List of Apollo astronauts
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As part of the
Apollo program The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the NASA, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which succeeded in Moon landing, landing the first humans ...

Apollo program
by
NASA The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; ) is an independent agencies of the United States government, independent agency of the Federal government of the United States, U.S. federal government responsible for the civilian Lis ...

NASA
, 24
astronaut An astronaut (from the Greek "astron" (ἄστρον), meaning "star", and "nautes" (ναύτης), meaning "sailor") is a person trained, equipped, and deployed by a List of human spaceflight programs, human spaceflight program to serve as a ...
s have orbited the
Moon The Moon is Earth's only natural satellite. At about one-quarter the diameter of Earth (comparable to the width of Australia (continent), Australia), it is the largest natural satellite in the Solar System relative to the size of its planet ...

Moon
during nine missions between December 1968 and December 1972. During six two-man landing missions, 12 men walked on the lunar surface, and six drove
Lunar Roving Vehicle The Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) is a Battery electric vehicle, battery-powered four-wheeled Rover (space exploration), rover used on the Moon in the last three missions of the American Apollo program (Apollo 15, 15, Apollo 16, 16, and Apollo 17, ...
s as part of the last three missions. Three men have been to the Moon twice, one only orbited both times, while the other two landed once apiece. Apart from these 24 men, no human being has gone beyond low Earth orbit. No woman has been to the Moon, but a number of animals have. Apollo missions 8 and 10
17
17
were the nine crewed missions to the Moon.
Apollo 4 Apollo 4 (also known as AS-501) was the first uncrewed test flight of the Saturn V Saturn V was an American super heavy-lift launch vehicle certified for human-rating used by NASA The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (N ...
6 and
AS-201 AS-201 (or SA-201), flown February 26, 1966, was the first uncrewed test flight of an entire production Block I Apollo command and service module The Apollo command and service module (CSM) was one of two principal components of the United St ...
and
AS-202 AS-202 (also referred to as SA-202) was the second uncrewed, suborbital test flight of a production Block I Apollo command and service module The Apollo command and service module (CSM) was one of two principal components of the United States A ...
were uncrewed, while
AS-203 AS-203 (or SA-203) was an uncrewed flight of the Saturn IB rocket on July 5, 1966. It carried no command and service module, as its purpose was to verify the design of the S-IVB rocket stage restart capability that would later be used in the Apoll ...
is considered a test flight. The Apollo program included three other crewed missions –
Apollo 1 Apollo 1, initially designated AS-204, was the first crewed mission of the United States Apollo program The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the NASA, Nat ...

Apollo 1
(AS-204) did not launch and its crew died in a ground-based capsule fire, while
Apollo 7 Apollo 7 (October 11–22, 1968) was the first crewed flight in NASA's Apollo program, and saw the resumption of human spaceflight by the agency after the fire that killed the three Apollo 1 astronauts in January 1967. The Apollo7 crew comm ...
and
Apollo 9 Apollo 9 (March 3–13, 1969) was the third human spaceflight Human spaceflight (also referred to as manned spaceflight or crewed spaceflight) is spaceflight with a crew or passengers aboard a spacecraft, the spacecraft being operated dir ...

Apollo 9
were low Earth orbit missions that only tested spacecraft components and docking maneuvers. Apollo missions 18, 19, and 20 were canceled. Nine astronauts later flew unused
Apollo command module The Apollo command and service module (CSM) was one of two principal components of the United States Apollo (spacecraft), Apollo spacecraft, used for the Apollo program, which landed astronauts on the Moon between 1969 and 1972. The CSM functioned ...

Apollo command module
s in the
Apollo Applications ProgramThe Apollo Applications Program (AAP) was created as early as 1966 by NASA headquarters to develop science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and Taxonomy ( ...
's
Skylab Skylab was the first United States space station A space station, also known as an orbital station or an orbital space station, is a spacecraft capable of supporting a human crew in orbit In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally ...

Skylab
and
Apollo–Soyuz Test Project Apollo–Soyuz was the first crewed international space mission, carried out jointly by the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United S ...
. Of the 24 astronauts who flew to the Moon, two went on to command a Skylab mission, one commanded Apollo–Soyuz, one flew as commander for Approach and Landing Tests of the
Space Shuttle The Space Shuttle is a retired, partially reusable launch system, reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated from 1981 to 2011 by the U.S. NASA, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as part of the Space Shuttle progra ...

Space Shuttle
, and two commanded orbital Space Shuttle missions.


Prime crew members

NASA's Director of Flight Crew Operations during the
Gemini Gemini may refer to: Space * Gemini (constellation), one of the constellations of the zodiac ** Gemini in Chinese astronomy * Project Gemini, the second U.S. crewed spaceflight program * Gemini Observatory, consisting of telescopes in the Northern ...
and Apollo programs was Donald K. "Deke" Slayton, one of the original
Mercury Seven The Mercury Seven were the group of seven astronauts selected to fly spacecraft for Project Mercury. They are also referred to as the Original Seven and Astronaut Group 1. Their names were publicly announced by NASA on April 9, 1959; these seven ...

Mercury Seven
astronauts, who was medically grounded in September 1962 due to a minor cardiac
arrhythmia Arrhythmia, also known as cardiac arrhythmia or heart arrhythmia, is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow. The heart rateHeart rate is the speed of the heartbeat measured by the number of contraction ...
– paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Slayton was responsible for making all Gemini and Apollo crew assignments. In March 1972, Slayton was restored to flight status, and flew on the 1975
Apollo–Soyuz Test Project Apollo–Soyuz was the first crewed international space mission, carried out jointly by the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United S ...
mission. The prime crew members selected for actual missions are here grouped by their NASA astronaut selection groups, and within each group in the order selected for flight. Two versions of the
Apollo Command/Service Module The Apollo command and service module (CSM) was one of two principal components of the United States Apollo (spacecraft), Apollo spacecraft, used for the Apollo program, which landed astronauts on the Moon between 1969 and 1972. The CSM functioned ...
(CSM) spacecraft were developed: Block I intended for preliminary low Earth orbit testing, and Block II which was designed for the lunar landing. The Block I crew position titles were Command Pilot, Senior Pilot (second seat), and Pilot (third seat). The corresponding Block II titles were: Commander, Command Module Pilot (second seat), and Lunar Module Pilot (third seat). The second seat pilot was given secondary responsibility for
celestial navigation Celestial navigation, also known as astronavigation, is the ancient and modern practice of position fixing that enables a navigator to transition through a space without having to rely on estimated calculations, or dead reckoning, to know their p ...

celestial navigation
to keep the CSM's guidance computer accurately calibrated with the spacecraft's true position, and the third seat pilot served as a flight engineer, monitoring the health of the spacecraft systems.


From Astronaut Group 1 (1959)

* Gus Grissom, Virgil I. "Gus" Grissom – Pilot of ''Mercury-Redstone 4, Liberty Bell 7'' and commander of Gemini 3, the first crewed Gemini mission, Grissom was selected in 1966 as Command Pilot for the first crewed mission,
Apollo 1 Apollo 1, initially designated AS-204, was the first crewed mission of the United States Apollo program The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the NASA, Nat ...

Apollo 1
, a low Earth orbit test of the Block I Command/Service Module. This mission ended a month before its scheduled launchGeorge E. Mueller, Associate Administrator of the Office of Manned Spaceflight, issued a directive on April 24, 1967, that the mission would be officially recorded as Apollo 1, "first manned Apollo Saturn flight - failed on ground test." when a cabin fire on the launch pad killed Grissom and his entire crew—Ed White (astronaut), Ed White and Roger B. Chaffee, Roger Chaffee—on January 27, 1967. According to Slayton, Grissom would have been his choice to be the first to walk on the Moon. * Wally Schirra, Walter M. Schirra Jr. – Pilot of ''Mercury-Atlas 8, Sigma 7'' and commander of Gemini 6A, was selected to command a second CSM test flight which was canceled in late 1966, at which time he was reassigned as Grissom's backup. Twenty-one months after the Apollo 1 fire, Schirra commanded the first Block II CSM test flight,
Apollo 7 Apollo 7 (October 11–22, 1968) was the first crewed flight in NASA's Apollo program, and saw the resumption of human spaceflight by the agency after the fire that killed the three Apollo 1 astronauts in January 1967. The Apollo7 crew comm ...
. He was the only member of the "Mercury Seven" to fly on all three programs. * Alan Shepard, Alan B. Shepard Jr. – America's first man in space on ''Mercury-Redstone 3, Freedom 7'' was originally selected to command Gemini 3, but was medically grounded for the duration of Gemini due to Ménière's disease and assisted Slayton in Flight Operations. After corrective surgery, Shepard was restored to flight status and commanded Apollo 14, the third successful Moon landing mission.


From Astronaut Group 2 (1962)

All of these astronauts flew on Gemini, and except for White, each commanded one Gemini and one Apollo mission: * Ed White (astronaut), Ed White – Second-seat veteran of Gemini 4 who made the United States' first extravehicular activity, walk in space, selected as Senior Pilot (second seat) on Apollo 1. White was killed in the Apollo 1 fire along with Grissom and Chaffee. * James McDivitt, James A. McDivitt – Commander of Gemini 4, selected in late 1966 to command the first Earth orbital flight test of the Apollo Lunar Module with the CSM. This mission flew in March 1969 as
Apollo 9 Apollo 9 (March 3–13, 1969) was the third human spaceflight Human spaceflight (also referred to as manned spaceflight or crewed spaceflight) is spaceflight with a crew or passengers aboard a spacecraft, the spacecraft being operated dir ...

Apollo 9
. After his flight, McDivitt was promoted to Manager of Lunar Landing Operations, and in August 1969 was promoted to Manager of the Apollo Spacecraft Program. * Frank Borman, Frank F. Borman II – Commander of Gemini 7, selected to command a higher Earth orbit test of the complete Apollo spacecraft. But when delays prevented the LM from being ready in time for its first flight in December 1968, Borman's mission was changed to the first lunar orbital flight of the CSM on Apollo 8. * Jim Lovell, James A. Lovell Jr. – Second-seat veteran of Gemini 7, and commander of Gemini 12, flew as Command Module Pilot (second seat) on Apollo 8. Lovell became the first to fly a second Apollo mission as commander of Apollo 13, the third lunar landing attempt. This mission was unsuccessful, due to a Service Module electrical system failure caused by an oxygen tank explosion. Lovell and his crew managed to return to Earth safely. * Thomas P. Stafford – Second-seat veteran of Gemini 6A and commander of Gemini 9A, commanded a lunar orbital test of the Lunar Module on Apollo 10. He also commanded the
Apollo–Soyuz Test Project Apollo–Soyuz was the first crewed international space mission, carried out jointly by the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United S ...
mission. * John Young (astronaut), John W. Young – Second-seat veteran of Gemini 3 and commander of Gemini 10, flew as Command Module Pilot on Apollo 10. Young later commanded the successful Apollo 16 lunar landing. He also commanded the first Space Shuttle flight, STS-1 ''Space Shuttle Columbia, Columbia'', April 12–14, 1981, and STS-9, also on ''Space Shuttle Columbia, Columbia'', November 28-December 8, 1983. * Neil Armstrong, Neil A. Armstrong – Commander of Gemini 8, commanded Apollo 11, becoming the first human to set foot on the Moon. * Pete Conrad, Charles "Pete" Conrad Jr. – Second-seat veteran of Gemini 5 and commander of Gemini 11, commanded Apollo 12, the second lunar landing. He went on to command Skylab 2, successfully completing repairs to the spacecraft that saved it for this and two subsequent missions.


From NASA Astronaut Group 3, Astronaut Group 3 (1963)

This was the first class of astronauts for which test pilot experience was not required, but military jet fighter pilot experience was acceptable. Five of this group got their first spaceflight experience as second seat on Gemini: * David R. Scott – Second-seat veteran of Gemini 8, flew as Command Module Pilot on
Apollo 9 Apollo 9 (March 3–13, 1969) was the third human spaceflight Human spaceflight (also referred to as manned spaceflight or crewed spaceflight) is spaceflight with a crew or passengers aboard a spacecraft, the spacecraft being operated dir ...

Apollo 9
, and commanded the Apollo 15 lunar landing. * Eugene A. Cernan – Second-seat veteran on Gemini 9A, flew as Lunar Module Pilot on Apollo 10, and commanded the final lunar landing mission Apollo 17. * Michael Collins (astronaut), Michael Collins – Second-seat veteran on Gemini 10, flew as Command Module Pilot on Apollo 11. * Buzz Aldrin, Edwin E. "Buzz" Aldrin Jr. – Second-seat veteran on Gemini 12, flew as Lunar Module Pilot on Apollo 11, the first Moon landing. * Richard F. Gordon Jr. – Second-seat veteran on Gemini 11, flew as Command Module Pilot on Apollo 12. Gordon was selected to command the Canceled Apollo missions#Follow-on lunar missions, Apollo 18 lunar landing, which was later canceled. The remaining six members of this group were selected for their first space flights on Apollo: * Roger B. Chaffee – Selected as Pilot (third seat) on
Apollo 1 Apollo 1, initially designated AS-204, was the first crewed mission of the United States Apollo program The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the NASA, Nat ...

Apollo 1
, was killed with Grissom and White in the fire. * Donn F. Eisele – Flew second seat on
Apollo 7 Apollo 7 (October 11–22, 1968) was the first crewed flight in NASA's Apollo program, and saw the resumption of human spaceflight by the agency after the fire that killed the three Apollo 1 astronauts in January 1967. The Apollo7 crew comm ...
. * Walter Cunningham – Flew third seat on
Apollo 7 Apollo 7 (October 11–22, 1968) was the first crewed flight in NASA's Apollo program, and saw the resumption of human spaceflight by the agency after the fire that killed the three Apollo 1 astronauts in January 1967. The Apollo7 crew comm ...
. * Rusty Schweickart, Russell L. "Rusty" Schweickart – Flew as Lunar Module Pilot on
Apollo 9 Apollo 9 (March 3–13, 1969) was the third human spaceflight Human spaceflight (also referred to as manned spaceflight or crewed spaceflight) is spaceflight with a crew or passengers aboard a spacecraft, the spacecraft being operated dir ...

Apollo 9
. Schweickart performed an extravehicular activity, EVA outside the spacecraft, testing the portable life support system used on the Moon. * William A. Anders – Flew third seat on Apollo 8. * Alan L. Bean – Flew as Lunar Module Pilot on Apollo 12. He later served as Commander for Skylab 3.


From NASA Astronaut Group 4, Astronaut Group 4 (1965)

In June 1965, NASA named a group of five scientist astronauts, the first group qualified by doctorate degrees rather than test or military fighter pilot experience. Geologist Harrison Schmitt, Harrison H. "Jack" Schmitt participated heavily in the geological training of the lunar landing astronauts, as well as assisting in the analysis of returned samples and the preparation of mission reports. In 1970, he was selected as Lunar Module Pilot for the Apollo 15 backup crew, and prime crew on Apollo 18. When program cutbacks canceled missions 18 through 20, NASA's lunar geological community insisted on having a geologist on the Moon, so Slayton reassigned Schmitt to Apollo 17.


From NASA Astronaut Group 5, Astronaut Group 5 (1966)

NASA named a group of 19 more astronauts in April 1966. None had spaceflight experience before their Apollo mission. * Ken Mattingly, T. Kenneth Mattingly II – Selected as prime Command Module Pilot for Apollo 13, Mattingly was exposed to German measles days before the flight and was grounded by the flight surgeon, though ultimately did not contract the disease. He swapped places with his backup and flew on Apollo 16. He also flew on STS-4 and STS-51-C * Jack Swigert, John L. "Jack" Swigert Jr. – Flew as Mattingly's backup on Apollo 13. * Fred Haise, Fred W. Haise Jr. – Flew as Lunar Module Pilot on the unsuccessful Apollo 13. Haise was selected to command the Apollo 19 lunar landing, which was canceled. Haise would later be named commander of the first crew for the Space Shuttle's Approach and Landing Tests using the prototype Space Shuttle Enterprise, Space Shuttle ''Enterprise''. * Stuart Roosa, Stuart A. Roosa – Command Module Pilot on Apollo 14 * Edgar Mitchell, Edgar D. Mitchell – Lunar Module Pilot on Apollo 14 * Alfred Worden, Alfred M. Worden – Command Module Pilot on Apollo 15 * James Irwin, James B. Irwin – Lunar Module Pilot on Apollo 15 * Charles Duke, Charles M. Duke Jr. – First achieved public recognition as capsule communicator during the Apollo 11 Moon landing; notable for the quote: "...we copy you on the ground. You've got a bunch of guys about to turn blue; we're breathing again. Thanks a lot." Duke flew as Lunar Module Pilot on Apollo 16. * Ronald Evans (astronaut), Ronald E. Evans Jr. – Command Module Pilot on Apollo 17.


Astronauts who trained for Apollo but did not fly

* Gordon Cooper, L. Gordon Cooper Jr. – from the Mercury Seven; veteran of Mercury ''Faith 7'' and commander of Gemini 5, was replaced as Apollo 14 commander by Alan Shepard and resigned from NASA in 1970. * Clifton Williams, Clifton C. "C.C." Williams Jr. – from Group 3; was named as Schweickart's Lunar Module Pilot backup crew, but was killed when the Northrop T-38 Talon, T-38 jet he was flying crashed near Tallahassee, Florida on October 5, 1967. He was replaced by Bean, who flew on Apollo 12. * Vance D. Brand – from Group 5; was on the support crew for Apollo 8 and Apollo 13; was named as Apollo 15 backup Command Module Pilot. Flew on the
Apollo–Soyuz Test Project Apollo–Soyuz was the first crewed international space mission, carried out jointly by the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United S ...
. After Apollo, he also flew as commander of STS-5, STS-41-B and STS-35. * Edward Givens, Edward G. Givens Jr. – from Group 5; was on the support crew of Apollo 7, but died in a car crash near Houston, Texas on June 6, 1967. * Joe Engle, Joseph H. Engle – from Group 5; was originally named as Apollo 17 Lunar Module Pilot, but lost his slot to Schmitt. After Apollo, he flew in the
Space Shuttle The Space Shuttle is a retired, partially reusable launch system, reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated from 1981 to 2011 by the U.S. NASA, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as part of the Space Shuttle progra ...

Space Shuttle
Approach and Landing Tests, then commanded STS-2 and STS-51-I.


Apollo astronauts who walked on the Moon

Twelve people have walked on the
Moon The Moon is Earth's only natural satellite. At about one-quarter the diameter of Earth (comparable to the width of Australia (continent), Australia), it is the largest natural satellite in the Solar System relative to the size of its planet ...

Moon
, all of them as part of the
Apollo program The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the NASA, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which succeeded in Moon landing, landing the first humans ...

Apollo program
. Four of them are still living All of the crewed Apollo moon landing, lunar landings took place between July 1969 and December 1972. Most astronauts at that time came from the military services and were considered to be on active duty during their NASA service; the few exceptions were considered civilian NASA astronauts (regardless of any prior military service). On each of the Apollo 17 extravehicular activity, extravehicular activities (EVAs), Harrison Schmitt and Eugene Cernan walked on the Moon. For their final EVA, Schmitt stepped out of the Apollo lunar module onto the surface of the Moon after Cernan, and is therefore the 12th and (at present) the last person to have stepped out onto the Moon, and when they re-entered the lunar module, Cernan stepped in last, after Schmitt, and is therefore (at present) the last person to have been on the Moon. Alan Shepard was the oldest person to walk on the Moon, at age 47 years and 80 days. Charles Duke was the youngest, at age 36 years and 201 days. Jim Lovell and Fred Haise were scheduled to walk on the Moon during the Apollo 13 mission, but the lunar landing was aborted following a major malfunction en route to the Moon. Haise was again scheduled to walk on the Moon as commander of Apollo 19, but Canceled Apollo missions#Follow-on lunar missions, Apollo 18 and Apollo 19 were canceled on September 2, 1970. Joe Engle had trained on the backup crew for Apollo 14 to explore the Moon with Cernan, but he was replaced by Schmitt on the primary crew for Apollo 17. Schmitt had previously been crewed with Apollo 12 Apollo Command/Service Module#Command Module .28CM.29, Command Module pilot Richard F. Gordon Jr., Dick Gordon in anticipation of Apollo 18, but Schmitt replaced Engle on Apollo 17 after the cancellation of Apollo 18 and Apollo 19, leaving Gordon as the last Apollo astronaut to train extensively for lunar exploration without ever landing on the Moon.


Apollo astronauts who flew to the Moon without landing

Besides the 12 people who have walked on the Moon, 12 more have flown to within 0.001 lunar distance (astronomy), lunar distance of its surface. During each of the six missions with successful lunar landings, one astronaut remained in lunar orbit while the other two landed. In addition, the three-person crews of Apollo 8 and Apollo 10 also entered lunar orbit, and the crew of Apollo 13 looped around the Moon on a free-return trajectory. All nine crewed missions to the Moon took place as part of the
Apollo program The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the NASA, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which succeeded in Moon landing, landing the first humans ...

Apollo program
over a period of just under four years, from 21 December 1968 to 19 December 1972. The 24 people who have flown to the Moon are the only people who have traveled beyond low Earth orbit. Ten of them are still living Jim Lovell, John Young (astronaut), John Young, and Eugene Cernan are the only three people to have flown to the Moon twice. Young and Cernan each set foot on it during their respective second lunar missions, while Lovell is the only person to have flown to the Moon twice without landing. During Cernan's first lunar mission on Apollo 10, he tied the present record set by Bill Anders on Apollo 8 as the youngest person to fly to the Moon. Each was 35 years and 65 days old on his launch date and 35 years and 68 days old when he entered lunar orbit. The oldest person to fly to the Moon was Alan Shepard, who walked on its surface during the Apollo 14 mission. Shepard was 47 years and 74 days old on his launch date and 47 years and 78 days old when he entered lunar orbit. Jim Lovell and Fred Haise were scheduled to walk on the Moon during the Apollo 13 mission, but the lunar landing was aborted following a major malfunction en route to the Moon. Haise was again scheduled to walk on the Moon as commander of Apollo 19, but Canceled Apollo missions#Follow-on lunar missions, Apollo 18 and Apollo 19 were canceled on September 2, 1970. Because of Apollo 13's free-return trajectory, Lovell, Swigert and Haise flew higher above the Moon's selenographic coordinates, 180° meridian (opposite Earth) than anyone else has flown (254 km/158 mi). Coincidentally, due to the Moon's distance from Earth at the time, they simultaneously set the present record for humans' greatest distance from Earth, reaching an altitude of 400,171 km (248,655 mi) above sea level at Coordinated Universal Time, 0:21 UTC on 15 April 1970.


Lunar activities

Armstrong descended the lunar module ladder and spoke his famous epigram, "That's one small step for [a] man, one giant leap for mankind." He then went to work on collecting the contingency sample, which was a scoop of the lunar surface collected early in the mission in case there was an emergency. Armstrong took the TV camera off the lunar module and mounted it to a tripod. After that, Aldrin descended the ladder to join Armstrong. Aldrin egressed to the surface about nineteen minutes after Armstrong. They had some trouble planting the American flag into the lunar soil, but were able to secure it into the surface. Aldrin positioned himself in front of a video camera and began experimenting with different locomotion techniques on the surface. During these experiments, Armstrong and Aldrin received a phone call from President Nixon, congratulating them for the successful landing. Aldrin then set to work documenting the condition of the spacecraft to ensure it was in proper condition for their upcoming launch. After setting up a couple of experiments with Armstrong, Aldrin went to work hammering a tube into the lunar surface to obtain a core sample. Aldrin's EVA ended when they loaded the lunar samples into the spacecraft and tossed out unneeded items, just before sealing the hatch. Armstrong performed the majority of the photography on the surface, which is why there are only five photos of him on the Moon. Soon after piloting the LM ''Falcon'' to a landing at Hadley Rille, Scott accomplished the only stand-up EVA through the lander's top hatch, using it as a high place from which to refine the geology traverses he and Irwin would undertake during the following days. Scott became the first to drive a vehicle on the Moon as he drove the
Lunar Roving Vehicle The Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) is a Battery electric vehicle, battery-powered four-wheeled Rover (space exploration), rover used on the Moon in the last three missions of the American Apollo program (Apollo 15, 15, Apollo 16, 16, and Apollo 17, ...
, more than doubling Apollo 14's EVA time. After the final traverse, back outside the LM, Scott performed a demonstration of Galileo's theory that all objects fall at the same rate in vacuum by dropping a hammer and a feather for the television camera. Irwin came onto the lunar surface soon after his commander, Scott. As the LRV's first passenger, he had an often rough ride as Scott swerved to avoid craters. It was Irwin who, during the second EVA, first spotted the Genesis Rock and aided Scott in collecting this bit of the early lunar crust. A man of deep Christian religious faith, Irwin quoted from Psalms while on the lunar surface and later became an evangelist.


Apollo astronauts who never flew to the Moon

In addition to the nine lunar missions, there were two crewed flights in the Apollo program that remained in Earth orbit to test fly the spacecraft.
Apollo 7 Apollo 7 (October 11–22, 1968) was the first crewed flight in NASA's Apollo program, and saw the resumption of human spaceflight by the agency after the fire that killed the three Apollo 1 astronauts in January 1967. The Apollo7 crew comm ...
was a crewed test flight of the CSM, and
Apollo 9 Apollo 9 (March 3–13, 1969) was the third human spaceflight Human spaceflight (also referred to as manned spaceflight or crewed spaceflight) is spaceflight with a crew or passengers aboard a spacecraft, the spacecraft being operated dir ...

Apollo 9
was a crewed flight test of the CSM and LEM. Of the six astronauts who participated in these missions, five were never rotated to a lunar mission. In addition, the three
Skylab Skylab was the first United States space station A space station, also known as an orbital station or an orbital space station, is a spacecraft capable of supporting a human crew in orbit In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally ...

Skylab
missions and Apollo-Soyuz Test Project used crewed CSMs in Earth orbit and are considered part of the Apollo Applications Project. Although Conrad, Bean, and Stafford commanded three of these four flights, the remaining crew members were rookies and thus had long missed the opportunity to fly a Moon mission. Of the seven rookies who flew Skylab, three of them (Paul J. Weitz, Owen K. Garriott, and Jack R. Lousma) would return to space aboard the Space Shuttle. Vance Brand flew on ASTP as Command Module Pilot and would command three Shuttle missions. Out of all Apollo astronauts who also flew on the Shuttle, Garriott is the only one who never flew as Commander. * Wally Schirra – Commander of
Apollo 7 Apollo 7 (October 11–22, 1968) was the first crewed flight in NASA's Apollo program, and saw the resumption of human spaceflight by the agency after the fire that killed the three Apollo 1 astronauts in January 1967. The Apollo7 crew comm ...
. * Donn F. Eisele – Command Module Pilot of
Apollo 7 Apollo 7 (October 11–22, 1968) was the first crewed flight in NASA's Apollo program, and saw the resumption of human spaceflight by the agency after the fire that killed the three Apollo 1 astronauts in January 1967. The Apollo7 crew comm ...
* R. Walter Cunningham – Lunar Module Pilot of
Apollo 7 Apollo 7 (October 11–22, 1968) was the first crewed flight in NASA's Apollo program, and saw the resumption of human spaceflight by the agency after the fire that killed the three Apollo 1 astronauts in January 1967. The Apollo7 crew comm ...
* James A. McDivitt – Commander of
Apollo 9 Apollo 9 (March 3–13, 1969) was the third human spaceflight Human spaceflight (also referred to as manned spaceflight or crewed spaceflight) is spaceflight with a crew or passengers aboard a spacecraft, the spacecraft being operated dir ...

Apollo 9
* Russell L. Schweickart – Lunar Module Pilot of
Apollo 9 Apollo 9 (March 3–13, 1969) was the third human spaceflight Human spaceflight (also referred to as manned spaceflight or crewed spaceflight) is spaceflight with a crew or passengers aboard a spacecraft, the spacecraft being operated dir ...

Apollo 9
* Joseph P. Kerwin – Science Pilot of Skylab 2 * Paul J. Weitz – Pilot of Skylab 2 * Owen K. Garriott – Science Pilot of Skylab 3 * Jack R. Lousma – Pilot of Skylab 3 * Gerald P. Carr – Commander of Skylab 4 * Edward G. Gibson – Science Pilot of Skylab 4 * William R. Pogue – Pilot of Skylab 4 * Vance D. Brand – Command Module Pilot of Apollo-Soyuz Test Project * Deke Slayton – Docking Module Pilot of Apollo-Soyuz Test Project


Astronauts who died during the Apollo Program

Three astronauts died on the ground while training for the first crewed Apollo mission,
Apollo 1 Apollo 1, initially designated AS-204, was the first crewed mission of the United States Apollo program The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the NASA, Nat ...

Apollo 1
.


References

* * * *


External links

*
One Giant Leap for Mankind
35th Anniversary of Apollo 11, NASA, Michael Makara, accessed July 14, 2006 {{NASA space program Apollo program astronauts, Astronauts by space program Lists of 20th-century people, Apollo astronauts Lists of American people by occupation, Apollo astronauts Lists of astronauts, Apollo