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Poland was ruled at various times either by dukes and princes (10th to 14th centuries) or by kings (11th to 18th centuries). During the latter period, a tradition of free election of monarchs made it a uniquely electable position in Europe (16th to 18th centuries). The first known Polish ruler is Duke Mieszko I who adopted Christianity under the authority of Rome in the year 966. He was succeeded by his son, Bolesław I the Brave, who greatly expanded the boundaries of the Polish state and ruled as the first king in 1025. The following centuries gave rise to the mighty Piast dynasty, consisting of both kings such as Mieszko II Lambert, Przemysł II or Władysław I the Elbow-high and dukes like Bolesław III Wrymouth. The dynasty ceased to exist with the death of Casimir III the Great in 1370. In the same year, the Capetian House of Anjou became the ruling house with Louis I as king of both Poland and Hungary. His daughter, Jadwiga, later married Jogaila, the pagan Grand Duke of Lithuania, who in 1386 was baptized and crowned as Władysław II Jagiełło, thus creating the Jagiellonian dynasty and a personal union between Poland and Lithuania. During the reign of Casimir IV Jagiellon and Sigismund I the Old, culture flourished and cities developed. This era of progress, also known as the Polish Renaissance, continued until the Union of Lublin under Sigismund II Augustus, which unofficially marked the end of the Polish Golden Age. After the death of the last Jagiellonian king, the united Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth became an elective monarchy with mostly foreigners elected as monarchs such as Henry III of France, who witnessed the introduction of the Golden Liberty system and Stephen Báthory, a capable military commander who strengthened the nation. The meaningful rule of the Vasa dynasty initially expanded the Commonwealth as the arts and crafts developed, as well as trade and commerce. King Sigismund III Vasa, a talented but somewhat despotic ruler, involved the country in many wars, which subsequently resulted in the successful capture of Moscow and the loss of Livonia to Sweden. His son, Władysław IV Vasa, fiercely defended the Commonwealth's borders and continued the policy of his father until his death, unlike John II Casimir whose tragic rule resulted in his abdication. The election of John III Sobieski to the Polish throne proved to be beneficial for the Commonwealth. A brilliant military tactician, John III led the coalition forces to victory at Vienna in 1683 and he partially recaptured land from the Ottoman Empire. However, the years that followed were not as successful. The long and ineffective rule of the Wettin dynasty (Augustus II the Strong and Augustus III) placed the Commonwealth under the influence of Saxony and the Russian Empire. Additional feuds with rebel nobility (szlachta) and most notably Stanislaus I Leszczyński and France diminished the influence of Poland-Lithuania in the region, which led to the partitions that occurred under King Stanislaus II Augustus, yet another enlightened, but ineffective monarch. The Duchy of Warsaw existed from 1807 to 1815. The last sovereign of Poland was Frederick Augustus I as Duke of Warsaw, who throughout his political career attempted to rehabilitate the Polish state. The monarchy was abolished and a parliamentary republican authority was established when Poland was re-constituted as a sovereign state in 1918.

Legendary

Most of the legendary Polish rulers appear for the first time in chronicles from the 13th century and their existence has not been determined. |- | | | Unknown | Unknown | Unknown |Legendary founder of the Polish nation according to folktales, tribal leader | Lechites (Tribe) |- |
also Krak or Grakch
| | | Unknown | | Legendary founder of Kraków | Lechites (Tribe) |- |
| |
Son of Krakus I | Unknown | | Succession | Lechites (Tribe) |- |

| |
Son of Krakus I, brother of Krakus II | Unknown | | Succession | Lechites (Tribe) |- |
also Wąda
| |
Daughter of Krakus, sister of Krakus II and Lech II | Unknown | | Succession | Lechites (Tribe) |- | Duke

also Leszek


| |

| Unknown |

| Birth name Przemysław, defeated the Hungarians and was crowned
Elected | Goplans and Polans (Tribes) |- | Duke

| |
Presumed son of Leszko I, Alleged progenitor of the Popielids dynasty | Unknown | | Succession | Popielids |- | Duke

| |
Presumed son of Leszko II | Unknown | | Succession | Popielids |- | Duke

| |
Presumed son of Leszko III | Unknown | | Succession | Popielids |- | Duke

| |
Presumed son of Popiel I | NN, A German Princess | | A legendary ruler dethroned by Piast. He appears (without the number) in the oldest Polish chronicle, ''Gesta principum Polonorum'' from the early 12th century
Succession | Popielids |- |
| |
Son of Chościsko | Rzepicha | | Legendary founder of the Piast dynasty. He appears in the oldest Polish chronicle, ''Gesta principum Polonorum'' from the early 12th century | Piast


Semi-legendary


The three direct predecessors of Mieszko I are known only from the account of Gallus Anonymus, who wrote the oldest Polish chronicle, ''Gesta principum Polonorum'' at the beginning of 12th century. Though their historicity was once debatable, now historians tend to consider them actually existing rulers. |- | Duke

also Ziemowit

9th century | | 9th century
Presumed son of Piast the Wheelwright
and Rzepicha | Unknown | 9th century | Named the Duke of the Polans after his father, Piast the Wheelwright, refused to take the place of legendary Duke Popiel
Elected | Piast | |- | Duke

also Leszek or Lestko
9th century

10th century | | 880
Presumed son of Siemowit | Unknown | 950 | Named the Duke of the Polans after succeeding his father
Succession | Piast | |- | Duke

also Ziemomysł
Latin: Zemomislaus

10th century

/960 | |
Presumed son of Lestek | Unknown | 960 | Named the Duke of the Polans after succeeding his father
Succession | Piast |

House of Piast

|- | Duke
Mieszko I
Latin: ''Misico, dux Wandalorum''
960

25 May 992
''( years)'' | |
Son of semi-legendary Siemomysł | Doubravka of Bohemia

2 children
Oda of Haldensleben

3 children | 25 May 992
Poznań
Aged about 62 | First Christian ruler of Poland
Succession | Piast |- | King
Bolesław I the Brave
also Boleslaus I the Great
pl|Bolesław I Chrobry (Wielki)

9921025 (as duke)
18 April 102517 June 1025 (as king)
''( years)'' | |
Poznań
Son of Mieszko I and Doubravka of Bohemia | Hunilda, daughter of Rikdag
Judith of Hungary
Emnilda of Lusatia
Oda of Meissen | 17 June 1025
Kraków
Aged about 58 | First crowned king
Succession | Piast |- | King
Mieszko II Lambert
25 December 10251031
''( years)'' | |
Son of Bolesław I the Brave and Emnilda of Lusatia | Richeza of Lotharingia, 4 children | 10/11 May 1034
Poznań
Aged about 44 | Crowned king
Succession
Deposed as a result of the Pagan Rebellion | Piast |- | Duke
Bezprym
10311032 ''( years)'' | |
Son of Bolesław I the Brave and Judith of Hungary | Unknown |
Aged about 46 | Country divided, ruler of a Duchy
Usurped | Piast |- | Duke
Otto
10321033 ''( years)'' | |
Son of Bolesław I the Brave and Emnilda of Lusatia | Unknown |
Aged about 33 | Country divided, ruler of a Duchy
Usurped | Piast |- | Duke
Dytryk
also Dietrich and Theoderick
10321033 ''( years)'' | |
Son of Lambert Mieszkowic or Mieszko Mieszkowic | Unknown |
Aged about 41 | Country divided, ruler of a Duchy
Usurped | Piast |- | Duke
Mieszko II Lambert
10331034
''( years)'' | |
Son of Bolesław I the Brave and Emnilda of Lusatia | Richeza of Lotharingia, 4 children | 10/11 May 1034
Poznań
Aged about 44 | Restored as duke | Piast |- | Duke
Bolesław the Forgotten
pl|Bolesław Zapomniany
10341038/1039
''( years)'' | | before 1016
Presumed son of Mieszko II Lambert | Unknown | 1038/1039 | Semi-legendary, existence disputed | Piast |- | Duke
Casimir I the Restorer
pl|Kazimierz I Odnowiciel
1034/10401058
''( years)'' | | 25 July 1016
Son of Mieszko II Lambert and Richeza of Lotharingia | Maria Dobroniega, 5 children | 19 March 1058
Poznań
Aged 41 | Made prince in 1034, returned from abroad in 1040
Restoration | Piast |- | King
Bolesław II the Generous
pl|Bolesław II Szczodry (Śmiały)
10581076 (as duke)
26 December 10761079 (as king)
''( years)'' | | 1042
Son of Casimir I the Restorer and Maria Dobroniega | Wyszesława, 1 son | 2/3 April 1081
Hungary or Ossiach
Aged about 39 | Crowned ling in 1076
Deposed and exiled in 1079 after slaying Saint Stanislaus | Piast |- | Duke
Władysław I Herman
10794 June 1102
''( years)'' | | 1044
Son of Casimir I the Restorer and Maria Dobroniega | Przecława
Judith of Bohemia
Judith of Swabia | 24 June 1102
Płock
Aged about 58 | Succeeded brother after his exile | Piast |- | Duke
Zbigniew
11021107
''( years)'' | |
Son of Władysław I Herman and Przecława (?) | Unknown | 8 July 1113
Aged about 40 | Succession | Piast |- | Duke
Bolesław III Wrymouth
also Boleslaus III
pl|Bolesław III Krzywousty

11071138
''( years)'' | | 20 August 1086
Płock
Son of Władysław I Herman and Judith of Bohemia | Zbyslava of Kiev
Salomea of Berg | 28 October 1138
Sochaczew
Aged 52 | Succession
His death led to the fragmentation of Poland | Piast

Fragmentation of Poland (1138–1320)

|- | High Duke
Władysław II the Exile
pl|Władysław II Wygnaniec
11381146
''( years)'' | | 1105
Kraków
Son of Bolesław III Wrymouth and Zbyslava of Kiev | Agnes of Babenberg, 5 children | 30 May 1159
Altenburg
Aged 54 | Succession
Deposed and exiled | Piast |- | High Duke
Bolesław IV the Curly
pl|Bolesław IV Kędzierzawy
11461173
''( years)'' | |
Son of Bolesław III Wrymouth and Salomea of Berg | Viacheslava of Novgorod, 3 children | 5 January 1173
Aged about 51 | Succeeded exiled half-brother | Piast |- | High Duke
Mieszko III the Old
pl|Mieszko III Stary
11731177
''( years)'' | |
Son of Bolesław III Wrymouth and Salomea of Berg | Elisabeth of Hungary
Eudoxia of Kiev | 13 March 1202
Kalisz
Aged about 75 | Succession
Deposed by brother in 1177 | Piast |- | High Duke
Casimir II the Just
pl|Kazimierz II Sprawiedliwy
11771190
''( years)'' | |
Son of Bolesław III Wrymouth and Salomea of Berg | Helen of Znojmo, 7 children | 5 May 1194
Kraków
Aged about 56 | Usurped power from brother | Piast |- | Mieszko III the Old
11901190 | | – | – | – | Usurped | Piast |- | Casimir II the Just
11901194 | – | – | – | – | Usurped | Piast |- | High Duke
Leszek I the White
pl|Leszek Biały
11941198
''( years)'' | | /1185
Son of Casimir II the Just and Helen of Znojmo | Grzymisława of Luck, 2 children | 24 November 1227
Marcinkowo Górne
Aged about 43 | Succession | Piast |- | Mieszko III the Old
11981199 | | – | – | – | Usurped | Piast |- | Leszek I the White
11991199 | | – | – | – | Restored | Piast |- | Mieszko III the Old
11991202 | | – | – | – | Usurped | Piast |- | High Duke
Władysław III Spindleshanks
pl|Władysław III Laskonogi
12021206
''( years)'' | |
Son of Mieszko III the Old and Eudoxia of Kiev | Lucia of Rügen, 2 children | 3 November 1231
Aged about 64 | Usurped | Piast |- | Leszek I the White
12061210 | | – | – | – | Restored | Piast |- | High Duke
Mieszko IV Tanglefoot
pl|Mieszko I Plątonogi
12101211
''( years)'' | |
Son of Władysław II the Exile and Agnes of Babenberg | Ludmila, 5 children | 16 May 1211
Aged about 81 | Usurped | Piast |- | Leszek I the White
12111227
''( years)'' | | – | – | – | Restored
Murdered in 1227 | Piast |- | Władysław III Spindleshanks
12271229 | – | – | – | – | Usurped | Piast |- | High Duke
Konrad I of Masovia
12291232
''( years)'' | | /1188
Son of Casimir II the Just and Helen of Znojmo | Agafia of Rus, 10 children | 31 August 1247
Aged about 60 | Usurped | Piast |- | High Duke
Henry I the Bearded
pl|Henryk I Brodaty
12321238
''( years)'' | | /1188
Głogów
Son of Bolesław I the Tall and Christina (?) | Hedwig of Andechs, 7 children | 19 March 1238
Krosno Odrzańskie
Aged about 73 | Usurped | Piast |- | High Duke
Henry II the Pious
pl|Henryk II Pobożny
12381241
''( years)'' | |
Głogów
Son of Henry the Bearded and Hedwig of Andechs | Anne of Bohemia, 10 children | 9 April 1241
Legnickie Pole
Aged about 45 | Succession
Killed at the Battle of Legnica | Piast |- | High Duke
Bolesław II the Horned
pl|Bolesław II Rogatka
12411241 | | /1225
Głogów
Son of Henry II the Pious and Anne of Bohemia | Anne of Bohemia, 10 children | 26 December 1278
Legnica | Succession
Deposed | Piast |- | High Duke
Konrad I of Masovia
12411243
''( years)'' | | /1188
Son of Casimir II the Just and Helen of Znojmo | Agafia of Rus, 10 children | 31 August 1247
Aged about 60 | Usurped | Piast |- | High Duke
Bolesław V the Chaste
pl|Bolesław V Wstydliwy
12431279
''( years)'' | | 21 June 1226
Stary Korczyn
Son of Leszek I the White and Grzymisława of Luck | Kinga of Poland, no children | 7 December 1279
Kraków
Aged 52 | Restored as rightful Duke | Piast |- | High Duke
Leszek II the Black
pl|Leszek Czarny
12791288
''( years)'' | |
Brześć Kujawski
Son of Casimir I of Kuyavia and Constance of Wrocław | Gryfina of Halych | 30 September 1288
Kraków
Aged about 47 | Succession | Piast |- | High Duke
Henryk IV Probus
English: ''Henry the Righteous''
pl|Henryk IV Prawy

12881290
''( years)'' | | /1258
Son of Henry III the White and Judith of Masovia | Constance of Opole
Matilda of Brandenburg | 23 June 1290
Wrocław
Aged about 32 | Succession | Piast

Attempt at restoration (1295–1296)

|- | King
Przemysł II
English: Premislaus II
12901291 (as duke)
12951296 (as king)
''(1 year)'' | | | 14 October 1257
Poznań
Son of Przemysł I of Greater Poland and Elisabeth of Wrocław | Ludgarda of Mecklenburg
Richeza of Sweden
Margaret of Brandenburg | 8 February 1296
Rogoźno
Aged 38 | Crowned king in 1295
Granted Poland its coat of arms
Assassinated | Piast

House of Přemyslid

|- | King
Wenceslaus II of Bohemia
pl|Wacław II Czeski
12961300 (as High Duke)
13001305 (as King)
''( years)'' | | | 27 September 1271
Prague
Son of Ottokar II of Bohemia and Kunigunda of Slavonia | Judith of Habsburg
Elisabeth Richeza of Poland | 21 June 1305
Prague
Aged 33 | Crowned himself King of Poland in 1300 | Přemyslid |- | ''(Uncrowned)''
Wenceslaus III of Bohemia
pl|Wacław III Czeski
13051306
''(1 year)'' | | | 6 October 1289
Prague
Son of Wenceslaus II and Judith of Habsburg | Viola of Teschen | 4 August 1306
Olomouc
Aged 16 | Succession
Uncrowned and assassinated | Přemyslid

House of Piast (restored)

|- | King
Ladislaus the Short
pl|Władysław I Łokietek
13061320
(as High Duke)
20 January 1320

2 March 1333
(as King)
''()'' | | |
Son of Casimir I of Kuyavia and Euphrosyne of Opole | Jadwiga of Kalisz, 6 children | 2 March 1333
Kraków
Aged about 73 | Reunited the Kingdom of Poland after fragmentation
Crowned King in 1320 | Piast |- | King
Casimir III the Great
pl|Kazimierz III Wielki
25 April 1333

5 November 1370
''()'' | | | 30 April 1310
Kowal
Son of Władysław I the Elbow-high and Jadwiga of Kalisz | Aldona of Lithuania
Adelaide of Hesse
Christina Rokiczana
Hedwig of Sagan | 5 November 1370
Kraków
Aged 60 | Succession
Strengthened Poland's position in Europe
Died without a male heir
Last monarch from the Piast Dynasty | Piast

House of Anjou

|- | King
Louis
pl|Ludwik Węgierski
17 November 1370

10 September 1382
''()'' | | | 5 March 1326
Visegrád
Son of Charles I of Hungary and Elizabeth of Poland | Margaret of Bohemia
Elizabeth of Bosnia | 10 September 1382
Nagyszombat (Trnava)
Aged 56 | Succeeded his uncle, Casimir III, to the Polish throne | Anjou |- | Queen
Hedwig
pl|Jadwiga
16 October 1384

17 July 1399
''()'' | | | 3 October 137418 February 1374
Buda
Daughter of Louis I of Hungary and Elizabeth of Bosnia | Władysław II Jagiełło (Jogaila) | 17 July 1399
Kraków
Aged 25 | Succeeded her father in Poland
Her husband was crowned ''jure uxoris'' on 4 March 1386 | Anjou

House of Jagiellon

|- | King
Jogaila
pl|Władysław II Jagiełło
4 March 1386

1 June 1434
''()'' | | | /1362
Vilnius
Son of Algirdas and Uliana of Tver | Hedwig of Poland (Jadwiga)
Anna of Cilli
Elisabeth of Pilica
Sophia of Halshany | 1 June 1434
Gródek
Aged 72–82 | Born a pagan
Previously Grand Duke of Lithuania
Crowned co-ruler with wife Hedwig
Longest-reigning Polish monarch | Jagiellon |- | King
Władysław III
English: Ladislaus III of Varna
pl|Władysław III Warneńczyk

25 July 1434

10 November 1444
''()'' | | | 31 October 1424
Kraków
Son of Jogaila and Sophia of Halshany | Unmarried and childless | 10 November 1444
Varna
Aged 20 | Succeeded his father in Poland
Killed at the Battle of Varna
Interregnum until 1447 | Jagiellon |- | King
Casimir IV
pl|Kazimierz IV Jagiellończyk
25 June 1447

7 June 1492
''()'' | | | 30 November 1427
Kraków
Son of Jogaila and Sophia of Halshany | Elizabeth of Habsburg, 13 children | 7 June 1492
Grodno
Aged 64 | Succession
Previously Grand Duke of Lithuania
Divided the Polish-Lithuanian realm between John and Alexander | Jagiellon |- | King
John I Albert
pl|Jan I Olbracht
23 September 1492

17 June 1501
''()'' | | | 27 December 1459
Kraków
Son of Casimir IV and Elizabeth of Habsburg | Unmarried and childless | 17 June 1501
Toruń
Aged 41 | Succeeded his father in Poland
Laid foundation for the Sejm and Senate (Polish Parliament) | Jagiellon |- | King
Alexander
pl|Aleksander Jagiellończyk
12 December 1501

19 August 1506
''()'' | | | 5 August 1461
Kraków
Son of Casimir IV and Elizabeth of Habsburg | Helena of Moscow, childless | 19 August 1506
Vilnius
Aged 45 | Succeeded his brother in Poland
Previously Grand Duke of Lithuania
Buried in Lithuania | Jagiellon |- | King
Sigismund the Old
pl|Zygmunt I Stary
8 December 1506

1 April 1548
''()'' | | | 1 January 1467
Kozienice
Son of Casimir IV and Elizabeth of Habsburg | Barbara Zápolya
Bona Sforza of Milan | 1 April 1548
Kraków
Aged 81 | Succeeded his brother in Poland and Lithuania | Jagiellon |- | King
Sigismund II Augustus
pl|Zygmunt II August
1 April 1548

7 July 1572
''()'' | | | 1 August 1520
Kraków
Son of Sigismund I and Bona Sforza | Elizabeth of Austria
Barbara Radziwiłł
Catherine of Austria | 7 July 1572
Knyszyn
Aged 51 | Succession
Formation of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth with an elective monarchy
Last male member of the Jagiellonian Dynasty, died heirless | Jagiellon

Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, 1569–1795

|- | King
Henry
pl|Henryk Walezy
16 May 1573

12 May 1575
''()'' | | | 19 September 1551
Fontainebleau
Son of Henry II and Catherine de' Medici | Louise of Lorraine, no children | 2 August 1589
Saint-Cloud
Aged 37 | Elected
Left Poland in June 1574 to succeed his brother in France
Interregnum until 1575 | Valois |- | Queen
Anna
pl|Anna Jagiellonka
15 December 1575

19 August 1587
''(de facto)''
''()''

9 September 1596
''(de jure)''
''()'' | | | 18 October 1523
Kraków
Daughter of Sigismund I and Bona Sforza | Stephen Báthory, no children | 9 September 1596
Warsaw
Aged 72 | Elected co-monarch with Stephen Báthory
Sole ruler until Báthory's arrival and coronation in May 1576
Ruled after husband's death until her nephew was elected | Jagiellon |- | King
Stephen Báthory
pl|Stefan Batory
1 May 1576

12 December 1586
''()'' | | | 27 September 1533
Szilágysomlyó (Șimleu Silvaniei)
Son of Stephen Báthory of Somlyó and Catherine Telegdi | Anna Jagiellon, no children | 12 December 1586
Grodno
Aged 53 | Elected as co-monarch with Anna Jagiellon
Previously Prince of Transylvania | Báthory |- | King
Sigismund III
pl|Zygmunt III Waza
19 August 1587

30 April 1632
''()'' | | | 20 June 1566
Gripsholm
Son of John III of Sweden and Catherine Jagiellon | Anne of Austria
Constance of Austria | 30 April 1632
Warsaw
Aged 65 | Elected, nephew of Anna Jagiellon
Transferred capital from Kraków to Warsaw
Hereditary King of Sweden until deposition in 1599 | Vasa |- | King
Władysław IV
also Ladislaus IV
pl|Władysław IV Waza
8 November 1632

20 May 1648
''()'' | | | 9 June 1595
Łobzów
Son of Sigismund III and Anne of Austria | Cecilia Renata of Austria
Marie Louise Gonzaga | 20 May 1648
Merkinė
Aged 52 | Elective succession
Also titular King of Sweden and elected Tsar of Russia (1610–1613) when the Polish army captured Moscow | Vasa |- | King
John II Casimir
pl|Jan II Kazimierz
20 November 1648

16 September 1668
''()'' | | | 22 March 1609
Kraków
Son of Sigismund III and Constance of Austria | Marie Louise Gonzaga
Claudine Françoise Mignot (morganatic marriage) | 16 December 1672
Nevers
Aged 63 | Elective succession, succeeded half-brother
Previously a cardinal
Titular King of Sweden
Abdicated | Vasa |- | King
Michael
pl|Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki
19 June 1669

10 November 1673
''()'' | | | 31 May 1640
Biały Kamień
Son of Jeremi Wiśniowiecki and Gryzelda Konstancja Zamoyska | Eleonora Maria of Austria, no children | 10 November 1673
Lwów
Aged 33 | Elected
Born into nobility of mixed heritage, the son of a military commander and governor | Wiśniowiecki |- | King
John III Sobieski
pl|Jan III Sobieski
19 May 1674

17 June 1696
''()'' | | | 17 August 1629
Olesko
Son of Jakub Sobieski and Teofila Zofia | Marie Casimire d'Arquien, 13 children | 17 June 1696
Wilanów
Aged 66 | Elected
Born into nobility
A successful military commander | Sobieski |- | King
Augustus the Strong
pl|August II Mocny
15 September 1697

1706
''(1st reign, 9 years)'' | | | 12 May 1670
Dresden
Son of John George III and Princess Anna Sophie of Denmark | Christiane Eberhardine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, 1 son by wife | 1 February 1733
Warsaw
Aged 62 | Elected
Previously Elector and ruler of Saxony
Dethroned by Stanislaus I in 1706 during the Great Northern War | Wettin |- | King
Stanislaus I
pl|Stanisław I Leszczyński
12 July 1704

8 July 1709
''(1st reign, )'' | | | 20 October 1677
Lwów
Son of Rafał Leszczyński and Anna Jabłonowska | Catherine Opalińska, 2 children | 23 February 1766
Lunéville
Aged 88 | Usurped
Nominated as ruler in 1704, crowned in 1705 and deposed predecessor in 1706
Exiled in 1709 | Leszczyński |- | King
Augustus the Strong
pl|August II Mocny
8 July 1709

1 February 1733
''(2nd reign, )'' | | | 12 May 1670
Dresden
Son of John George III and Princess Anna Sophie of Denmark | Christiane Eberhardine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, 1 son by wife | 1 February 1733
Warsaw
Aged 62 | Restored | Wettin |- | King
Stanislaus I
pl|Stanisław I Leszczyński
12 September 1733

26 January 1736
''(2nd reign, )'' | | | 20 October 1677
Lwów
Son of Rafał Leszczyński and Anna Jabłonowska | Catherine Opalińska, 2 children | 23 February 1766
Lunéville
Aged 88 | Elected
His election sparked the War of the Polish Succession
Deposed by Augustus III in 1736 | Leszczyński |- | King
Augustus III
pl|August III Sas
5 October 1733

5 October 1763
''(30 years)'' | | | 17 October 1696
Dresden
Son of Augustus II the Strong and Christiane Eberhardine | Maria Josepha of Austria, 16 children | 5 October 1763
Dresden
Aged 66 | Usurped
Proclaimed King of Poland in 1733, crowned in 1734
Dethroned rightfully elected predecessor in 1736 | Wettin |- | King
Stanislaus II Augustus
pl|Stanisław II August
7 September 1764

25 November 1795
''()'' | | 100px | 17 January 1732
Wołczyn
Son of Stanisław Poniatowski and Konstancja Czartoryska | Unmarried | 1 February 1798
Saint Petersburg
Aged 66 | Elected
Born into nobility
Last King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, his reign ended in the Partitions of Poland | Poniatowski

Duchy of Warsaw, 1807–1815

|- | Duke
Frederick Augustus I
pl|Fryderyk August I
9 June 1807

22 May 1815
''()'' | | | 23 December 1750
Dresden
Son of Frederick Christian, Elector of Saxony and Maria Antonia of Bavaria | Amalie of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld,
1 daughter | 5 May 1827
Dresden
Aged 76 | Treaties of Tilsit
Designated as a king of Poland by General Confederation of the Kingdom of Poland, 1812. | Wettin

Pretenders to the Polish throne

* Vratislaus II of Bohemia (1085–1092) * Rudolf I of Bohemia (1306–1307) * Henry of Bohemia (1307–1310) * John of Bohemia (1310–1335)

Modern

* Alexander, Margrave of Meissen (2012–), Disputedhttps://royalcentral.co.uk/europe/polish-political-magazine-wishes-to-re-establish-the-monarchy-in-poland-86233/ * Rüdiger, Margrave of Meissen (2012–), Disputed

Not recognized royal elections

* Maxmilian II Habsburg (1575–1576), ''See: 1576 Free election'' * Maxmilian III Habsburg (1587–1589), ''See: 1587 Free election'' * François Louis de Bourbon (1697), ''See: 1697 Free election''

See also

* Coronations in Poland * Dukes of Greater Poland * Dukes of Masovia * Dukes of Pomerania * Dukes of Sieradz-Łęczyca * Dukes of Silesia * Kings of Poland family tree * List of rulers of Partitioned Poland * List of Galician rulers * List of heads of state of Poland * List of Poles * List of Polish consorts * List of Prime Ministers of Poland * Princely Houses of Poland

References



Bibliography

* Duczmal M., Jagiellonowie. Leksykon biograficzny, Kraków 1996. * Dybkowska A., Żaryn J., Żaryn M., Polskie dzieje. Od czasów najdawniejszych po współczesność, wyd. 2, Warszawa 1995. * Gierowski J.A., Rzeczpospolita w dobie złotej wolności (1648–1763), Kraków 2001. * Grodziski S., Polska w czasach przełomu (1764–1815), Kraków 2001. * Grodziski S., Porównawcza historia ustrojów państwowych, Kraków 1998. * Grzybowski S., Dzieje Polski i Litwy (1506–1648), Kraków 2000. * Morby J.E., Dynastie świata. Przewodnik chronologiczny i genealogiczny, Kraków 1995, s. 261–263. * Wyrozumski J., Dzieje Polski piastowskiej (VIII w.-1370), Kraków 1999. * Zientara B., Henryk Brodaty i jego czasy, wyd. 2, Warszawa 1997.

External links

* Górczyk, Wojciech
"Półksiężyc, orzeł, lew i smok. Uwagi o godłach napieczętnych Piastów"
Histmag.org June 14, 2009 {{Poland topics Monarchs Poland Monarchs lt:Lenkijos karalius