. p. 7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2012. Retrieved 26 June 2011.  ^ "Bam and its Cultural Landscape". UNESCO. Retrieved 3 December 2010.  ^ 28th session 2004, pp. 47–48 ^ " World Heritage Committee
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Bam and its Cultural Landscape
from danger listing". UNESCO. Retrieved 13 July 2013.  ^ "Butrint". UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2010.  ^ 21st session 1997, pp. 24–25 ^ 29th session 2005, pp. 31–32 ^ "Cologne Cathedral". UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2011.  ^ 28th session 2004, p. 116 ^ 30th session 2006, p. 46 ^ "Comoé National Park". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010.  ^ 27th session 2003, p. 30 ^ "Djoudj National Bird Sanctuary". UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2011.  ^ "World Heritage Committee: Twelfth session" (PDF). UNESCO. pp. 7, 16. Retrieved 26 June 2011.  ^ 24th session 2000, pp. 109–110 ^ 29th session 2005, pp. 15–16 ^ 30th session 2006, pp. 23–24 ^ "Dresden Elbe Valley". UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2011.  ^ 30th session 2006, pp. 112–113 ^ "Dubrovnik". UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2011.  ^ "World Heritage Committee: Fifteenth session" (PDF). UNESCO. p. 31. Retrieved 26 June 2011.  ^ "World Heritage Committee: Twenty-second session" (PDF). UNESCO. pp. 12–13. Retrieved 26 June 2011.  ^ "Fort and Shalamar Gardens in Lahore". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010.  ^ 24th session 2000, p. 26 ^ "Galápagos Islands". UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2011.  ^ 30th session 2006, pp. 70–71 ^ 31st session 2007, pp. 68–69 ^ 34th session 2010, pp. 34–35 ^ "Group of Monuments at Hampi". UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2011.  ^ 23rd session 1999, pp. 32–33 ^ 30th session 2006, pp. 38–40 ^ "Historical Monuments of Mtskheta". UNESCO. Retrieved 3 December 2010.  ^ 33rd session 2009, p. 139 ^ "Ichkeul National Park". UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2011.  ^ 20th session 1996, pp. 31–32 ^ 30th session 2006, pp. 25–26 ^ "Iguaçu National Park". UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2011.  ^ 25th session 2001, pp. 15–16 ^ "Kathmandu Valley". UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2011.  ^ 27th session 2003, pp. 64–65 ^ 31st session 2007, p. 32 ^ World Heritage Committee. "Colombia's Los Katíos National Park removed from List of Heritage in Danger". United Nations
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Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Retrieved 15 July 2015.  ^ "Manas Wildlife Sanctuary". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010.  ^ 16th session 1992, p. 28 ^ "Successful preservation of India's Manas Wildlife Sanctuary
Manas Wildlife Sanctuary
enables withdrawal from the List of World Heritage in Danger". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010.  ^ "Natural and Culturo-Historical Region of Kotor". UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2011.  ^ "World Heritage Committee: Third session" (PDF). UNESCO. p. 13. Retrieved 26 June 2011.  ^ 27th session 2003, p. 27 ^ "World Heritage Committee: Eighth session" (PDF). UNESCO. p. 18. Retrieved 26 June 2011.  ^ "Ngorongoro Conservation Area". UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2011.  ^ a b "World Heritage Committee: Thirteenth session" (PDF). UNESCO. p. 14. Retrieved 26 June 2011.  ^ " Plitvice Lakes
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National Park". UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2011.  ^ 16th session 1992, pp. 24–25 ^ 21st session 1997, pp. 10–11 ^ "Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 June 2012.  ^ 25th session 2001, pp. 139–141 ^ "Royal Palaces of Abomey". UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2011.  ^ "Royal Palaces of Abomey: Advisory Body Evaluation" (PDF). UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2011.  ^ "World Heritage Committee: Ninth session" (PDF). UNESCO. p. 7. Retrieved 26 July 2011.  ^ 31st session 2007, pp. 21–22 ^ "Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani
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and Ruins of Songo Mnara". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010.  ^ 28th session 2004, pp. 96–97 ^ "Rwenzori Mountains National Park". UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2011.  ^ 28th session 2004, p. 55 ^ "Sangay National Park". UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2011.  ^ 16th session 1992, pp. 25–26 ^ 29th session 2005, pp. 18–19 ^ "Simien National Park". UNESCO. Retrieved 1 August 2010.  ^ 20th session 1996, pp. 28–29 ^ "Srebarna Nature Reserve". UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2011.  ^ 16th session 1992, pp. 21–22 ^ 27th session 2003, p. 15 ^ "Timbuktu". UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2011.  ^ "World Heritage Committee: Fourteenth session" (PDF). UNESCO. p. 8. Retrieved 26 June 2011.  ^ 29th session 2005, pp. 20–21 ^ "Tipasa". UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2011.  ^ "World Heritage Committee: Twenty-sixth session" (PDF). UNESCO. pp. 36–37. Retrieved 26 June 2011.  ^ 30th session 2006, p. 32 ^ " World Heritage Committee
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General

"World Heritage in Danger: A compendium of key decisions on the conservation of natural World Heritage properties via the List of World Heritage in Danger" (PDF). Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. 2009. Retrieved 3 September 2011.  Chape, Stuart; Spalding, Mark; Jenkins, Martin (2008). The world's protected areas: status, values and prospects in the 21st century (illustrated ed.). University of Castile-La Mancha. ISBN 978-0-520-24660-7. Retrieved 3 September 2011.  Timothy, Dallen J.; Nyaupane, Gyan P. (2009). Cultural heritage and tourism in the developing world: a regional perspective. Contemporary geographies of leisure, tourism and mobility. 10 (illustrated ed.). Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-415-77622-6. Retrieved 3 September 2011.  "World Heritage Committee: Eighth session" (PDF). UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2011.  "World Heritage Committee: Sixteenth session" (PDF). UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010.  "World Heritage Committee: Twentieth session" (PDF). UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2011.  "World Heritage Committee: Twenty-first session" (PDF). UNESCO. Retrieved 28 May 2010.  "World Heritage Committee: Twenty-third session" (PDF). UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2011.  "World Heritage Committee: Twenty-fourth session" (PDF). UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2011.  "World Heritage Committee: Twenty-fifth session" (PDF). UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2011.  "World Heritage Committee: Twenty-seventh session" (PDF). UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2011.  "World Heritage Committee: Twenty-eighth session" (PDF). UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2011.  "World Heritage Committee: Twenty-ninth session" (PDF). UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2011.  "World Heritage Committee: Thirtieth session" (PDF). UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2011.  "World Heritage Committee: Thirty-first session" (PDF). UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2011.  "World Heritage Committee: Thirty-third session" (PDF). UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2011.  "World Heritage Committee: Thirty-fourth session" (PDF). UNESCO. Retrieved 26 June 2011. 

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