Below is a list of dishes found in Japanese cuisine. Apart from rice, staples in Japanese cuisine include noodles, such as soba and udon. Japan has many simmered dishes such as fish products in broth called oden, or beef in sukiyaki and nikujaga. Foreign food, in particular Chinese food in the form of noodles in soup called ramen and fried dumplings, gyoza, and western food such as curry and hamburger steaks are commonly found in Japan. Historically, the Japanese shunned meat, but with the modernization of Japan in the 1860s, meat-based dishes such as tonkatsu became more common.
Rice dishes (ご飯物)
- Gohan or Meshi: plainly cooked white rice. It is such a staple that the terms gohan and meshi are also used to refer meals in general, such as Asa gohan/meshi (朝御飯, 朝飯, breakfast), Hiru gohan/meshi (昼御飯, 昼飯, lunch), and Ban gohan/meshi (晩御飯, 晩飯, dinner). Also, raw rice is called kome (米, rice), while cooked rice is gohan (ご飯, [cooked] rice). Nori (海苔), and furikake (ふりかけ) are popular condiments in Japanese breakfast. Some alternatives are:
- Curry rice (karē raisu カレーライス): Introduced from the UK in the late 19th century, "curry rice" is now one of the most popular dishes in Japan. It is much milder than its Indian counterpart.
- Chāhan (炒飯): fried rice, adapted to Japanese tastes, tends to be lighter in flavor and style than the Chinese version from which it is derived
- Genmai gohan (玄米御飯): brown rice
- Hayashi rice (ハヤシライス): thick beef stew on rice
- Kamameshi (釜飯): rice topped with vegetables and chicken or seafood, then baked in an individual-sized pot
- Katemeshi: a peasant food consisting of rice, barley, millet and chopped daikon radish
- Mochi (餅): glutinous rice cake
- Mugi gohan/Mugi meshi (麦御飯, 麦飯): white rice cooked with barley
- Ochazuke (御茶漬け): hot green tea or dashi (出汁) poured over cooked white rice, often with various savory ingredients such as umeboshi (梅干) or tsukemono (漬物).
- Okowa (おこわ): cooked glutinous rice
- Omurice (Omu-raisu, オムライス): omelet filled with fried rice, apparently originating from Tōkyō
- Onigiri (おにぎり): balls of rice with a filling in the middle. Japanese equivalent of sandwiches.
- Sekihan (赤飯): white rice cooked with azuki beans (小豆) to Glutinous rice. (literally red rice)
- Takikomi gohan (炊き込み御飯): Japanese-style pilaf cooked with various ingredients and flavored with soy, dashi, etc.
- Tamago kake gohan (卵掛け御飯): Rice with a raw egg
- Tenmusu: a rice ball wrapped with nori that is filled with deep-fried tempura shrimp
Rice porridge (お粥)
- Kayu or Okayu (粥, お粥) is a rice congee (porridge), sometimes egg dropped and usually served to infants and sick people
- Zosui (Zōsui, 雑炊) or Ojiya (おじや) is a soup containing rice stewed in stock, often with egg, meat, seafood, vegetables or mushroom, and flavored with miso or soy. Known as juushii in Okinawa. Some similarity to risotto and Kayu though Zosui uses cooked rice, as the difference is that kayu is made from raw rice.
Rice bowls (どんぶり)
A one-bowl dish, consisting of a donburi (どんぶり, 丼, big bowl) full of hot steamed rice with various savory toppings:
- Gyūdon: (牛丼): A Japanese rice bowl dish consisting of fish, meat, vegetables or other ingredients served together over rice, topped with seasoned beef
- Katsudon (カツ丼): A Japanese rice bowl dish consisting of fish, meat, vegetables or other ingredients served together over rice. topped with deep-fried breaded cutlet of pork (tonkatsudon), chicken (chickendon)
- Oyakodon (親子丼): A Japanese rice bowl dish consisting of fish, meat, vegetables or other ingredients served together over rice. topped with chicken and egg (or sometimes salmon and salmon roe) (literally Parent and Child bowl)
- Tekkadon (鉄火丼): A Japanese rice bowl dish consisting of fish, meat, vegetables or other ingredients served together over rice. topped with tuna sashimi
- Tendon: (天丼): A Japanese rice bowl dish consisting of fish, meat, vegetables or other ingredients served together over rice. topped with tempura (battered shrimp and vegetables)
- Unadon: (うな丼, 鰻丼): A Japanese rice bowl dish consisting of fish, meat, vegetables or other ingredients served together over rice. topped with broiled eel with vegetables
Sushi (寿司, 鮨, 鮓) is a vinegared rice topped or mixed with various fresh ingredients, usually seafood or vegetables.
- Nigirizushi (握り寿司): This is sushi with the ingredients on top of a block of rice.
- Makizushi (巻き寿司): Translated as "roll sushi", this is where rice and seafood or other ingredients are placed on a sheet of seaweed (nori) and rolled into a cylindrical shape on a bamboo mat and then cut into smaller pieces. Now, sushi is a very popular favorite food. It consists of cooked rice, sesame oil, salt,vinegar and sesame seeds, sugar is often added as seasonings. Then it is placed on a sheet of nori, dried laver. The seasoned rice is spread on the laver, and then fried egg, julienned carrots, julienned ham, seasoned ground beef or seasoned fish cakes, pickled radish, seasoned spinach, and seasoned gobo and cucumber are then placed closely together on the rice.tuna, cheese, yakiniku, vegetable, and more.
- Temaki orTemakizushi (手巻き、手巻き寿司): Basically the same as makizushi, except that the nori is rolled into a cone-shape with the ingredients placed inside. Sometimes referred to as a "hand-roll".
- Chirashizushi (ちらし寿司) or Bara-zushi (バラ寿司): Translated as "scattered", chirashi involves fresh seafood, vegetables or other ingredients being placed on top of sushi rice in a bowl or dish.
- Inarizushi (稲荷寿司, お稲荷さん): Fried tofu packet stuffed with sushi rice (no fillings)
- Oshizushi (押し寿司):
- Meharizushi (めはり寿司):
Noodles (men-rui, 麺類)
Noodles (麺類) often take the place of rice in a meal. However, the Japanese appetite for rice is so strong that many restaurants even serve noodles-rice combination sets.
- Traditional Japanese noodles are usually served chilled with a dipping sauce, or in a hot soy-dashi broth.
- Soba (蕎麦, そば): thin brown buckwheat noodles. Also known as Nihon-soba ("Japanese soba"). In Okinawa, soba likely refers to Okinawa soba (see below).
- Udon (うどん): thick white wheat noodles served with various toppings, usually in a hot soy-dashi broth, or sometimes in a Japanese curry soup.
- Somen (素麺, そうめん): thin white wheat noodles served chilled with a dipping sauce. Hot Somen is called Nyumen.
- Chinese-influenced noodles are served in a meat or chicken broth and have only appeared in the last 100 years or so.
- Ramen (ラーメン): thin light yellow noodles served in hot chicken or pork broth with various toppings; of Chinese origin, it is a popular and common item in Japan. Also known as Shina-soba (支那そば) or Chuka-soba (中華そば) (both mean "Chinese-style soba")
- Champon (ちゃんぽん): yellow noodles of medium thickness served with a great variety of seafood and vegetable toppings in a hot chicken broth which originated in Nagasaki as a cheap food for students
- Hiyashi chuka (冷やし中華): thin, yellow noodles served cold with a variety of toppings, such as cucumber, tomato, ham or chicken, bean sprouts, thin-sliced omelet, etc., and a cold sauce (soy sauce based, sesame based, etc.). The name means "cold Chinese noodles."
- Okinawa soba (沖縄そば): thick wheat-flour noodles served in Okinawa, often served in a hot broth with sōki, steamed pork. Akin to a cross between udon and ramen.
- Yaki soba (焼きそば): Fried Chinese noodles
- Yaki udon (焼きうどん): Fried udon noodles
Bread (pan*, パン)
Bread (the word "pan" (パン) is derived from the Portuguese pão) is not native to Japan and is not considered traditional Japanese food, but since its introduction in the 16th century it has become common.
*A container made of metal and used for cooking food in.
Common Japanese main and side dishes (okazu, おかず)
Deep-fried dishes (agemono, 揚げ物)
- Agemono (揚げ物): Deep-fried dishes
- Karaage (唐揚げ) : bite-sized pieces of chicken, fish, octopus, or other meat, floured and deep fried. Common izakaya (居酒屋) food, also often available in convenience stores.
- Korokke (croquette コロッケ): breaded and deep-fried patties, containing either mashed potato or white sauce mixed with minced meat, vegetables or seafood. Popular everyday food.
- Kushikatsu (串カツ): skewered meat, vegetables or seafood, breaded and deep fried.
- Tempura (天ぷら): deep-fried vegetables or seafood in a light, distinctive batter.
- Tonkatsu (豚カツ): deep-fried breaded cutlet of pork (chicken versions are called chicken katsu).
- Agedashi dofu (揚げ出し豆腐): cubes of deep-fried silken tofu served in hot broth.
Grilled and pan-fried dishes (yakimono, 焼き物)
) with mushroom, leeks, and yuzu
- Yakimono (焼き物): Grilled and pan-fried dishes
- Gyoza (餃子): Chinese ravioli-dumplings (potstickers), usually filled with pork and vegetables (spring onion, leek, cabbage, garlic, and ginger) and pan-fried
- Kushiyaki (串焼き): skewers of meat and vegetables
- Motoyaki (素焼き): Baked seafood topped with a creamy sauce
- Okonomiyaki (お好み焼き) are savory pancakes with various meat and vegetable ingredients, flavored with the likes of Worcestershire sauce or mayonnaise.
- Takoyaki (たこ焼き, 蛸焼き): a spherical, fried dumpling of batter with a piece of octopus inside. Popular street snack.
- Teriyaki (照り焼き): grilled, broiled, or pan-fried meat, fish, chicken or vegetables glazed with a sweetened soy sauce
- Unagi (鰻, うなぎ), including Kabayaki (蒲焼): grilled and flavored eel
- Yakiniku ("grilled meat" 焼肉) may refer to several things. Vegetables such as bite-sized onion, carrot, cabbage, mushrooms, and bell pepper are usually grilled together. Grilled ingredients are dipped in a sauce known as tare before being eaten.
- Horumonyaki ("offal-grill" ホルモン焼き): similar homegrown dish, but using offal
- Jingisukan (Genghis Khan ジンギスカン) barbecue: sliced lamb or mutton grilled with various vegetables, especially onion and cabbage and dipped in a rich tare sauce. A speciality of Hokkaidō.
- Yakitori (焼き鳥): barbecued chicken skewers, usually served with beer. In Japan, yakitori usually consists of a wide variety of parts of the chicken. It is not usual to see straight chicken meat as the only type of yakitori in a meal.
- Yakizakana (焼き魚) is flame-grilled fish, often served with grated daikon. One of the most common dishes served at home. Because of the simple cuisine, fresh fish in season are highly preferable. See Arabesque greenling
Nabemono (one pot cooking, 鍋物)
Nabemono (鍋物) includes:
- Motsunabe (モツ鍋): beef offal, Chinese cabbage and various vegetables cooked in a light soup base.
- Shabu-shabu (しゃぶしゃぶ): hot pot with thinly sliced beef, vegetables, and tofu, cooked in a thin stock at the table and dipped in a soy or sesame-based dip before eating.
- Sukiyaki (すき焼き): thinly sliced beef and vegetables cooked in a mixture of soy sauce, dashi, sugar, and sake. Participants cook at the table then dip food into their individual bowls of raw egg before eating it.
- Chirinabe (ちり鍋): hot pot with fish and vegetables.
- Chigenabe (チゲ鍋) or Kimuchinabe (キムチ鍋): hot pot with meat, seafood and vegetables in a broth seasoned with gochujang, and Kimchi.
- Imoni (芋煮): a thick taro potato stew popular in Northern Japan during the autumn season
- Kiritanponabe (きりたんぽ鍋): freshly cooked rice is pounded, formed into cylinders around Japanese cypress skewers, and toasted at an open hearth. The kiritanpo are used as dumplings in soups.
Nimono (stewed dishes, 煮物)
Nimono (煮物) is a stewed or simmered dish. A base ingredient is simmered in shiru stock flavored with sake, soy sauce, and a small amount of sweetening.
- Oden (おでん, "kantou-daki", 関東炊き): surimi, boiled eggs, daikon radish, konnyaku, and fish cakes stewed in a light, soy-flavored dashi broth. Common wintertime food and often available in convenience stores.
- Kakuni (角煮): chunks of pork belly stewed in soy, mirin and sake with large pieces of daikon and whole boiled eggs. The Okinawan variation, using awamori, soy sauce and miso, is known as rafuti (ラフテー).
- Nikujaga (肉じゃが): beef and potato stew, flavored with sweet soy
- Nizakana (煮魚): fish poached in sweet soy (often on the menu as "nitsuke" (煮付け))
- Sōki (ソーキ): Okinawan dish of pork stewed with bone
Itamemono (stir-fried dishes, 炒め物)
Stir-frying (炒め物) is not a native method of cooking in Japan, however mock-Chinese stir fries such as yasai itame (stir fried vegetables, 野菜炒め) have been a staple in homes and canteens across Japan since the 1950s. Home grown stir fries include:
Sashimi (刺身) is raw, thinly sliced foods served with a dipping sauce and simple garnishes; usually fish or shellfish served with soy sauce and wasabi. Less common variations include:
- Fugu (河豚): sliced poisonous pufferfish (sometimes lethal), a uniquely Japanese specialty. The chef responsible for preparing it must be licensed.
- Ikizukuri (活き造り): live sashimi
- Tataki (たたき): raw/very rare skipjack tuna or beef steak seared on the outside and sliced, or a finely chopped raw fish (Japanese jack mackerel or Sardine), spiced with the likes of chopped spring onions, ginger or garlic paste.
- Basashi (馬刺し): horse meat sashimi, sometimes called sakura (桜), is a regional speciality in certain areas such as Shinshu (Nagano, Gifu and Toyama prefectures) and Kumamoto. Basashi features on the menu of many izakayas, even on the menus of big national chains.
- Torisashi (鶏刺し): chicken breast sashimi, regional specialty of Kagoshima, Miyazaki prefectures
- Rebasashi (レバ刺し) is typically liver of calf served completely raw (the rare version is called "aburi": あぶり). It's usually dipped in salted sesame oil rather than soy sauce.
Soups (suimono (吸い物) and shirumono (汁物))
Soups (suimono (吸い物) and shirumono (汁物)) include:
- Miso soup (味噌汁): soup made with miso dissolved in dashi, usually containing two or three types of solid ingredients, such as seaweed, vegetables or tofu.
- Tonjiru (豚汁): similar to Miso soup, except that pork is added to the ingredients
- Dangojiru (団子汁): soup made with dumplings along with seaweed, tofu, lotus root, or any number of other vegetables and roots
- Sumashijiru (澄まし汁) or osumashi (お澄まし): a clear soup made with dashi and seafood or chicken.
- Zōni (雑煮): soup containing mochi rice cakes along with various vegetables and often chicken. It is usually eaten at New Years Day.
Pickled or salted foods (tsukemono, 漬け物)
These foods are usually served in tiny portions, as a side dish to be eaten with white rice, to accompany sake or as a topping for rice porridges.
- Bento or Obento (弁当, 御弁当) is a combination meal served in a wooden box, usually as a cold lunchbox.
- Chawan mushi (茶碗蒸し) is meat (seafood and/or chicken) and vegetables steamed in egg custard.
- Edamame (枝豆) is boiled and salted pods of soybeans, eaten as a snack, often to accompany beer.
- Himono (干物): dried fish, often aji (Japanese jack mackerel, 鯵). Traditionally served for breakfast with rice, miso soup and pickles.
- Hiyayakko (冷奴): chilled tofu with garnish
- Natto (納豆): fermented soybeans, stringy like melted cheese, infamous for its strong smell and slippery texture. Often eaten for breakfast. Typically popular in Kantō and Tōhoku but slowly gaining popularity in other regions in which Natto was not as popular
- Ohitashi (お浸し): boiled greens such as spinach, chilled and flavored with soy sauce, often with garnish
- Osechi (御節): traditional foods eaten at New Year
- Japanese salad dressings
- Shimotsukare (しもつかれ): made of vegetables, soybeans, abura-age (あぶらあげ or deep fried tofu skins) and sake kasu (酒粕, rice pulp from fermented sake).
Chinmi (珍味) are regional delicacies, and include:
Although most Japanese eschew eating insects, in some regions, locust (inago, イナゴ) and bee larvae (hachinoko, 蜂の子) are not uncommon dishes. The larvae of species of caddisflies and stoneflies (zaza-mushi, ざざむし), harvested from the Tenryū river as it flows through Ina, Nagano, is also boiled and canned, or boiled and then sautéed in soy sauce and sugar. Japanese clawed salamander (Hakone Sanshōuo, ハコネサンショウウオ, Onychodactylus japonicus) is eaten as well in Hinoemata, Fukushima in early summer.
Sweets and snacks (okashi (おかし), oyatsu (おやつ))
- See also: List of Japanese desserts and sweets and Category:Japanese desserts and sweets
Japanese-style sweets (wagashi, 和菓子)
Old-fashioned Japanese-style sweets (dagashi, 駄菓子)
Western-style sweets (yōgashi, 洋菓子)
Yōgashi are Western-style sweets, but in Japan are typically very light or spongy.
- Kasutera: "Castella" Iberian-style sponge cake
- Mirukurepu: "mille feuilles": layered crepe (in French, "one thousand leaves")
Sweets bread (kashi pan, 菓子パン)
- Anpan: bread with sweet bean paste in the center
- Melonpan: a large, round bun which is a combination of regular dough beneath cookie dough. It occasionally contains a melon-flavored cream, though traditionally it is called melon bread because of its general shape resembling that of a melon (not due to any melon flavor).
Tea and other drinks
Tea and non-alcoholic beverages
- Genmaicha is green tea combined with roasted brown rice.
- Gyokuro: Gyokuro leaves are shaded from direct sunlight for approximately 3 weeks before the spring harvest. Removing direct sunlight in this way enhances the proportions of flavenols, amino acids, sugars, and other substances that provide tea aroma and taste. After harvesting the leaves are rolled and dried naturally. Gyokuro is slightly sweeter than sencha and is famous for its crisp, clean taste. Major growing areas include Uji, Kyōto and Shizuoka prefecture.
- Hojicha: green tea roasted over charcoal
- Kombucha (tea): specifically the tea poured with Kombu giving rich flavor in monosodium glutamate.
- Kukicha is a blend of green tea made of stems, stalks, and twigs.
- Kuzuyu is a thick herbal tea made with kudzu starch.
- Matcha is powdered green tea. (Green tea ice cream is flavored with matcha, not ocha.)
- Mugicha is barley tea, served chilled during summer.
- Sakurayu is an herbal tea made with pickled cherry blossoms.
- Sencha is steam treated green tea leaves that are then dried.
- Umecha is a tea drink with umeboshi, which provides a refreshing sourness.
Sake (酒) is a rice wine that typically contains 12%–20% alcohol and is made by a double fermentation of rice. Kōjji fungus is first used to ferment the rice starch into sugar. Regular brewing yeast is used in the second fermentation to make alcohol. At traditional meals, it is considered an equivalent to rice and is not simultaneously taken with other rice-based dishes. Side dishes for sake is particularly called sakana (肴, 酒菜), or otsumami おつまみ or ate あて.
Shōchū is a distilled beverage, most commonly made from barley, sweet potatoes, or rice. Typically, it contains 25% alcohol by volume.
Imported and adapted foods
Japan has incorporated imported food from across the world (mostly from Asia, Europe and to a lesser extent the Americas), and have historically adapted many to make them their own.
Foods imported from Portugal in the 16th century
- Tempura — so thoroughly adopted that its foreign roots are unknown to most people, including many Japanese. As such, it is considered washoku (和食, native food).
- castella — sponge cake, originating in Nagasaki
- Pan — bread, introduced by Portugal. (bread is pão in Portuguese.) Japanese bread crumbs, panko, have been popularized by cooking shows.
Yōshoku (洋食) is a style of Western-influenced food.
- Breaded seafood or vegetables (furai, フライ, derived from "fry"), and breaded meat (katsuretsu, カツレツ, derived from "cutlet" and often contracted to katsu), are usually served with shredded cabbage and/or lettuce, Japanese Worcestershire or tonkatsu sauce and lemon. Tempura, a related dish, has been heavily modified since its introduction to Japan by use of batter and dashi-flavored dip, and is usually considered to be washoku.
- Kaki furai (カキフライ, 牡蠣フライ) - breaded oyster
- Ebi furai (エビフライ, 海老フライ) - breaded shrimp
- Korokke ("croquette" コロッケ) - breaded mashed potato and minced meat patties. When white sauce is added, it is called cream korokke. Other ingredients such as crab meat, shrimp, or mushrooms are also used instead of minced meat which are called kani-, ebi-, or kinoko-cream korokke, respectively.
- Tonkatsu, Menchi katsu, chicken katsu, beef katsu, kujira katsu - breaded and deep-fried pork, minced meat patties, chicken, beef, and whale, respectively.
- Japanese curry - rice - imported in the 19th century by way of the United Kingdom and adapted by Japanese Navy chefs. One of the most popular food items in Japan today. Eaten with a spoon. Curry is often eaten with pickled vegetables called fukujinzuke or rakkyo
- Curry Pan - deep fried bread with Japanese curry sauce inside. The pirozhki of Russia was remodeled, and Curry bread was made.
- Curry udon - is a hot noodle dish where the soup is made of Japanese curry. May also include meat or vegetables.
- Hayashi rice (ハヤシライス) - beef and onions stewed in a red-wine sauce and served on rice
- Nikujaga - soy-flavored meat and potato stew. Has been Japanised to the extent that it is now considered washoku, but again originates from 19th Century Japanese Navy chefs adapting beef stews of the Royal Navy.
- Omu raisu - ketchup-flavored rice wrapped in omelet.
Other items were popularized after the war:
- Hamburg steak - a ground beef patty, usually mixed with breadcrumbs and fried chopped onions, served with a side of white rice and vegetables. Popular post-war food item served at homes. Sometimes eaten with a fork.
- Spaghetti - Japanese versions include:
- Pizza - The popular American pizza companies Domino's, Pizza Hut and Shakey's all operate in Japan, but Japanese brands such as Aoki's and Pizza-La are higher-grossing and famous for catering to Japanese taste. Many pizza chains offer seasonal toppings. Japanese versions include:
Other homegrown cuisine of foreign origin
Lots of Japanese foods are prepared using one or more of the following:
- Kombu (kelp), katsuobushi (flakes of cured skipjack tuna, sometimes referred to as bonito) and niboshi (dried baby sardines) are often used to make dashi stock.
- Negi (Welsh onion), onions, garlic, nira (Chinese chives), rakkyō(Allium chinense) (a type of scallion).
- Sesame seeds, sesame oil, sesame salt (gomashio), furikake, walnuts or peanuts to dress.
- Shōyu (soy sauce), dashi, mirin, sugar, rice vinegar, miso, sake.
- Wasabi (and imitation wasabi from horseradish), karashi (hot mustard), red pepper, ginger, shiso (perilla or beefsteak plant) leaves, sansho, citrus peel, and honeywort (called mitsuba).
- A citrus fruit called yuzu is also a frequent condiment, mashed up into a relish, sold as yuzukoshō and is blended with pepper/chili and salt. Yuzukoshō is eaten with many dishes, adding a flavorful kick to broth/soup items such as oden, nikujaga, tonjiru, udon as well as other dishes. Yuzu is also seen to flavor teas, jams or zeri (jelly), and any number of sweets from yuzu-an (a type of bean paste) to yuzu-hachimitsu (yuzu-honey).
Less traditional, but widely used ingredients include:
- Monosodium glutamate, which is often used by chefs and food companies as a cheap flavor enhancer. It may be used as a substitute for kombu, which is a traditional source of free glutamate
- Japanese-style Worcestershire sauce, often known as simply "sauce", thicker and fruitier than the original, is commonly used as a table condiment for okonomiyaki (お好み焼き), tonkatsu (トンカツ), croquette ("korokke", コロッケ) and the like.
- Japanese mayonnaise is used with salads, okonomiyaki (お好み焼き), yaki soba (焼きそば) and sometimes mixed with wasabi or soy sauce.
- ^ Cwiertka, K.J. (2006). Modern Japanese Cuisine: Food, Power and National Identity. University of Chicago Press. p. 229. ISBN 978-1-86189-298-0. Retrieved June 16, 2017.
- ^ Tsuji, Shizuo; M.F.K. Fisher (2007). Japanese Cooking: A Simple Art (25 ed.). Kodansha International. pp. 280–281. ISBN 978-4-7700-3049-8.
- ^ Inada, S. (2011). Simply Onigiri: fun and creative recipes for Japanese rice balls. Marshall Cavendish International (Asia) Private Limited. p. 86. ISBN 978-981-4484-95-4. Retrieved June 16, 2017.
- ^ Stanlaw, James (2004). Japanese English: language and culture contact. Hong Kong University Press. p. 46. ISBN 962-209-572-0.
- ^ Sen, Colleen Taylor (2009). Curry: a Global History. London: Reaktion Books. p. 116. ISBN 9781861895226.
- ^ Hosking, Richard (2000). At the Japanese Table. Images of Asia. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-195-90980-7. LCCN 00058458. OCLC 44579064.
- ^ Shimbo 2000, p.147 "wakame and cucumber in sanbaizu dressing (sunomono)"; p.74 "sanbaizu" recipe
- ^ "Gyoza (Japanese dumplings)". BBC. Retrieved 14 October 2013.
- ^ McInerney, Jay (June 10, 2007). "Raw". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 October 2013.