The Padma Bhushan is the third-highest civilian award of the Republic of India.[1] Instituted on 2 January 1954, the award is given for "distinguished service of a high order", without distinction of race, occupation, position, or sex.[2] The recipients receive a Sanad, a certificate signed by the President of India and a circular-shaped medallion with no monetary association. The recipients are announced every year on Republic Day (26 January) and registered in The Gazette of India—a publication used for official government notices and released weekly by the Department of Publication, under the Ministry of Urban Development.[3] The conferral of the award is not considered official without its publication in the Gazette. The name of recipient, whose award have been revoked or restored, both of which require the authority of the President, is archived and they are required to surrender their medal when their name is struck from the register;[4] none of the conferments of Padma Bhushan during 1980–1989 have been revoked or restored. The recommendations are received from all the state and the union territory governments, as well as from Ministries of the Government of India, the Bharat Ratna and the Padma Vibhushan awardees, the Institutes of Excellence, the Ministers, the Chief Ministers and the Governors of State, and the Members of Parliament including private individuals.[3]

When instituted in 1954, the Padma Bhushan was classified as "Dusra Warg" (Class II) under the three-tier Padma Vibhushan awards, which were preceded by the Bharat Ratna in hierarchy. On 15 January 1955, the Padma Vibhushan was reclassified into three different awards as the Padma Vibhushan, the Padma Bhushan and the Padma Shri.[3] The criteria included "distinguished service of a high order in any field including service rendered by Government servants", but excluded those working with the public sector undertakings with the exception of doctors and scientists. The 1954 statutes did not allow posthumous awards; this was subsequently modified in the January 1955 statute.[4] The design was also changed to the form that is currently in use; it portrays a circular-shaped toned bronze medallion 1 34 inches (44 mm) in diameter and 18 inch (3.2 mm) thick. The centrally placed pattern made of outer lines of a square of 1 316 inches (30 mm) side is embossed with a knob carved within each of the outer angles of the pattern. A raised circular space of diameter 1 116 inches (27 mm) is placed at the centre of the decoration. A centrally located lotus flower is embossed on the obverse side of the medal and the text "Padma" is placed above and the text "Bhushan" is placed below the lotus written in Devanagari script. The State Emblem of India is displayed in the centre of the reverse side, together with the national motto of India, "Satyameva Jayate" (Truth alone triumphs) in Devanagari script, which is inscribed on the lower edge. The rim, the edges and all embossing on either side is of standard gold with the text "Padma Bhushan" of gold gilt. The medal is suspended by a pink riband 1 14 inches (32 mm) in width with a broad white stripe in the middle.[3][4] It is ranked fifth in the order of precedence of wearing of medals and decorations of the Indian civilian and military awards.[a]

After assuming office as Prime Minister of India in 1977, Morarji Desai withdrew all the civilian awards, reckoning them as "worthless and politicized".[6] As a result, the Padma Bhushan award was not conferred to any person from 1978 until 1980 when the suspension was rescinded on 25 January by Indira Gandhi, Desai's predecessor who had returned to office. Cricketer Sunil Gavaskar became the first recipient of the award since its restoration in 1980; he was the only person awarded in that year.[7]

A total of 133 awards were presented in the 1980s. Only one award was conferred in 1980 which was later followed by nine in 1981, fifteen in 1982, seventeen in both 1983 and 1984, twenty-one in 1985, fourteen in 1986, twelve in 1987, thirteen in 1988, and fourteen in 1989. The Padma Bhushan in the 1980s was also conferred upon ten foreign recipients – four from the United Kingdom, three from the United States, and one each from Denmark, France, and Japan. Individuals from nine different fields were awarded, which includes twenty-eight from literature and education, twenty-five from civil services, twenty-three artists, nineteen from science and engineering, thirteen from medicine, ten from public affairs, eight from social work, four from trade and industry, and three from sportspersons.[8] Pushpa Mittra Bhargava, scientist and founder-director of Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB) who had received the award in 1986 in the field of medicine, returned it in 2015 in protest of the Dadri mob lynching and out of concern at the "prevailing socio-politico situation" in the country.[9]


A photograph of a middle-aged man wearing a suit.
The sole recipient of 1980, cricketer Sunil Gavaskar is widely considered as one of the greatest opening batsmen of all time. He is the first batsman to score 10,000 runs in Test cricket.[10]
A photograph of a smiling old man with white hair and beard
In a career spanning over sixty years, filmmaker Richard Attenborough, awarded in 1983, is best known for his eight Academy Award-winning film Gandhi (1983) and is considered as "one of Britain's best-known actors and directors".[11]
A black and white photograph of man wearing black glasses
Mathematician K. G. Ramanathan is widely known for his works in number theory, mainly the analytic and arithmetic theory of quadratic forms over division algebras with involution. He was awarded with a Padma Bhushan in 1983.[12]
A photograph of an old man with white hair and beard and right hand kept on the chin
Known for his "bold depiction of socially controversial themes", writer and playwright Vijay Tendulkar has 28 full-length plays to his credit, which include Sakharam Binder and Ghashiram Kotwal. He was awarded in 1984.[13]
A photograph of an old woman sitting on a chair wearing sari with right hand kept on the table
Founder of Self Employed Women's Association, 1986 award winner Ela Bhatt was consultant to UNICEF for the Bangladesh Women's Department in 1977 and was also presented with a Ramon Magsaysay Award.[14]
A photograph of a man standing in front of a microphone
Aerospace scientist Roddam Narasimha was awarded in 1987. A former Director of the National Aerospace Laboratories and the Chairman of the Engineering Mechanics Unit at the Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, he has authored more than 250 scientific papers and fifteen books.[15]
A black and white photograph of a young man wearing glasses
British politician Fenner Brockway, Baron Brockway was co-founder of No-Conscription Fellowship. He was awarded with a Padma Bhushan in 1989.[16]
Colour closeup photograph of a man wearing rectangular-framed spectacles with receding grey hairline
Scientist Ashesh Prasad Mitra contributed towards research in fields of ionosphere and earth's near-space environment using ground-based and space technology. He was Director of the National Physical Laboratory of India (1982–86), Director-General of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (1986–91), fellow of the Royal Society of London and received Padma Bhushan in 1989. He is often referred as "the doyen of upper atmospheric research in India."[17]
Black and white profile photograph of a balding man.
Japanese politician Yoshio Sakurauchi was chairman of the Japan-India Association for over 25 years. In that capacity, and as the Foreign Affairs Minister, he helped strengthen cultural and economic ties of India and Japan. He was presented with the award in 1989.[18]
Award recipients by year[8]
Year Number of recipients
Award recipients by field[8]
Field Number of recipients
Civil Service
Literature & Education
Public Affairs
Science & Engineering
Social Work
Trade & Industry
List of Padma Bhushan award recipients, showing the year, field, and state/country[8]
Year Recipient Field State
1980 Gavaskar, SunilSunil Gavaskar Sports Maharashtra
1981 Bappu, VainuVainu Bappu Science & Engineering Tamil Nadu
1981 Desai, PrafullaPrafulla Desai Medicine Maharashtra
1981 Jha, MakhalaMakhala Jha Social Work Bihar
1981 Kalam, A. P. J. AbdulA. P. J. Abdul Kalam Civil Service Delhi
1981 Mohanty, GopinathGopinath Mohanty Literature & Education Orissa
1981 Mukherjee, Prabhat KumarPrabhat Kumar Mukherjee Civil Service West Bengal
1981 Nagar, AmritlalAmritlal Nagar Literature & Education Uttar Pradesh
1981 Sen, MrinalMrinal Sen Arts West Bengal
1981 Wadia, Avabai BomanjiAvabai Bomanji Wadia Social Work Maharashtra
1982 Bajaj, Jasbir SinghJasbir Singh Bajaj Medicine Delhi
1982 Balachander, SundaramSundaram Balachander Arts Tamil Nadu
1982 Brahmaiah, GottipatiGottipati Brahmaiah Social Work Andhra Pradesh
1982 Gaidinliu, RaniRani Gaidinliu Social Work Nagaland
1982 Khan, Khadim HussainKhadim Hussain Khan Arts Maharashtra
1982 Kramrisch, StellaStella Kramrisch Literature & Education [A]
1982 Mehta, Jal MinocherJal Minocher Mehta Medicine Maharashtra
1982 Morley, Grace Louise McCannGrace Louise McCann Morley Science & Engineering Delhi
1982 Prakash, AtamAtam Prakash Medicine Delhi
1982 Qasim, Syed ZahoorSyed Zahoor Qasim Science & Engineering Delhi
1982 Ramakrishnan, Arnee SreenivasanArnee Sreenivasan Ramakrishnan Medicine Tamil Nadu
1982 Ranadive, KamalKamal Ranadive Medicine Maharashtra
1982 Sastri, P. N. PattabhiramaP. N. Pattabhirama Sastri Literature & Education Uttar Pradesh
1982 Sharma, JhabarmalJhabarmal Sharma Literature & Education Rajasthan
1982 Verma, Ajit RamAjit Ram Verma Science & Engineering Delhi
1983 Attenborough, RichardRichard Attenborough Arts [B]
1983 Iyengar, DoraiswamyDoraiswamy Iyengar Arts Karnataka
1983 Jog, V. G.V. G. Jog Arts West Bengal
1983 Malhotra, Suraj ParkashSuraj Parkash Malhotra Civil Service Delhi
1983 Nagendra, Nagendra Literature & Education Delhi
1983 Nair, K. SankaranK. Sankaran Nair Civil Service Kerala
1983 Nazir, PremPrem Nazir Arts Kerala
1983 Paul, SwrajSwraj Paul Social Work [B]
1983 Rajkumar, Rajkumar Arts Karnataka
1983 Ramanathan, K. G.K. G. Ramanathan Literature & Education Maharashtra
1983 Satarawala, Kershasp TehmuraspKershasp Tehmurasp Satarawala Civil Service Goa
1983 Sengupta, Subodh ChandraSubodh Chandra Sengupta Literature & Education West Bengal
1983 Sethna, Adi M.Adi M. Sethna Civil Service Delhi
1983 Sharma, Arun KumarArun Kumar Sharma Science & Engineering Delhi
1983 Sharma, BenudharBenudhar Sharma Literature & Education Assam
1983 Singh, BhalindraBhalindra Singh Sports Delhi
1983 Singh, UmraoUmrao Singh Civil Service Punjab
1984 Alexander, HoraceHorace Alexander Literature & Education [A]
1984 Chaturvedi, NarayanNarayan Chaturvedi Literature & Education Uttar Pradesh
1984 Ferreira, MichaelMichael Ferreira Sports Maharashtra
1984 Ganesan, SivajiSivaji Ganesan Arts Tamil Nadu
1984 Ghosh, Jnan PrakashJnan Prakash Ghosh Arts West Bengal
1984 Murthy, Kotha SatchidanandaKotha Satchidananda Murthy Literature & Education Andhra Pradesh
1984 Narasimhaiah, HosurHosur Narasimhaiah Literature & Education Karnataka
1984 Pinakapani, SripadaSripada Pinakapani Arts Andhra Pradesh
1984 Prasad, IshwariIshwari Prasad Literature & Education Uttar Pradesh
1984 Sanyal, B. C.B. C. Sanyal Arts Madhya Pradesh
1984 Seton, MarieMarie Seton Literature & Education [B]
1984 Sharma, ArchanaArchana Sharma Medicine West Bengal
1984 Siddiqi, ObaidObaid Siddiqi Science & Engineering Maharashtra
1984 Singh, Kanwar NatwarKanwar Natwar Singh Civil Service Delhi
1984 Singh, GandaGanda Singh Literature & Education Punjab
1984 Tendulkar, VijayVijay Tendulkar Arts Maharashtra
1984 Upadhyaya, BaldevBaldev Upadhyaya Literature & Education Uttar Pradesh
1985 Ahmed, RaisRais Ahmed Literature & Education Delhi
1985 Basu, Durga DasDurga Das Basu Public Affairs West Bengal
1985 Chatterjee, Shiba P.Shiba P. Chatterjee Literature & Education West Bengal
1985 Chitnis, Eknath VasantEknath Vasant Chitnis Science & Engineering Gujarat
1985 Chopra, Virender LalVirender Lal Chopra Science & Engineering Delhi
1985 Dhillon, Gurbaksh SinghGurbaksh Singh Dhillon Civil Service Delhi
1985 Ghosh, SantidevSantidev Ghosh Arts West Bengal
1985 Gill, Surinder SinghSurinder Singh Gill Civil Service Delhi
1985 Joshi, BhimsenBhimsen Joshi Arts Maharashtra
1985 Masud, Sadat AbulSadat Abul Masud Public Affairs West Bengal
1985 Narayanan, KalanidhiKalanidhi Narayanan Arts Tamil Nadu
1985 Peters, BernardBernard Peters Science & Engineering [C]
1985 Pillai, Thakazhi SivasankaraThakazhi Sivasankara Pillai Literature & Education Kerala
1985 Ramanujam, GopalaGopala Ramanujam Social Work Tamil Nadu
1985 Ramseshan, SivarajSivaraj Ramseshan Science & Engineering Karnataka
1985 Sastry, Vuppuluri GanapathiVuppuluri Ganapathi Sastry Literature & Education Andhra Pradesh
1985 Singh, AmarjitAmarjit Singh Civil Service Rajasthan
1985 Luhar (Sundaram), TribhuvandasTribhuvandas Luhar (Sundaram) Literature & Education Puducherry
1985 Talib, Gurbachan SinghGurbachan Singh Talib Literature & Education Punjab
1985 Udgaonkar, BhalchandraBhalchandra Udgaonkar Science & Engineering Maharashtra
1985 Varadarajan, SrinivasanSrinivasan Varadarajan Civil Service Delhi
1986 Arunachalam, V. S. R.V. S. R. Arunachalam Civil Service Delhi
1986 Bhargava, Pushpa MittraPushpa Mittra Bhargava Medicine Andhra Pradesh
1986 Bhatt, ElaEla Bhatt Social Work Gujarat
1986 Chibber, Manohar LalManohar Lal Chibber Civil Service Delhi
1986 Daggar, Nasir AminuddinNasir Aminuddin Daggar Arts West Bengal
1986 Krishnamurthy, VenkataramanVenkataraman Krishnamurthy Civil Service Delhi
1986 Riboud, JeanJean Riboud Public Affairs [D]
1986 Ripley, Sidney DillonSidney Dillon Ripley Science & Engineering [A]
1986 Sethi, RajeevRajeev Sethi Civil Service Delhi
1986 Singh, MartandMartand Singh Public Affairs Delhi
1986 Sundaram, C. VenkataramanC. Venkataraman Sundaram Science & Engineering Tamil Nadu
1986 Tandon, Badri NathBadri Nath Tandon Medicine Delhi
1986 Tandon, Gulshan LalGulshan Lal Tandon Civil Service West Bengal
1986 Trivedi, Ram KrishnaRam Krishna Trivedi Public Affairs Uttar Pradesh
1987 Amma, Nalapat BalamaniNalapat Balamani Amma Literature & Education Kerala
1987 Amonkar, KishoriKishori Amonkar Arts Maharashtra
1987 Anandaram, SrinivasaSrinivasa Anandaram Civil Service Delhi
1987 Banerjee, NikhilNikhil Banerjee Arts West Bengal
1987 Narasimha, RoddamRoddam Narasimha Science & Engineering Karnataka
1987 Pradhan, R. D.R. D. Pradhan Civil Service Maharashtra
1987 Ray, Annada ShankarAnnada Shankar Ray Literature & Education West Bengal
1987 Ribeiro, JulioJulio Ribeiro Civil Service Maharashtra
1987 Sharma, Man MohanMan Mohan Sharma Science & Engineering Maharashtra
1987 Sihare, Laxmi PrasadLaxmi Prasad Sihare Civil Service Delhi
1987 Udwadia, FarokhFarokh Udwadia Medicine Maharashtra
1987 Yunus, MohammadMohammad Yunus Civil Service Delhi
1988 Bakula, KushokKushok Bakula Public Affairs Delhi
1988 Bambah, Ram PrakashRam Prakash Bambah Science & Engineering Chandigarh
1988 Duggal, Kartar SinghKartar Singh Duggal Literature & Education Delhi
1988 Ganguly, Ashok SekharAshok Sekhar Ganguly Trade & Industry Maharashtra
1988 Hussain, AbidAbid Hussain Civil Service Delhi
1988 Jain, Shreyans PrasadShreyans Prasad Jain Social Work Maharashtra
1988 Mohapatra, KelucharanKelucharan Mohapatra Arts Orissa
1988 Nanda, Bal RamBal Ram Nanda Literature & Education Delhi
1988 Rao, Akkineni NageswaraAkkineni Nageswara Rao Arts Andhra Pradesh
1988 Rao, Pratury TrirumalaPratury Trirumala Rao Medicine Andhra Pradesh
1988 Ray, RenukaRenuka Ray Public Affairs West Bengal
1988 Sreekantan, B. V.B. V. Sreekantan Science & Engineering Maharashtra
1988 Wahi, Satya PalSatya Pal Wahi Trade & Industry Uttar Pradesh
1989 Brockway, FennerFenner Brockway Public Affairs [B]
1989 Coyaji, Banoo JehangirBanoo Jehangir Coyaji Medicine Maharashtra
1989 Devi, GirijaGirija Devi Arts Uttar Pradesh
1989 Hebbar, Kattingeri KrishnaKattingeri Krishna Hebbar Arts Maharashtra
1989 Jain, GirilalGirilal Jain Literature & Education Delhi
1989 Malhotra, Anna RajamAnna Rajam Malhotra Civil Service Maharashtra
1989 Mathur, M. V.M. V. Mathur Science & Engineering Rajasthan
1989 Mitra, Ashesh PrasadAshesh Prasad Mitra Science & Engineering Delhi
1989 Mody, RussiRussi Mody Trade & Industry Jharkhand
1989 Nadkarni, Suresh ShankarSuresh Shankar Nadkarni Trade & Industry Maharashtra
1989 Randhawa, Narinder SinghNarinder Singh Randhawa Science & Engineering Delhi
1989 Sakurauchi, YoshioYoshio Sakurauchi Public Affairs [E]
1989 Singh, LakshmanLakshman Singh Public Affairs Maharashtra
1989 Tandon, Prakash NarainPrakash Narain Tandon Medicine Delhi

Explanatory notes

  1. ^ The order of precedence is: Bharat Ratna, Param Vir Chakra, Ashoka Chakra, Padma Vibhushan and Padma Bhushan.[5]
Foreign recipients
  1. ^ a b c Indicates a citizen of the United States
  2. ^ a b c d Indicates a citizen of the United Kingdom
  3. ^ Indicates a citizen of Denmark
  4. ^ Indicates a citizen of France
  5. ^ Indicates a citizen of Japan


  1. ^ "PV Sindhu recommended for Padma Bhushan, India's third highest civilian award, by sports ministry". Firstpost. 25 September 2017. Archived from the original on 26 December 2017. Retrieved 26 December 2017. 
  2. ^ Lal, Shavax A. (1954). "The Gazette of India—Extraordinary—Part I" (PDF). The Gazette of India. The President's Secretariat (published 2 January 1954): 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 May 2014. Retrieved 31 March 2018. The President is pleased to institute an award to be designated 'Padma Vibhushan' in three classes, namely: 'Pahela Varg', 'Dusra Varg' and 'Tisra Varg' 
  3. ^ a b c d "Padma Awards Scheme" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs (India). Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 February 2018. Retrieved 28 September 2015. 
  4. ^ a b c Ayyar, N. M. (1955). "The Gazette of India—Extraordinary—Part I" (PDF). The Gazette of India. The President's Secretariat (published 15 January 1955): 8. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 May 2014. Retrieved 31 March 2018. All persons upon whom the decoration of 'Padma Vibhushan' ('Dusra Varg') was conferred under the Regulations issued with Notification No. 2-Pres./54, dated the 2nd January, 1954, shall, for all purposes of these regulations, be deemed to be persons on whom the decoration of Padma Bhushan has been conferred by the President. 
  5. ^ "Wearing of Medals: Precedence Of Medals". Indian Army. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 22 November 2015. 
  6. ^ Mukul, Akshaya (20 January 2008). "The great Bharat Ratna race". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 26 August 2015. Retrieved 2 June 2016. 
  7. ^ Bhattacherje, S. B. (2009). Encyclopaedia of Indian Events & Dates. Sterling Publishers. p. A248, A253. ISBN 978-81-207-4074-7. Archived from the original on 2016-06-11. 
  8. ^ a b c d "Padma Awards Directory (1954–2014)" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs (India). 21 May 2014. pp. 72–94. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 November 2014. Retrieved 22 March 2016. 
  9. ^ Mallikarjun, Y. (12 November 2015). "P.M. Bhargava sends back Padma Bhushan award to President". The Hindu. Hyderabad. Archived from the original on 28 February 2018. Retrieved 2 June 2016. 
  10. ^ "Sunil Gavaskar Profile@espncricinfo". ESPN Cricinfo. Archived from the original on 13 May 2016. Retrieved 31 May 2016. 
  11. ^ "Obituary: Richard Attenborough". BBC News. 24 August 2014. Archived from the original on 13 March 2016. Retrieved 2 June 2016. 
  12. ^ "Professor K. G. Ramanathan" (PDF). Indian Academy of Sciences. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 August 2016. Retrieved 2 June 2016. 
  13. ^ "Vijay Tendulkar, voice of social stage, is dead". The Telegraph. Mumbai/Pune. 20 May 2008. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 2 June 2016. 
  14. ^ "Ela Ramesh Bhatt Biography". Ramon Magsaysay Award Foundation. September 1977. Archived from the original on 10 June 2016. Retrieved 1 June 2016. 
  15. ^ "Prof. Roddam Narasimha,FRS". Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research. 12 May 2008. Retrieved 1 June 2016. 
  16. ^ Simkin, John. "British Journalist: Fenner Brockway". Spartacus Educational Publishers. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 4 June 2016. 
  17. ^ "Former CSIR chief dead". The Hindu. 4 September 2007. Retrieved 11 August 2016. 
    • "A P Mitra, Former DGCSIR, passes away". National Aerospace Laboratories. 3–9 September 2007. Archived from the original on 29 January 2014. Retrieved 11 August 2016. 
    • Science & Society in the Twenty First Century: Quest for Excellence : the Road Ahead. National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources. 2004. p. 246. ISBN 978-81-7236-307-9. 
  18. ^ "History of The Japan-India Association". Japan-India Association. Archived from the original on 22 September 2016. Retrieved 11 August 2016. 

External links