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v t e

The President of the United States
President of the United States
is the elected head of state and head of government of the United States. The president leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. The president is indirectly elected to a four-year term by the people through the Electoral College. Since the office was established in 1789, 44 men have served as president. The first, George Washington, won a unanimous vote of the Electoral College. Grover Cleveland
Grover Cleveland
served two non-consecutive terms in office, and is counted as the nation's 22nd and 24th presidents; the incumbent, Donald Trump, is therefore the 45th president. There are currently five living former presidents. The most recent death of a former president was on December 26, 2006 with the death of Gerald Ford. William Henry Harrison’s presidency was the shortest in American history. He died 31 days after taking office in 1841. Franklin D. Roosevelt served the longest, over twelve years, before dying early in his fourth term in 1945. He is the only U.S. president to have served more than two terms. Since the ratification of the Twenty-second Amendment to the United States Constitution
United States Constitution
in 1951, no person may be elected president more than twice, and no one who has served more than two years of a term to which someone else was elected may be elected more than once.[1] Of the elected presidents, four died in office of natural causes (William Henry Harrison, Zachary Taylor, Warren G. Harding, and Franklin D. Roosevelt), four were assassinated (Abraham Lincoln, James A. Garfield, William McKinley
William McKinley
and John F. Kennedy), and one resigned (Richard Nixon). John Tyler
John Tyler
was the first vice president to assume the presidency during a presidential term, and set the precedent that a vice president who does so becomes the fully functioning president with his own presidency, as opposed to a caretaker president. The Twenty-fifth Amendment to the Constitution put Tyler's precedent into law in 1967. It also established a mechanism by which a mid-term vacancy in the vice presidency could be filled. Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
was the first president to fill a vacancy under this Provision when he appointed Gerald Ford
Gerald Ford
to the office. Later, Ford became the second to do so when he appointed Nelson Rockefeller
Nelson Rockefeller
to succeed him. Previously, a mid-term vacancy was left unfilled. Throughout most of its history, American politics has been dominated by political parties. The Constitution is silent on the issue of political parties, and at the time it came into force in 1789, there were no parties. Soon after the 1st Congress convened, factions began rallying around dominant Washington Administration officials, such as Alexander Hamilton
Alexander Hamilton
and Thomas Jefferson. Greatly concerned about the capacity of political parties to destroy the fragile unity holding the nation together, Washington remained unaffiliated with any political faction or party throughout his eight-year presidency. He was, and remains, the only U.S. president never affiliated with a political party.[2] Since Washington, every president has been affiliated with a political party at the time they assumed office.

Contents

1 Presidents 2 Subsequent public office 3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 External links

Presidents

  Unaffiliated (2)       Federalist (1)       Democratic-Republican (4)       Democratic (15)       Whig (4)       Republican (19)       National Union (2)

Presidency[a] President Prior office[b] Party[c] Term[d] Vice President

1 April 30, 1789 [e] – March 4, 1797

George Washington 1732–1799 (Lived: 67 years) [3][4][5] Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army (1775–1783)   Unaffiliated [2] (1788–89) 1 (1789) John Adams [f][g]

(1792) 2 (1793)

2 March 4, 1797 – March 4, 1801

John Adams 1735–1826 (Lived: 90 years) [6][7][8] 1st Vice President of the United States

Federalist (1796) 3 (1797) Thomas Jefferson [h]

3 March 4, 1801 – March 4, 1809

Thomas Jefferson 1743–1826 (Lived: 83 years) [9][10][11] 2nd Vice President of the United States

Democratic- Republican (1800) 4 (1801) Aaron Burr March 4, 1801 – March 4, 1805

(1804) 5 (1805) George Clinton March 4, 1805 – March 4, 1809

4 March 4, 1809 – March 4, 1817

James Madison 1751–1836 (Lived: 85 years) [12][13][14] 5th United States Secretary of State (1801–1809)

Democratic- Republican (1808) 6 (1809) George Clinton March 4, 1809 – April 20, 1812 (Died in office)

Office vacant (Balance of Clinton's term)

(1812) 7 (1813) Elbridge Gerry March 4, 1813 – November 23, 1814 (Died in office)

Office vacant (Balance of Gerry's term)

5 March 4, 1817 – March 4, 1825

James Monroe 1758–1831 (Lived: 73 years) [15][16][17] 7th United States Secretary of State (1811–1817)

Democratic- Republican (1816) 8 (1817) Daniel D. Tompkins

(1820) 9 (1821)

6 March 4, 1825 – March 4, 1829

John Quincy Adams 1767–1848 (Lived: 80 years) [18][19][20] 8th United States Secretary of State (1817–1825)

Democratic- Republican (1824) 10 (1825) John C. Calhoun

7 March 4, 1829 – March 4, 1837

Andrew Jackson 1767–1845 (Lived: 78 years) [21][22][23] U.S. Senator (Class 2) from Tennessee (1797–1798 & 1823–1825)

Democratic (1828) 11 (1829) John C. Calhoun [i] March 4, 1829 – December 28, 1832 (Resigned from office)

Office vacant (Balance of Calhoun's term)

(1832) 12 (1833) Martin Van Buren March 4, 1833 – March 4, 1837

8 March 4, 1837 – March 4, 1841

Martin Van Buren 1782–1862 (Lived: 79 years) [24][25][26] 8th Vice President of the United States

Democratic (1836) 13 (1837) Richard M. Johnson

9 March 4, 1841 – April 4, 1841 (Died in office)

William Henry Harrison 1773–1841 (Lived: 68 years) [27][28][29] United States Minister to Colombia (1828–1829)

Whig (1840) 14 (1841) (1841) [j] John Tyler (Succeeded to presidency)

10 April 4, 1841 [k] – March 4, 1845

John Tyler 1790–1862 (Lived: 71 years) [30][31][32] 10th Vice President of the United States

Whig April 4, 1841 – September 13, 1841 Office vacant

Unaffiliated September 13, 1841 – March 4, 1845 [l]

11 March 4, 1845 – March 4, 1849

James K. Polk 1795–1849 (Lived: 53 years) [33][34][35] 9th Governor of Tennessee (1839–1841)

Democratic (1844) 15 (1845) George M. Dallas

12

March 4, 1849 – July 9, 1850 (Died in office)

Zachary Taylor 1784–1850 (Lived: 65 years) [36][37][38] Major General of the 1st Infantry Regiment United States Army (1846–1849) (No prior elected office)

Whig (1848) 16 (1849) (1850) [j] Millard Fillmore (Succeeded to presidency)

13 July 9, 1850 [m] – March 4, 1853

Millard Fillmore 1800–1874 (Lived: 74 years) [39][40][41] 12th Vice President of the United States

Whig Office vacant

14 March 4, 1853 – March 4, 1857

Franklin Pierce 1804–1869 (Lived: 64 years) [42][43][44] Brigadier General of the 9th Infantry United States Army (1847–1848)

Democratic (1852) 17 (1853) William R. King March 4 – April 18, 1853 (Died in office)

Office vacant (Balance of King's term)

15 March 4, 1857 – March 4, 1861

James Buchanan 1791–1868 (Lived: 77 years) [45][46][47] United States Minister to the Court of St James's (1853–1856)

Democratic (1856) 18 (1857) John C. Breckinridge

16 March 4, 1861 – April 15, 1865 (Died in office)

Abraham Lincoln 1809–1865 (Lived: 56 years) [48][49][50] U.S. Representative for Illinois' 7th District (1847–1849)

Republican (National Union) [n] (1860) 19 (1861) Hannibal Hamlin March 4, 1861 – March 4, 1865

(1864) 20 (1865) (1865) [j] Andrew Johnson March 4 – April 15, 1865 (Succeeded to presidency)

17 April 15, 1865 – March 4, 1869

Andrew Johnson 1808–1875 (Lived: 66 years) [51][52][53] 16th Vice President of the United States

National Union April 15, 1865 – c. 1868 Office vacant

Democratic c. 1868 – March 4, 1869 [o]

18

March 4, 1869 – March 4, 1877

Ulysses S. Grant 1822–1885 (Lived: 63 years) [54][55][56] Commanding General of the U.S. Army (1864–1869) (No prior elected office)

Republican (1868) 21 (1869) Schuyler Colfax March 4, 1869 – March 4, 1873

(1872) 22 (1873) Henry Wilson March 4, 1873 – November 22, 1875 (Died in office)

Office vacant (Balance of Wilson's term)

19 March 4, 1877 – March 4, 1881

Rutherford B. Hayes 1822–1893 (Lived: 70 years) [57][58][59] 29th & 32nd Governor of Ohio (1868–1872 & 1876–1877)

Republican (1876) 23 (1877) William A. Wheeler

20 March 4, 1881 – September 19, 1881 (Died in office)

James A. Garfield 1831–1881 (Lived: 49 years) [60][61][62] U.S. Representative for Ohio's 19th District (1863–1881)

Republican (1880) 24 (1881) (1881) [j] Chester A. Arthur (Succeeded to presidency)

21 September 19, 1881 [p] – March 4, 1885

Chester A. Arthur 1829–1886 (Lived: 57 years) [63][64][65] 20th Vice President of the United States

Republican Office vacant

22 March 4, 1885 – March 4, 1889

Grover Cleveland 1837–1908 (Lived: 71 years) [66][67] 28th Governor of New York (1883–1885)

Democratic (1884) 25 (1885) Thomas A. Hendricks March 4 – November 25, 1885 (Died in office)

Office vacant (Balance of Hendricks' term)

23 March 4, 1889 – March 4, 1893

Benjamin Harrison 1833–1901 (Lived: 67 years) [68][69][70] U.S. Senator (Class 1) from Indiana (1881–1887)

Republican (1888) 26 (1889) Levi P. Morton

24 March 4, 1893 – March 4, 1897

Grover Cleveland 1837–1908 (Lived: 71 years) [66][67] 22nd President of the United States (1885–1889)

Democratic (1892) 27 (1893) Adlai Stevenson

25 March 4, 1897 – September 14, 1901 (Died in office)

William McKinley 1843–1901 (Lived: 58 years) [71][72][73] 39th Governor of Ohio (1892–1896)

Republican (1896) 28 (1897) Garret Hobart March 4, 1897 – November 21, 1899 (Died in office)

Office vacant (Balance of Hobart's term)

(1900) 29 (1901) (1901) [j] Theodore Roosevelt March 4 – September 14, 1901 (Succeeded to presidency)

26 September 14, 1901 – March 4, 1909

Theodore Roosevelt 1858–1919 (Lived: 60 years) [74][75][76] 25th Vice President of the United States

Republican Office vacant September 14, 1901 – March 4, 1905

(1904) 30 (1905) Charles W. Fairbanks March 4, 1905 – March 4, 1909

27 March 4, 1909 – March 4, 1913

William Howard Taft 1857–1930 (Lived: 72 years) [77][78][79] 42nd United States Secretary of War (1904–1908)

Republican (1908) 31 (1909) James S. Sherman March 4, 1909 – October 30, 1912 (Died in office)

Office vacant (Balance of Sherman's term)

28 March 4, 1913 – March 4, 1921

Woodrow Wilson 1856–1924 (Lived: 67 years) [80][81][82] 34th Governor of New Jersey (1911–1913)

Democratic (1912) 32 (1913) Thomas R. Marshall

(1916) 33 (1917)

29 March 4, 1921 – August 2, 1923 (Died in office)

Warren G. Harding 1865–1923 (Lived: 57 years) [83][84][85] U.S. Senator (Class 3) from Ohio (1915–1921)

Republican (1920) 34 (1921) (1923) [j] Calvin Coolidge (Succeeded to presidency)

30 August 2, 1923 [q] – March 4, 1929

Calvin Coolidge 1872–1933 (Lived: 60 years) [86][87][88] 29th Vice President of the United States

Republican Office vacant August 2, 1923 – March 4, 1925

(1924) 35 (1925) Charles G. Dawes March 4, 1925 – March 4, 1929

31

March 4, 1929 – March 4, 1933

Herbert Hoover 1874–1964 (Lived: 90 years) [89][90][91] 3rd United States Secretary of Commerce (1921–1928) (No prior elected office)

Republican (1928) 36 (1929) Charles Curtis

32 March 4, 1933 – April 12, 1945 (Died in office)

Franklin D. Roosevelt 1882–1945 (Lived: 63 years) [92][93][94] 44th Governor of New York (1929–1932)

Democratic (1932) 37 (1933) John N. Garner March 4, 1933 – January 20, 1941 [r]

(1936) 38 (1937)

(1940) 39 (1941) Henry A. Wallace January 20, 1941 – January 20, 1945

(1944) 40 (1945) (1945) [j] Harry S. Truman January 20 – April 12, 1945 (Succeeded to presidency)

33 April 12, 1945 – January 20, 1953

Harry S. Truman 1884–1972 (Lived: 88 years) [95][96][97] 34th Vice President of the United States

Democratic Office vacant April 12, 1945 – January 20, 1949

(1948) 41 (1949) Alben W. Barkley January 20, 1949 – January 20, 1953

34

January 20, 1953 – January 20, 1961

Dwight D. Eisenhower 1890–1969 (Lived: 78 years) [98][99][100] Supreme Allied Commander Europe (1949–1952) (No prior elected office)

Republican (1952) 42 (1953) Richard Nixon

(1956) 43 (1957)

35 January 20, 1961 – November 22, 1963 (Died in office)

John F. Kennedy 1917–1963 (Lived: 46 years) [101][102][103] U.S. Senator (Class 1) from Massachusetts (1953–1960)

Democratic (1960) 44 (1961) (1963) [j] Lyndon B. Johnson (Succeeded to presidency)

36 November 22, 1963 – January 20, 1969

Lyndon B. Johnson 1908–1973 (Lived: 64 years) [104][105] 37th Vice President of the United States

Democratic Office vacant November 22, 1963 – January 20, 1965

(1964) 45 (1965) Hubert Humphrey January 20, 1965 – January 20, 1969

37 January 20, 1969 – August 9, 1974 (Resigned from office)

Richard Nixon 1913–1994 (Lived: 81 years) [106][107][108] 36th Vice President of the United States (1953–1961)

Republican (1968) 46 (1969) Spiro Agnew January 20, 1969 – October 10, 1973 (Resigned from office)

(1972) 47 (1973) (1974) [j]

Office vacant October 10 – December 6, 1973

Gerald Ford December 6, 1973 – August 9, 1974 (Succeeded to presidency)

38 August 9, 1974 – January 20, 1977

Gerald Ford 1913–2006 (Lived: 93 years) [109][110][111] 40th Vice President of the United States

Republican Office vacant August 9 – December 19, 1974

Nelson Rockefeller December 19, 1974 – January 20, 1977

39 January 20, 1977 – January 20, 1981

Jimmy Carter Born 1924 (93 years old) [112][113][114] 76th Governor of Georgia (1971–1975)

Democratic (1976) 48 (1977) Walter Mondale

40 January 20, 1981 – January 20, 1989

Ronald Reagan 1911–2004 (Lived: 93 years) [115][116][117] 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975)

Republican (1980) 49 (1981) George H. W. Bush

(1984) 50 (1985)

41 January 20, 1989 – January 20, 1993

George H. W. Bush Born 1924 (93 years old) [118][119][120] 43rd Vice President of the United States

Republican (1988) 51 (1989) Dan Quayle

42 January 20, 1993 – January 20, 2001

Bill Clinton Born 1946 (71 years old) [121][122][123] 40th & 42nd Governor of Arkansas (1979–1981 & 1983–1992)

Democratic (1992) 52 (1993) Al Gore

(1996) 53 (1997)

43 January 20, 2001 – January 20, 2009

George W. Bush Born 1946 (71 years old) [124][125] 46th Governor of Texas (1995–2000)

Republican (2000) 54 (2001) Dick Cheney

(2004) 55 (2005)

44 January 20, 2009 – January 20, 2017

Barack Obama Born 1961 (56 years old) [126][127] U.S. Senator (Class 3) from Illinois (2005–2008)

Democratic (2008) 56 (2009) Joe Biden

(2012) 57 (2013)

45 January 20, 2017 – Incumbent

Donald Trump Born 1946 (71 years old) [128][129] Chairman of The Trump Organization (1971–2017) (No prior elected office)

Republican (2016) 58 (2017) Mike Pence

Subsequent public office Four presidents held other high U.S. federal offices after leaving the presidency.

President Presidency[a] Subsequent service

John Quincy Adams 6 1825–1829 U.S. Representative from Massachusetts
Massachusetts
(1831–1848)

Andrew Johnson 17 1865–1869 U.S. Senator from Tennessee
Tennessee
(1875)

Grover Cleveland 22 1885–1889 24th President of the United States
President of the United States
(1893–1897)

William Howard Taft 27 1909–1913 10th Chief Justice of the United States
Chief Justice of the United States
(1921–1930)

Several presidents campaigned unsuccessfully for other U.S. state or federal elective offices after leaving the presidency.

President Presidency[a] Office sought unsuccessfully

John Quincy Adams 6 1825–1829 Governor of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
(1833)

Martin Van Buren 8 1837–1841 President of the United States
President of the United States
(1844)

President of the United States
President of the United States
(1848)

Millard Fillmore 13 1850–1853 President of the United States
President of the United States
(1856)

Andrew Johnson 17 1865–1869 U.S. Senator from Tennessee
Tennessee
(1870)

U.S. Representative from Tennessee
Tennessee
(1872)

Ulysses S. Grant 18 1869–1877 President of the United States
President of the United States
(1880)

Theodore Roosevelt 26 1901–1909 President of the United States
President of the United States
(1912)

Herbert Hoover 31 1929–1933 President of the United States
President of the United States
(1940)

Additionally, one former president, John Tyler, served in the government of the Confederate States
Confederate States
during the American Civil War. Tyler served in the Provisional Confederate Congress from 1861 to 1862. He was elected to the Confederate House of Representatives in November 1861, but died before he could take his seat. See also

Biography portal United States portal Government of the United States portal

Acting President of the United States Founding Fathers of the United States List of Presidents of the Continental Congress

Notes

^ a b c The presidents are numbered according to uninterrupted periods of time served by the same person. For example, George Washington served two consecutive terms and is counted as the first president (not the first and second). Upon the resignation of 37th president Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford
Gerald Ford
became the 38th president even though he simply served out the remainder of Nixon's second term and was never elected to the presidency in his own right. Grover Cleveland
Grover Cleveland
was both the 22nd president and the 24th president because his two terms were not consecutive. A vice president who temporarily becomes acting president under the Twenty-fifth Amendment to the Constitution is not counted, because the president remains in office during such a period. ^ Listed here is the most recent office (either with a U.S. state, the federal government, or a private corporation) held by the individual prior to becoming president. ^ Three presidents are counted above with multiple political affiliations: John Tyler
John Tyler
(Whig, Unaffiliated), Abraham Lincoln (Republican, National Union), and Andrew Johnson
Andrew Johnson
(National Union, Democratic). ^ Listed and numbered here are the elections and inaugurations that constitute a presidential term. ^ Due to logistical delays, instead of being inaugurated on March 4, 1789, the date scheduled for operations of the federal government under the new Constitution to begin, Washington's first inauguration was held 1 month and 26 days later. As a result, his first term was only 1,404 days long (as opposed to the usual 1,461), and was the shortest term for a U.S. president who neither died in office nor resigned. ^ Political parties had not been anticipated when the Constitution was drafted in 1787 and ratified in 1788, nor did they exist at the time of the first presidential election in 1788–89. When they did develop, during Washington's first term, Adams joined the faction that became the Federalist Party. The elections of 1792 were the first ones in the United States that were contested on anything resembling a partisan basis. ^ Due to logistical delays, Adams assumed the office of Vice President 1 month and 17 days after the March 4, 1789 scheduled start of operations of the new government under the Constitution. As a result, his first term was only 1,413 days long, and was the shortest term for a U.S. vice president who neither died in office nor resigned. ^ The 1796 presidential election was the first contested American presidential election and the only one in which a president and vice president were elected from opposing political parties. Federalist John Adams
John Adams
was elected president, and Jefferson of the Democratic-Republicans was elected vice president. ^ John Calhoun, formerly a Democratic-Republican, founded the Nullifier Party in 1828 to oppose the Tariff of 1828 and advance the cause of states' rights, but was brought on as Andrew Jackson's running mate in the 1828 presidential election in an effort to broaden the democratic coalition led by Jackson. ^ a b c d e f g h i Intra-term extraordinary inauguration. ^ John Tyler
John Tyler
was sworn in as president on April 6, 1841. ^ John Tyler, a former Democrat, ran for vice president on the Whig Party ticket with Harrison in 1840. Tyler's policy priorities as president soon proved to be opposed to most of the Whig agenda, and he was expelled from the party in September 1841. ^ Millard Fillmore
Millard Fillmore
was sworn in as president on July 10, 1850. ^ When he ran for reelection in 1864, Republican Abraham Lincoln formed a bipartisan electoral alliance with War Democrats by selecting Democrat Andrew Johnson
Andrew Johnson
as his running mate, and running on the National Union Party ticket. ^ Democrat Andrew Johnson
Andrew Johnson
ran for vice president on the National Union Party ticket with Republican Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
in 1864. Later, while president, Johnson tried and failed to build a party of loyalists under the National Union banner. Near the end of his presidency, Johnson rejoined the Democratic Party. ^ Chester A. Arthur
Chester A. Arthur
was initially sworn in as president on September 20, 1881, and then again on September 22. ^ Calvin Coolidge
Calvin Coolidge
was initially sworn in as president on August 3, 1923, and then again on August 21. ^ The Twentieth Amendment to the United States Constitution
United States Constitution
(ratified on January 23, 1933) moved Inauguration Day from March 4 to January 20, beginning in 1937. As a result, Garner's first term in office was 1 month and 12 days shorter than a normal term.

References

^ "The Constitution: Amendments 11–27". U.S. National Archives & Records Administration. Retrieved October 1, 2008.  ^ a b Jamison, Dennis (December 31, 2014). "George Washington's views on political parties in America". The Washington Times. Retrieved July 1, 2016.  ^ "George Washington". whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017.  ^ "George Washington". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved January 18, 2017.  ^ "Life Portrait of George Washington". American Presidents: Life Portraits. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016.  ^ "John Adams". whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017.  ^ "John Adams". History. Retrieved November 21, 2016.  ^ "Life Portrait of John Adams". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016.  ^ "Thomas Jefferson". whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017.  ^ "Thomas Jefferson". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved January 18, 2017.  ^ "Life Portrait of Thomas Jefferson". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016.  ^ "James Madison". whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017.  ^ "James Madison". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved January 18, 2017.  ^ "Life Portrait of James Madison". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016.  ^ "James Monroe". whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017.  ^ "James Monroe". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved January 18, 2017.  ^ "Life Portrait of James Monroe". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016.  ^ "John Quincy Adams". whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017.  ^ "John Quincy Adams". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved January 18, 2017.  ^ "Life Portrait of John Quincy Adams". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016.  ^ "Andrew Jackson". whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017.  ^ "Andrew Jackson". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved January 18, 2017.  ^ "Life Portrait of Andrew Jackson". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016.  ^ "Martin Van Buren". whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017.  ^ "Martin Van Buren". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved January 18, 2017.  ^ "Life Portrait of Martin Van Buren". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016.  ^ "William Henry Harrison". whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017.  ^ "William Henry Harrison". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved January 18, 2017.  ^ "Life Portrait of William Henry Harrison". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016.  ^ "John Tyler". whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017.  ^ "John Tyler". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved January 18, 2017.  ^ "Life Portrait of John Tyler". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016.  ^ "James K. Polk". whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017.  ^ "James K. Polk". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved January 18, 2017.  ^ "Life Portrait of James K. Polk". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016.  ^ "Zachary Taylor". whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017.  ^ "Zachary Taylor". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved January 18, 2017.  ^ "Life Portrait of Zachary Taylor". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016.  ^ "Millard Fillmore". whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017.  ^ "Millard Fillmore". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved January 18, 2017.  ^ "Life Portrait of Millard Fillmore". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016.  ^ "Franklin Pierce". whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017.  ^ "Franklin Pierce". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved January 18, 2017.  ^ "Life Portrait of Franklin Pierce". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016.  ^ "James Buchanan". whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017.  ^ "James Buchanan". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved January 18, 2017.  ^ "Life Portrait of James Buchanan". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016.  ^ "Abraham Lincoln". whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017.  ^ "Abraham Lincoln". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved January 18, 2017.  ^ "Life Portrait of Abraham Lincoln". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016.  ^ "Andrew Johnson". whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017.  ^ "Andrew Johnson". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved January 18, 2017.  ^ "Life Portrait of Andrew Johnson". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016.  ^ "Ulysses S. Grant". whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017.  ^ "Ulysses S. Grant". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved January 18, 2017.  ^ "Life Portrait of Ulysses S. Grant". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016.  ^ "Rutherford B. Hayes". whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017.  ^ "Rutherford B. Hayes". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved January 18, 2017.  ^ "Life Portrait of Rutherford B. Hayes". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016.  ^ "James Garfield". whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017.  ^ "James A. Garfield". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved January 18, 2017.  ^ "Life Portrait of James Garfield". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016.  ^ "Chester A. Arthur". whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017.  ^ "Chester A. Arthur". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved January 18, 2017.  ^ "Life Portrait of Chester A. Arthur". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016.  ^ a b "Grover Cleveland". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved January 18, 2017.  ^ a b "Life Portrait of Grover Cleveland". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016.  ^ "Benjamin Harrison". whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017.  ^ "Benjamin Harrison". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved January 18, 2017.  ^ "Life Portrait of Benjamin Harrison". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016.  ^ "William McKinley". whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017.  ^ "William McKinley". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved January 18, 2017.  ^ "Life Portrait of William McKinley". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016.  ^ "Theodore Roosevelt". whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017.  ^ "Theodore Roosevelt". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved January 18, 2017.  ^ "Life Portrait of Theodore Roosevelt". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016.  ^ "William Howard Taft". whitehouse.gov. March 13, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017.  ^ "William Howard Taft". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved January 18, 2017.  ^ "Life Portrait of William Howard Taft". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016.  ^ "Woodrow Wilson". whitehouse.gov. March 13, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017.  ^ "Woodrow Wilson". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved January 18, 2017.  ^ "Life Portrait of Woodrow Wilson". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016.  ^ "Warren G. Harding". whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017.  ^ "Warren G. Harding". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved November 27, 2016.  ^ "Life Portrait of Warren G. Harding". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016.  ^ "Calvin Coolidge". whitehouse.gov. March 13, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017.  ^ "Calvin Coolidge". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved January 18, 2017.  ^ "Life Portrait of Calvin Coolidge". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016.  ^ "Herbert Hoover". whitehouse.gov. March 13, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017.  ^ "Herbert Hoover". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved January 18, 2017.  ^ "Life Portrait of Herbert Hoover". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016.  ^ "Franklin D. Roosevelt". whitehouse.gov. March 20, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017.  ^ "Franklin D. Roosevelt". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved January 18, 2017.  ^ "Life Portrait of Franklin D. Roosevelt". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016.  ^ "Harry S. Truman". whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017.  ^ "Harry Truman". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved January 18, 2017.  ^ "Life Portrait of Harry S. Truman". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 7, 2016.  ^ "Dwight D. Eisenhower". whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017.  ^ "Dwight D. Eisenhower". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved January 18, 2017.  ^ "Life Portrait of Dwight D. Eisenhower". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 7, 2016.  ^ "John F. Kennedy". whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017.  ^ "John F. Kennedy". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved January 18, 2017.  ^ "Life Portrait of John F. Kennedy". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 7, 2016.  ^ "Lyndon B. Johnson". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved January 18, 2017.  ^ "Life Portrait of Lyndon B. Johnson". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 7, 2016.  ^ "Richard M. Nixon". whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017.  ^ "Richard M. Nixon". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved January 18, 2017.  ^ "Life Portrait of Richard M. Nixon". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 7, 2016.  ^ "Gerald R. Ford". whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017.  ^ "Gerald Ford". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved January 18, 2017.  ^ "Life Portrait of Gerald R. Ford". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 7, 2016.  ^ "James Carter". whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017.  ^ "Jimmy Carter". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved January 18, 2017.  ^ "Life Portrait of Jimmy Carter". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 7, 2016.  ^ "Ronald Reagan". whitehouse.gov. June 25, 2008. Retrieved January 22, 2017.  ^ "Ronald Reagan". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved January 18, 2017.  ^ "Life Portrait of Ronald Reagan". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 7, 2016.  ^ "George H. W. Bush". whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017.  ^ "George Bush". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved November 27, 2016.  ^ "Life Portrait of George H.W. Bush". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 7, 2016.  ^ "William J. Clinton". whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017.  ^ "Bill Clinton". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved November 27, 2016.  ^ "Life Portrait of Bill Clinton". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 7, 2016.  ^ "George W. Bush". whitehouse.gov. February 25, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017.  ^ "George W. Bush". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved November 27, 2016.  ^ "Barack Obama". whitehouse.gov. January 20, 2017. Retrieved January 22, 2017.  ^ "Barack Obama". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved November 27, 2016.  ^ "President Donald J. Trump". whitehouse.gov. January 20, 2017. Retrieved January 22, 2017.  ^ "Donald Trump". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved January 20, 2017. 

External links

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Presidents of the United States – book Whitehouse.gov: The Presidents Hauenstein Center Presidential Leadership Studies at Grand Valley State University POTUS: Presidents of the United States at the Internet Public Library

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Presidents of the United States (list)

George Washington
George Washington
(1789–1797) John Adams
John Adams
(1797–1801) Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
(1801–1809) James Madison
James Madison
(1809–1817) James Monroe
James Monroe
(1817–1825) John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams
(1825–1829) Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson
(1829–1837) Martin Van Buren
Martin Van Buren
(1837–1841) William Henry Harrison
William Henry Harrison
(1841) John Tyler
John Tyler
(1841–1845) James K. Polk
James K. Polk
(1845–1849) Zachary Taylor
Zachary Taylor
(1849–1850) Millard Fillmore
Millard Fillmore
(1850–1853) Franklin Pierce
Franklin Pierce
(1853–1857) James Buchanan
James Buchanan
(1857–1861) Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
(1861–1865) Andrew Johnson
Andrew Johnson
(1865–1869) Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant
(1869–1877) Rutherford B. Hayes
Rutherford B. Hayes
(1877–1881) James A. Garfield
James A. Garfield
(1881) Chester A. Arthur
Chester A. Arthur
(1881–1885) Grover Cleveland
Grover Cleveland
(1885–1889) Benjamin Harrison
Benjamin Harrison
(1889–1893) Grover Cleveland
Grover Cleveland
(1893–1897) William McKinley
William McKinley
(1897–1901) Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
(1901–1909) William H. Taft (1909–1913) Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
(1913–1921) Warren G. Harding
Warren G. Harding
(1921–1923) Calvin Coolidge
Calvin Coolidge
(1923–1929) Herbert Hoover
Herbert Hoover
(1929–1933) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1933–1945) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1945–1953) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1953–1961) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
(1961–1963) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1963–1969) Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1969–1974) Gerald Ford
Gerald Ford
(1974–1977) Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
(1977–1981) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
(1981–1989) George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
(1989–1993) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
(1993–2001) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2001–2009) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2009–2017) Donald Trump
Donald Trump
(2017–present)

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