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The Info List - List Of Sovereign States



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This LIST OF SOVEREIGN STATES provides an overview of sovereign states around the world , with information on their status and recognition of their sovereignty .

Membership within the United Nations
United Nations
system divides the 206 listed states into three categories: 193 member states , two observer states , and 11 other states. The _sovereignty dispute_ column indicates states whose sovereignty is undisputed (190 states) and states whose sovereignty is disputed (16 states, out of which there are 6 member states, 1 observer state and 9 other states).

Compiling a list such as this can be a difficult and controversial process, as there is no definition that is binding on all the members of the community of nations concerning the criteria for statehood . For more information on the criteria used to determine the contents of this list, please see the _criteria for inclusion _ section below. The list is intended to include entities that have been recognized to have _de facto_ status as sovereign states, and inclusion should not be seen as an endorsement of any specific claim to statehood in legal terms.

CONTENTS

* 1 List of states * 2 Criteria for inclusion * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 Bibliography

LIST OF STATES

SHORT AND FORMAL NAMES MEMBERSHIP WITHIN THE UN SYSTEM SOVEREIGNTY DISPUTE FURTHER INFORMATION ON STATUS AND RECOGNITION OF SOVEREIGNTY

A AAA A AAA A AAA

ZZZ↓ UN member states and observer states ↓ A AAA ZZZ

ZZZ Abkhazia
Abkhazia
Abkhazia
Abkhazia
A UN member state A None

_ AFGHANISTAN – Islamic Republic of Afghanistan A UN member state
UN member state
A None

ALBANIA – Republic of Albania A UN member state A None

ALGERIA – People's Democratic Republic of Algeria A UN member state A None

ANDORRA – Principality of Andorra A UN member state A None Andorra
Andorra
is a co-principality in which the office of head of state is jointly held ex officio_ by the French president and the bishop of the Roman Catholic diocese of Urgell , who himself is appointed by the Holy See
Holy See
.

_ ANGOLA – Republic of Angola A UN member state A None

ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA A UN member state A None Antigua and Barbuda
Antigua and Barbuda
is a Commonwealth realm
Commonwealth realm
with 1 autonomous region, Barbuda
Barbuda
.

ARGENTINA – Argentine Republic A UN member state A None Argentina
Argentina
is a federation of 23 provinces and 1 autonomous city .

ARMENIA – Republic of Armenia A UN member state Not recognized by Pakistan
Pakistan
See Armenia–Pakistan relationsand Nagorno-Karabakh conflict
Nagorno-Karabakh conflict
.

AUSTRALIA – Commonwealth of Australia A UN member state A None Australia
Australia
is a Commonwealth realm
Commonwealth realm
and a federation of six states and 10 territories . The external territories of Australia
Australia
are:

* Ashmore and Cartier Islands
Ashmore and Cartier Islands
* Australian Antarctic Territory
Australian Antarctic Territory
* Christmas Island
Christmas Island
* Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
* Coral Sea Islands Territory * Heard Island and McDonald Islands
Heard Island and McDonald Islands
* Norfolk Island
Norfolk Island

AUSTRIA – Republic of Austria A UN member state A None Member of the European Union
European Union
. Austria
Austria
is a federation of nine states (Bundesländer).

AZERBAIJAN – Republic of Azerbaijan A UN member state A None Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
contains two autonomous regions, Nakhchivan and Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
(Dağlıq Qarabağ_). The Republic of Artsakh , a de facto state, has been established in the latter.

BAHAMAS, THE – Commonwealth of the Bahamas A UN member state A None The Bahamas
The Bahamas
is a Commonwealth realm
Commonwealth realm
.

BAHRAIN – Kingdom of Bahrain A UN member state A None

BANGLADESH – People's Republic of Bangladesh A UN member state A None

BARBADOS A UN member state A None Barbados
Barbados
is a Commonwealth realm
Commonwealth realm
.

BELARUS – Republic of Belarus A UN member state A None Belarus
Belarus
forms the Union State
Union State
jointly with Russia
Russia
.

BELGIUM – Kingdom of Belgium A UN member state A None Member of the EU. Belgium
Belgium
is a federation divided into linguistic communities and regions .

BELIZE A UN member state A None Belize
Belize
is a Commonwealth realm
Commonwealth realm
.

BENIN – Republic of Benin
Benin
A UN member state A None

BHUTAN – Kingdom of Bhutan A UN member state A None

BOLIVIA – Plurinational State of Bolivia A UN member state A None

BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA A UN member state A None Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
is a federation of two constituent units:

* Federation
Federation
of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
* Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska

and Brčko District
Brčko District
, a self-governing administrative unit.

BOTSWANA – Republic of Botswana A UN member state A None

BRAZIL – Federative Republic of Brazil A UN member state A None Brazil
Brazil
is a federation of 26 states and 1 federal district .

BRUNEI – Nation of Brunei, Abode of Peace A UN member state A None

BULGARIA – Republic of Bulgaria A UN member state A None Member of the EU.

BURKINA FASO A UN member state A None

Burma → Myanmar
Myanmar
A UN member state A None

BURUNDI – Republic of Burundi A UN member state A None

CAMBODIA – Kingdom of Cambodia A UN member state A None

CAMEROON – Republic of Cameroon A UN member state A None

CANADA A UN member state A None Canada
Canada
is a Commonwealth realm
Commonwealth realm
and a federation of 10 provinces and three territories .

CAPE VERDE – Republic of Cabo Verde A UN member state A None

CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC A UN member state A None

CHAD – Republic of Chad A UN member state A None

CHILE – Republic of Chile A UN member state A None Chile
Chile
has two "special territories" in the Valparaíso Region
Valparaíso Region
: Easter Island
Easter Island
and Juan Fernández Islands
Juan Fernández Islands

CHINA – People's Republic of China
China
A UN member state Partially unrecognized . B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea
Korea
Claimed by Serbia
Serbia
Claimed by Somalia
Somalia
Claimed by the People\'s Republic of China
China
Claimed by the Republic of China
China
Claimed by South Korea
Korea
Claimed by Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus
Cyprus
Disputed by Israel
Israel
Claimed by Morocco
Morocco
Claimed by Moldova
Moldova
Claimed by Mali
Mali
The People's Republic of China
China
(PRC) contains five autonomous regions, Guangxi
Guangxi
, Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
, Ningxia
Ningxia
, Xinjiang
Xinjiang
and Tibet . Additionally, it has sovereignty over the Special
Special
Administrative Regions of:

* Hong Kong
Hong Kong
* Macau
Macau

China
China
claims, but does not control, Taiwan
Taiwan
which is governed by a rival administration (the Republic of China) claiming all of China
China
as its territory.

China
China
is not recognised by 20 UN member states and the Holy See
Holy See
, which with the exception of Bhutan
Bhutan
recognise Taiwan
Taiwan
instead.

China
China
controls part of the territory of Kashmir
Kashmir
, which is disputed by India
India
and Pakistan
Pakistan
.

China, Republic of → Taiwan
Taiwan
A UN member state A None

_ COLOMBIA – Republic of Colombia A UN member state A None

COMOROS – Union of the Comoros A UN member state A None Comoros
Comoros
is a federation of 3 islands .

CONGO, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE A UN member state A None

CONGO, REPUBLIC OF THE A UN member state A None

ZZZ Cook Islands
Cook Islands
Cook Islands
Cook Islands
A UN member state A None

COSTA RICA – Republic of Costa Rica A UN member state A None

Côte d'Ivoire → Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast
A UN member state A None

CROATIA – Republic of Croatia A UN member state A None Member of the EU.

CUBA – Republic of Cuba A UN member state A None

CYPRUS – Republic of Cyprus A UN member state Not recognized by Turkey
Turkey
Member of the EU. The northeastern part of the island is the de facto state of Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
. See Foreign relations
Foreign relations
of Cyprus
Cyprus
and Cyprus
Cyprus
dispute . Turkey
Turkey
refers to the Republic of Cyprus
Cyprus
government as "The Greek Cypriot Administration of Southern Cyprus".

CZECH REPUBLIC A UN member state A None Member of the EU.

Democratic People's Republic of Korea
Korea
→ Korea, North A UN member state A None

Democratic Republic of the Congo
Democratic Republic of the Congo
→ Congo, Democratic Republic of the A UN member state A None

DENMARK – Kingdom of Denmark A UN member state A None Member of the EU. The Kingdom of Denmark
Denmark
includes two self-governing territories:

* Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
(Føroyar/Færøerne)_ * _ Greenland
Greenland
(Kalaallit Nunaat/Grønland)_

The continental territory of Denmark, the Faroe Islands, and Greenland
Greenland
form the three constituent countries of the Kingdom. The designation "Denmark" can refer either to continental Denmark
Denmark
or to the short name for the entire Kingdom (e.g. in international organizations). The Kingdom of Denmark
Denmark
as a whole is a member of the EU, but EU law does not apply to the Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
and Greenland. Also see Greenland
Greenland
Treaty .

DJIBOUTI – Republic of Djibouti A UN member state A None

DOMINICA – Commonwealth of Dominica A UN member state A None

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC A UN member state A None

EAST TIMOR – Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste A UN member state A None

ECUADOR – Republic of Ecuador A UN member state A None

EGYPT – Arab Republic of Egypt A UN member state A None

EL SALVADOR – Republic of El Salvador A UN member state A None

EQUATORIAL GUINEA – Republic of Equatorial Guinea A UN member state A None

ERITREA – State of Eritrea A UN member state A None

ESTONIA – Republic of Estonia A UN member state A None Member of the EU.

ETHIOPIA – Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia A UN member state A None Ethiopia
Ethiopia
is a federation of nine regions and two chartered cities .

FIJI – Republic of Fiji A UN member state A None Fiji
Fiji
contains 1 autonomous region, Rotuma
Rotuma
.

FINLAND – Republic of Finland A UN member state A None Member of the EU.

* Åland is a neutral and demilitarised autonomous region of Finland.

FRANCE – French Republic A UN member state A None Member of the EU. France
France
contains five overseas regions/departments: French Guiana
French Guiana
, Guadeloupe
Guadeloupe
, Martinique
Martinique
, Mayotte
Mayotte
, and Réunion
Réunion
. France
France
also includes the overseas territories of:

* Clipperton Island * French Polynesia
French Polynesia
* New Caledonia
New Caledonia
* Saint Barthélemy
Saint Barthélemy
* Saint Martin * Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
* Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna
* French Southern and Antarctic Lands
French Southern and Antarctic Lands

GABON – Gabonese Republic A UN member state A None

Gambia GAMBIA, THE – Republic of the Gambia A UN member state A None

GEORGIA A UN member state A None Georgia contains two autonomous republics, Adjara
Adjara
and Abkhazia
Abkhazia
. In Abkhazia
Abkhazia
and South Ossetia
South Ossetia
, de facto states have been formed.

GERMANY – Federal Republic of Germany A UN member state A None Member of the EU. Germany
Germany
is a federation of 16 federated states (Länder).

GHANA – Republic of Ghana A UN member state A None

GREECE – Hellenic Republic A UN member state A None Member of the EU. Mount Athos
Mount Athos
is an autonomous part of Greece
Greece
that is jointly governed by the multinational "Holy Community" on the mountain and a civil governor appointed by the Greek government.

GRENADA A UN member state A None Grenada
Grenada
is a Commonwealth realm
Commonwealth realm
.

GUATEMALA – Republic of Guatemala A UN member state A None

GUINEA – Republic of Guinea
Guinea
A UN member state A None

GUINEA-BISSAU – Republic of Guinea-Bissau A UN member state A None

GUYANA – Co-operative Republic of Guyana A UN member state A None

HAITI – Republic of Haiti A UN member state A None

Holy See
Holy See
Vatican City
Vatican City
A UN member state A None

HONDURAS – Republic of Honduras A UN member state A None

HUNGARY A UN member state A None Member of the EU.

ICELAND A UN member state A None

INDIA – Republic of India A UN member state A None India
India
is a federation of 29 states and seven union territories . India
India
claims the entire territory of Kashmir
Kashmir
as one of its states, but only exercises control over part of it, while the rest is controlled by the People\'s Republic of China
China
and Pakistan
Pakistan
.

INDONESIA – Republic of Indonesia A UN member state A None Indonesia
Indonesia
has five provinces with official special autonomy status: Aceh
Aceh
, Jakarta
Jakarta
SCR , Yogyakarta SR , Papua , and West Papua .

IRAN – Islamic Republic of Iran A UN member state A None

IRAQ – Republic of Iraq A UN member state A None Iraq
Iraq
is a federation of 19 governorates , five of which make up the autonomous Iraqi Kurdistan
Iraqi Kurdistan
.

IRELAND A UN member state A None Member of the EU.

ISRAEL – State of Israel A UN member state Partially unrecognized Israel
Israel
exerts strong control over the territory claimed by Palestine . Israel
Israel
annexed East Jerusalem , an annexation not recognised by the international community. Israel
Israel
maintains varying levels of control over the rest of the West Bank
West Bank
, and although Israel no longer has a permanent civilian or military presence in the Gaza Strip , following its unilateral disengagement , it is still considered by some to be the occupying power under international law. Israel
Israel
is not recognised as a state by 32 UN members (including most Arab states) nor by the SADR .

ITALY – Italian Republic A UN member state A None Member of the EU. Italy
Italy
has five autonomous regions, Aosta Valley , Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Friuli-Venezia Giulia
, Sardinia
Sardinia
, Sicily
Sicily
and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol .

IVORY COAST – Republic of Côte d'Ivoire A UN member state A None

JAMAICA A UN member state A None Jamaica
Jamaica
is a Commonwealth realm
Commonwealth realm
.

JAPAN A UN member state A None

JORDAN – Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan A UN member state A None

KAZAKHSTAN – Republic of Kazakhstan A UN member state A None

KENYA – Republic of Kenya A UN member state A None

KIRIBATI – Republic of Kiribati A UN member state A None

KOREA, NORTH – Democratic People's Republic of Korea A UN member state B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea
North Korea
Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia
Somalia
Claimed by the People\'s Republic of China
China
Claimed by the Republic of China
China
Claimed by South Korea
South Korea
Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus
Cyprus
Disputed by Israel
Israel
Claimed by Morocco
Morocco
Claimed by Moldova
Moldova
Claimed by Mali
Mali
North Korea
North Korea
is not recognised by three UN members: France
France
, Japan and South Korea
South Korea
.

KOREA, SOUTH – Republic of Korea A UN member state B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea
North Korea
Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia
Somalia
Claimed by the People\'s Republic of China
China
Claimed by the Republic of China
China
Claimed by South Korea
South Korea
Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus
Cyprus
Disputed by Israel
Israel
Claimed by Morocco
Morocco
Claimed by Moldova
Moldova
Claimed by Mali
Mali
South Korea
South Korea
contains 1 autonomous region, Jejudo . South Korea
South Korea
is not recognised by one UN member: North Korea
North Korea
.

ZZZ Kosovo
Kosovo
Kosovo
Kosovo
A UN member state A None

KUWAIT – State of Kuwait A UN member state A None

KYRGYZSTAN – Kyrgyz Republic A UN member state A None

LAOS – Lao People's Democratic Republic A UN member state A None

LATVIA – Republic of Latvia A UN member state A None Member of the EU.

LEBANON – Lebanese Republic A UN member state A None

LESOTHO – Kingdom of Lesotho A UN member state A None

LIBERIA – Republic of Liberia A UN member state A None

LIBYA A UN member state A None

LIECHTENSTEIN – Principality of Liechtenstein A UN member state A None

LITHUANIA – Republic of Lithuania A UN member state A None Member of the EU.

LUXEMBOURG – Grand Duchy of Luxembourg A UN member state A None Member of the EU.

MACEDONIA – Republic of Macedonia A UN member state A None Because of the Macedonia naming dispute
Macedonia naming dispute
, the country is referred to by the UN and a number of states and international organizations as "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia".

MADAGASCAR – Republic of Madagascar A UN member state A None

MALAWI – Republic of Malawi A UN member state A None

MALAYSIA A UN member state A None Malaysia
Malaysia
is a federation of 13 states and three federal territories .

MALDIVES – Republic of Maldives A UN member state A None

MALI – Republic of Mali A UN member state A None

MALTA – Republic of Malta A UN member state A None Member of the EU.

MARSHALL ISLANDS – Republic of the Marshall Islands A UN member state A None Under Compact of Free Associationwith the United States
United States
.

MAURITANIA – Islamic Republic of Mauritania A UN member state A None

MAURITIUS – Republic of Mauritius A UN member state A None Mauritius
Mauritius
has an autonomous island, Rodrigues
Rodrigues
.

MEXICO – United Mexican States A UN member state A None Mexico
Mexico
is a federation of 31 states and one autonomous city .

MICRONESIA – Federated States of Micronesia A UN member state A None Under Compact of Free Associationwith the United States
United States
. The Federated States of Micronesia
Federated States of Micronesia
is a federation of four states.

MOLDOVA – Republic of Moldova A UN member state A None Moldova
Moldova
has the autonomous regions of Gagauzia
Gagauzia
and Transnistria
Transnistria
, the latter of which has established a de facto state.

MONACO – Principality of Monaco A UN member state A None

MONGOLIA A UN member state A None

MONTENEGRO A UN member state A None

MOROCCO – Kingdom of Morocco A UN member state A None Morocco
Morocco
claims sovereignty over Western Sahara
Western Sahara
and controls most of it, which is disputed by the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
.

MOZAMBIQUE – Republic of Mozambique A UN member state A None

MYANMAR – Republic of the Union of Myanmar
Myanmar
A UN member state A None

ZZZ Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
A UN member state A None

NAMIBIA – Republic of Namibia A UN member state A None

NAURU – Republic of Nauru A UN member state A None

NEPAL – Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal A UN member state A None Nepal
Nepal
is a federation composed of 14 zones .

NETHERLANDS – Kingdom of the Netherlands A UN member state A None Member of the EU. The Kingdom of the Netherlands
Kingdom of the Netherlands
includes four areas with substantial autonomy:

* Aruba
Aruba
* Curaçao
Curaçao
* Netherlands
Netherlands
* Sint Maarten
Sint Maarten

The continental part of the Netherlands, Aruba, Curaçao, and Sint Maarten form the four constituent countries of the Kingdom. Three other territories ( Bonaire
Bonaire
, Saba
Saba
, and Sint Eustatius
Sint Eustatius
) are special municipalities of the continental Netherlands.

The designation "Netherlands" can refer either to the continental Netherlands
Netherlands
or to the short name for the entire Kingdom (e.g. in international organizations). The Kingdom of the Netherlands
Kingdom of the Netherlands
as a whole is a member of the EU, but EU law applies only to parts within Europe.

NEW ZEALAND A UN member state A None New Zealand
New Zealand
is a Commonwealth realm
Commonwealth realm
, and has the dependent territories of:

* Ross Dependency * Tokelau
Tokelau

New Zealand
New Zealand
has responsibilities for (but no rights of control over) two freely associated states :

* Cook Islands
Cook Islands
* Niue
Niue

The Cook Islands
Cook Islands
and Niue
Niue
have diplomatic relations with 41 and with 19 UN members respectively. They have full treaty-making capacity in the UN, and are members of some UN specialized agencies .

NICARAGUA – Republic of Nicaragua A UN member state A None Nicaragua
Nicaragua
contains two autonomous regions, Atlántico Sur and Atlántico Norte .

NIGER – Republic of Niger A UN member state A None

NIGERIA – Federal Republic of Nigeria A UN member state A None Nigeria
Nigeria
is a federation of 36 states and 1 federal territory .

ZZZ Niue
Niue
Niue
Niue
A UN member state A None

ZZZNorthern Cyprus
Cyprus
→ Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
A UN member state A None

North Korea
North Korea
→ Korea, North A UN member state A None

NORWAY – Kingdom of Norway A UN member state A None

* Svalbard
Svalbard
is an integral part of Norway, but has a special status due to the Svalbard
Svalbard
Treaty . * Jan Mayen
Jan Mayen
is an island that is an integral part of Norway, although unincorporated .

Norway
Norway
has the dependent territories of:

* Bouvet Island
Bouvet Island
* Peter I Island
Peter I Island
* Queen Maud Land
Queen Maud Land

OMAN – Sultanate of Oman A UN member state A None

PAKISTAN – Islamic Republic of Pakistan A UN member state A None Pakistan
Pakistan
is a federation of four provinces, 1 capital territory, and tribal regions . Pakistan
Pakistan
disputes the entire territory of Kashmir with India
India
, and part of it with the People\'s Republic of China
China
. It exercises control over certain portions of Kashmir, but has not officially annexed any of it, instead regarding it as a disputed territory. The portions that it controls are divided into two territories, administered separately from Pakistan
Pakistan
proper:

* Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
* Gilgit Baltistan
Gilgit Baltistan

Azad Kashmir
Kashmir
describes itself as a "self-governing state under Pakistani control", while Gilgit-Baltistan
Gilgit-Baltistan
is described in its governance order as a group of "areas" with self-government. These territories are not usually regarded as sovereign, as they do not fulfill the criteria set out by the declarative theory of statehood (for example, their current laws do not allow them to engage independently in relations with other states). Several state functions of these territories (such as foreign affairs and defence) are performed by Pakistan.

PALAU – Republic of Palau A UN member state A None Under Compact of Free Associationwith the United States
United States
.

PALESTINE – State of Palestine A UN observer state ; member of one UN specialized agency Partially unrecognized . B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea
Korea
Claimed by Serbia
Serbia
Claimed by Somalia
Somalia
Claimed by the People\'s Republic of China
China
Claimed by the Republic of China
China
Claimed by South Korea
Korea
Claimed by Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus
Cyprus
Disputed by Israel
Israel
Claimed by Morocco
Morocco
Claimed by Moldova
Moldova
Claimed by Mali
Mali
The declared State of Palestine
State of Palestine
has received diplomatic recognition from 136 states. The proclaimed state has no agreed territorial borders, or effective control on much of the territory that it proclaimed. The Palestinian National Authority
Palestinian National Authority
is an interim administrative body formed as a result of the Oslo Accords
Oslo Accords
that exercises limited autonomous jurisdiction within the Palestinian territories . In foreign relations, Palestine is represented by the Palestine Liberation Organization
Palestine Liberation Organization
. The State of Palestine
State of Palestine
is a member state of UNESCO, and an observer state in the UN.

PANAMA – Republic of Panama A UN member state A None

PAPUA NEW GUINEA – Independent State of Papua New Guinea A UN member state A None Papua New Guinea
Guinea
is a Commonwealth realm
Commonwealth realm
with 1 autonomous region, Bougainville .

PARAGUAY – Republic of Paraguay A UN member state A None

PERU – Republic of Peru A UN member state A None

PHILIPPINES – Republic of the Philippines A UN member state A None The Philippines
Philippines
contains one autonomous region, Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao .

POLAND – Republic of Poland A UN member state A None Member of the EU.

PORTUGAL – Portuguese Republic A UN member state A None Member of the EU. Portugal
Portugal
contains two autonomous regions, Azores and Madeira
Madeira
.

Pridnestrovie Transnistria
Transnistria
A UN member state A None

QATAR – State of Qatar A UN member state A None

Republic of Korea
Korea
→ Korea, South A UN member state A None

Republic of the Congo
Republic of the Congo
→ Congo, Republic of the A UN member state A None

ROMANIA A UN member state A None Member of the EU.

RUSSIA – Russian Federation A UN member state A None Russia
Russia
is officially a federation of 85 federal subjects (republics, oblasts, krais, autonomous okrugs, federal cities, and an autonomous oblast). Several of the federal subjects are ethnic republics. Russia
Russia
also forms the Union State
Union State
jointly with Belarus
Belarus
.

RWANDA – Republic of Rwanda A UN member state A None

ZZZ Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
→ Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic A UN member state A None

SAINT KITTS AND NEVIS – Federation
Federation
of Saint Christopher and Nevis A UN member state A None Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Kitts and Nevis
is a Commonwealth realm
Commonwealth realm
and is a federation of two islands, St. Kitts
St. Kitts
and Nevis
Nevis
.

SAINT LUCIA A UN member state A None Saint Lucia
Saint Lucia
is a Commonwealth realm
Commonwealth realm
.

SAINT VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES A UN member state A None Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
is a Commonwealth realm
Commonwealth realm
.

SAMOA – Independent State of Samoa A UN member state A None

SAN MARINO – Republic of San Marino A UN member state A None

SãO TOMé AND PRíNCIPE – Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe A UN member state A None São Tomé and Príncipe
São Tomé and Príncipe
contains 1 autonomous province, Príncipe .

SAUDI ARABIA – Kingdom of Saudi Arabia A UN member state A None

SENEGAL – Republic of Senegal A UN member state A None

SERBIA – Republic of Serbia A UN member state A None Serbia
Serbia
contains two autonomous regions, Vojvodina
Vojvodina
and Kosovo
Kosovo
and Metohija . The latter is under the de facto control of the Republic of Kosovo
Kosovo
.

SEYCHELLES – Republic of Seychelles A UN member state A None

SIERRA LEONE – Republic of Sierra Leone A UN member state A None

SINGAPORE – Republic of Singapore A UN member state A None

SLOVAKIA – Slovak Republic A UN member state A None Member of the EU.

SLOVENIA – Republic of Slovenia A UN member state A None Member of the EU.

SOLOMON ISLANDS A UN member state A None The Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
is a Commonwealth realm
Commonwealth realm
.

SOMALIA – Federal Republic of Somalia A UN member state A None Somalia
Somalia
has two self-declared autonomous regions: Puntland
Puntland
and Galmudug, while the territory of Somaliland
Somaliland
has formed an unrecognised de facto state.

ZZZ Somaliland
Somaliland
Somaliland
Somaliland
A UN member state A None

SOUTH AFRICA – Republic of South Africa A UN member state A None

South Korea
South Korea
→ Korea, South A UN member state A None

ZZZ South Ossetia
South Ossetia
South Ossetia
South Ossetia
A UN member state A None

SOUTH SUDAN – Republic of South Sudan A UN member state A None South Sudan
South Sudan
is a federation of 28 states .

SPAIN – Kingdom of Spain A UN member state A None Member of the EU. Spain
Spain
is divided into 17 autonomous communities and 2 special autonomous cities .

SRI LANKA – Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka A UN member state A None Formerly known as Ceylon .

SUDAN – Republic of the Sudan A UN member state A None Sudan
Sudan
is a federation of 18 states .

ZZZSudan, South → South Sudan
South Sudan
A UN member state A None

SURINAME – Republic of Suriname A UN member state A None

SWAZILAND – Kingdom of Swaziland A UN member state A None

SWEDEN – Kingdom of Sweden A UN member state A None Member of the EU.

SWITZERLAND – Swiss Confederation A UN member state A None Switzerland
Switzerland
is a federation of 26 cantons .

SYRIA – Syrian Arab Republic A UN member state A None The Syrian National Coalition , which is recognized as the legitimate representative of the Syrian people by 20 UN members, has established an interim government to rule rebel controlled territory during the Syrian civil war
Syrian civil war
.

Syria
Syria
has one self-declared autonomous region: Rojava
Rojava

ZZZ Taiwan
Taiwan
(Republic of China) → Taiwan
Taiwan
A UN member state A None

TAJIKISTAN – Republic of Tajikistan A UN member state A None Tajikistan
Tajikistan
contains 1 autonomous region, Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province .

TANZANIA – United Republic of Tanzania A UN member state A None Tanzania
Tanzania
contains 1 autonomous region, Zanzibar
Zanzibar
.

THAILAND – Kingdom of Thailand A UN member state A None

Timor-Leste → East Timor
East Timor
A UN member state A None

TOGO – Togolese Republic A UN member state A None

TONGA – Kingdom of Tonga A UN member state A None

ZZZ Transnistria
Transnistria
Transnistria
Transnistria
A UN member state A None

TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO – Republic of Trinidad and Tobago A UN member state A None Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
contains 1 autonomous region, Tobago
Tobago
.

TUNISIA – Tunisian Republic A UN member state A None

TURKEY – Republic of Turkey A UN member state A None

TURKMENISTAN A UN member state A None

TUVALU A UN member state A None Tuvalu
Tuvalu
is a Commonwealth realm
Commonwealth realm
.

UGANDA – Republic of Uganda A UN member state A None

UKRAINE A UN member state A None

UNITED ARAB EMIRATES A UN member state A None The United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
is a federation of seven emirates .

UNITED KINGDOM – United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Northern Ireland A UN member state A None Member of the EU. The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is a Commonwealth realm
Commonwealth realm
consisting of four constituent countries :

* England
England
* Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
* Scotland
Scotland
* Wales
Wales

The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
has the following overseas territories:

* Akrotiri and Dhekelia
Akrotiri and Dhekelia
* Anguilla
Anguilla
* Bermuda
Bermuda
* British Indian Ocean Territory * British Virgin Islands
British Virgin Islands
* Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
* Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
* Gibraltar
Gibraltar
* Montserrat
Montserrat
* Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
* Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
* South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
* Turks and Caicos Islands
Turks and Caicos Islands
* British Antarctic Territory
British Antarctic Territory

The British monarch has direct sovereignty over three self-governing Crown dependencies:

* Guernsey
Guernsey
* Isle of Man
Isle of Man
* Jersey
Jersey

UNITED STATES – United States
United States
of America A UN member state A None The United States
United States
is a federation of 50 states and 1 federal district . The United States
United States
has sovereignty over the following inhabited possessions and commonwealths:

* American Samoa
Samoa
* Guam
Guam
* Northern Mariana Islands
Northern Mariana Islands
* Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
* U.S. Virgin Islands

It also has sovereignty over several uninhabited territories:

* Baker Island
Baker Island
* Howland Island
Howland Island
* Jarvis Island * Johnston Atoll
Johnston Atoll
* Kingman Reef
Kingman Reef
* Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll
* Navassa Island
Navassa Island
* Wake Island
Wake Island

It also has sovereignty over the following incorporated territories:

* Palmyra Atoll
Palmyra Atoll

Three sovereign states have become associated states of the United States under the Compact of Free Association:

* Marshall Islands
Marshall Islands
– Republic of the Marshall Islands * Micronesia – Federated States of Micronesia * Palau
Palau
– Republic of Palau

It also disputes sovereignty over the following territories:

* Bajo Nuevo Bank * Serranilla Bank
Serranilla Bank

_ URUGUAY – Oriental Republic of Uruguay A UN member state A None

UZBEKISTAN – Republic of Uzbekistan A UN member state A None Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
contains 1 autonomous region, Karakalpakstan
Karakalpakstan
.

VANUATU – Republic of Vanuatu A UN member state A None

VATICAN CITY – Vatican City
Vatican City
State A UN observer state under the designation of " Holy See
Holy See
"; member of three UN specialized agencies and the IAEA A None Administered by the Holy See
Holy See
, a sovereign entity with diplomatic ties to 183 states – 180 UN member states, one UN observer state (Palestine), the Cook Islands
Cook Islands
and the Republic of China
China
(Taiwan). The Holy See
Holy See
is a member of the IAEA , ITU , UPU , and WIPO and a permanent observer of the UN (in the category of "Non-member State") and multiple other UN System organizations . The Vatican City
Vatican City
is governed by officials appointed by the Pope
Pope
, who is the Bishop of the Diocese of Rome and ex officio_ sovereign of Vatican City.

VENEZUELA – Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela A UN member state A None Venezuela
Venezuela
is a federation of 23 states, 1 capital district, and federal dependencies .

VIETNAM – Socialist Republic of Vietnam A UN member state A None

YEMEN – Republic of Yemen A UN member state A None

ZAMBIA – Republic of Zambia A UN member state A None

ZIMBABWE – Republic of Zimbabwe A UN member state A None

ZZZ↑ UN member states and observer states ↑ A ZZZ ZZZ

ZZZ AB B

ZZZ↓ Other states ↓ D AAA ZZZ

ABKHAZIA – Republic of Abkhazia D No membership B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea
North Korea
Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia
Somalia
Claimed by the People\'s Republic of China
China
Claimed by the Republic of China
China
Claimed by South Korea
South Korea
Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus
Cyprus
Disputed by Israel
Israel
Claimed by Morocco
Morocco
Claimed by Moldova
Moldova
Claimed by Mali
Mali
Recognised by Russia, Nauru, Nicaragua, Venezuela, Nagorno-Karabakh, South Ossetia
South Ossetia
and Transnistria. Claimed in whole by Georgia as the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia
Abkhazia
.

COOK ISLANDS D Member of eight UN specialized agencies A None (See political status ) A state in free association with New Zealand , the Cook Islands
Cook Islands
maintains diplomatic relations with 44 states . The Cook Islands
Cook Islands
is a member of multiple UN agencies with full treaty making capacity. It shares a head of state with New Zealand as well as having shared citizenship .

KOSOVO – Republic of Kosovo D Member of two UN specialized agencies B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea
North Korea
Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia
Somalia
Claimed by the People\'s Republic of China
China
Claimed by the Republic of China
China
Claimed by South Korea
South Korea
Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus
Cyprus
Disputed by Israel
Israel
Claimed by Morocco
Morocco
Claimed by Moldova
Moldova
Claimed by Mali
Mali
Pursuant to United Nations
United Nations
Security Council Resolution 1244 , Kosovo
Kosovo
was placed under the administration of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo
Kosovo
in 1999. Kosovo
Kosovo
declared independence in 2008 , and it has received diplomatic recognition from 111 UN member states and the Republic of China
China
. Serbia
Serbia
continues to maintain its sovereignty claim over Kosovo. Other UN member states and non UN member states continue to recognise Serbian sovereignty or have taken no position on the question. Kosovo
Kosovo
is a member of the International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
and the World
World
Bank Group . The Republic of Kosovo
Kosovo
has de facto control over most of the territory, with limited control in North Kosovo
Kosovo
.

NAGORNO-KARABAKH – Republic of Artsakh D No membership B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea
North Korea
Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia
Somalia
Claimed by the People\'s Republic of China
China
Claimed by the Republic of China
China
Claimed by South Korea
South Korea
Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus
Cyprus
Disputed by Israel
Israel
Claimed by Morocco
Morocco
Claimed by Moldova
Moldova
Claimed by Mali
Mali
A de facto independent state, recognised only by Abkhazia
Abkhazia
, South Ossetia
South Ossetia
and Transnistria
Transnistria
. Claimed in whole by Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
.

NIUE D Member of five UN specialized agencies A None (See political status ) A state in free association with New Zealand , Niue
Niue
maintains diplomatic relations with 21 states . Niue
Niue
is a member of multiple UN agencies with full treaty making capacity. It shares a head of state with New Zealand
New Zealand
as well as having shared citizenship .

_ NORTHERN CYPRUS – Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus D No membership B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea
North Korea
Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia
Somalia
Claimed by the People\'s Republic of China
China
Claimed by the Republic of China
China
Claimed by South Korea
South Korea
Claimed by Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus
Cyprus
Disputed by Israel
Israel
Claimed by Morocco
Morocco
Claimed by Moldova
Moldova
Claimed by Mali
Mali
Recognised only by Turkey
Turkey
. Under the name "Turkish Cypriot State", it is an observer state of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
and the Economic Cooperation Organization
Economic Cooperation Organization
. Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
is claimed in whole by the Republic of Cyprus
Cyprus
.

SAHRAWI ARAB DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC D No membership B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea
North Korea
Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia
Somalia
Claimed by the People\'s Republic of China
China
Claimed by the Republic of China
China
Claimed by South Korea
South Korea
Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus
Cyprus
Disputed by Israel
Israel
Claimed by Morocco
Morocco
Claimed by Moldova
Moldova
Claimed by Mali
Mali
Recognised at some stage by 84 UN member states , 38 of which have since withdrawn or frozen their recognition. It is a founding member of the African Union
African Union
and the Asian-African Strategic Partnership formed at the 2005 Asian-African Conference
Asian-African Conference
. The territories under its control, the so-called Free Zone , are claimed in whole by Morocco as part of its Southern Provinces
Southern Provinces
. In turn, the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic claims the part of Western Sahara
Western Sahara
to the west of the Moroccan Wall controlled by Morocco. Its government resides in exile in Tindouf
Tindouf
, Algeria
Algeria
.

SOMALILAND – Republic of Somaliland D No membership B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea
North Korea
Claimed by Serbia
Serbia
Claimed by Somalia
Somalia
Claimed by the People\'s Republic of China
China
Claimed by the Republic of China
China
Claimed by South Korea
South Korea
Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus
Cyprus
Disputed by Israel
Israel
Claimed by Morocco
Morocco
Claimed by Moldova
Moldova
Claimed by Mali
Mali
A de facto independent state, not diplomatically recognised by any other state, claimed in whole by the Federal Republic of Somalia
Somalia
.

SOUTH OSSETIA – Republic of South Ossetia D No membership B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea
North Korea
Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia
Somalia
Claimed by the People\'s Republic of China
China
Claimed by the Republic of China
China
Claimed by South Korea
South Korea
Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus
Cyprus
Disputed by Israel
Israel
Claimed by Morocco
Morocco
Claimed by Moldova
Moldova
Claimed by Mali
Mali
A de facto independent state, recognised by Russia, Nicaragua, Nauru, Venezuela, Abkhazia, Nagorno-Karabakh, and Transnistria. Claimed in whole by Georgia as the Provisional Administrative Entity of South Ossetia
South Ossetia
.

TAIWAN – Republic of China
China
DFormer UN member (as Republic of China, 1945-1971) Observer in one UN specialized agency under the name " Chinese Taipei
Chinese Taipei
" B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea
North Korea
Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia
Somalia
Claimed by the People\'s Republic of China
China
Claimed by the Republic of China
China
Claimed by South Korea
South Korea
Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus
Cyprus
Disputed by Israel
Israel
Claimed by Morocco
Morocco
Claimed by Moldova
Moldova
Claimed by Mali
Mali
A state competing (nominally) for recognition with the People\'s Republic of China
China
as the government of China
China
since 1949. The Republic of China
China
controls the island of Taiwan
Taiwan
and associated islands, Quemoy, Matsu, the Pratas and parts of the Spratly Islands
Spratly Islands
, and has not renounced claims over its annexed territories on the mainland . The Republic of China
China
is recognised by 19 UN member states and the Holy See as of 13 June 2017. The territory of the Republic of China
China
is claimed in whole by the People's Republic of China. The Republic of China
China
participates in international organizations under a variety of pseudonyms, most commonly " Chinese Taipei
Chinese Taipei
" and in the WTO it has full membership. The Republic of China
China
was a founding member of the UN and enjoyed membership from 1945 to 1971, with veto power in the UN Security Council . See China
China
and the United Nations
United Nations
.

TRANSNISTRIA – Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic D No membership B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea
North Korea
Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia
Somalia
Claimed by the People\'s Republic of China
China
Claimed by the Republic of China
China
Claimed by South Korea
South Korea
Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus
Cyprus
Disputed by Israel
Israel
Claimed by Morocco
Morocco
Claimed by Moldova
Moldova
Claimed by Mali
Mali
A de facto independent state, recognised only by Abkhazia, Nagorno-Karabakh, and South Ossetia. Claimed in whole by Moldova
Moldova
as the Transnistria
Transnistria
autonomous territorial unit _.

ZZZ↑ Other states ↑ D ZZZ ZZZ

ZZZZ ZZZZ ZZZZ

LEGEND "MEMBERSHIP WITHIN THE UN SYSTEM" COLUMN UN Member states UN Observer states Member of a UN Specialized Agency Observer in a UN Specialized Agency No membership in the UN system LEGEND "SOVEREIGNTY DISPUTE" COLUMN Undisputed sovereignty Sovereignty
Sovereignty
disputed

CRITERIA FOR INCLUSION

The dominant customary international law standard of statehood is the declarative theory of statehood , which was codified by the Montevideo Convention of 1933. The Convention defines the state as a person of international law if it _"possess the following qualifications: (a) a permanent population; (b) a defined territory; (c) government; and (d) a capacity to enter into relations with the other states"_ so long as it was not _"obtained by force whether this consists in the employment of arms, in threatening diplomatic representations, or in any other effective coercive measure"_.

Debate exists on the degree to which recognition should be included as a criterion of statehood. The declarative theory of statehood argues that statehood is purely objective and recognition of a state by other states is irrelevant. On the other end of the spectrum, the constitutive theory of statehood defines a state as a person under international law only if it is recognised as sovereign by other states. For the purposes of this list, included are all states that either:

* (a) consider themselves sovereign (through a declaration of independence or some other means) and are often regarded as satisfying the declarative theory of statehood, _or_ * (b) are recognised as a sovereign state by at least one UN member state

Note that in some cases, there is a divergence of opinion over the interpretation of the first point, and whether an entity satisfies it is disputed. Unique political entities which fail to meet the classification of a sovereign state are considered proto-states .

On the basis of the above criteria, this list includes the following 206 entities:

* 203 states recognised by at least one UN member state
UN member state
* Two states that satisfy the declarative theory of statehood and are recognised only by non-UN member states: Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
Republic , Transnistria
Transnistria
* One state that satisfies the declarative theory of statehood and is not recognised by any other state: Somaliland
Somaliland

The table includes bullets representing entities which are either not sovereign states or have a close association to another sovereign state. It also includes subnational areas where the sovereignty of the titular state is limited by an international agreement. Taken together, these include:

* States in a free association relationship to another state * Two entities controlled by Pakistan
Pakistan
which are neither sovereign states, dependent territories, or part of another state: Azad Kashmir and Gilgit Baltistan
Gilgit Baltistan
* Dependent territories of another state, as well as areas that exhibit many characteristics of dependent territories according to the dependent territory page * Subnational entities created by international agreements

SEE ALSO

* Geography portal * Politics portal * Lists portal

* ISO 3166-1 * Adjectivals and demonyms for countries and nations * Gallery of country coats of arms
Gallery of country coats of arms
* Gallery of sovereign state flags * List of countries and capitals in native languages * List of national capitals in alphabetical order * List of country-name etymologies * List of dependent territories * List of international rankings * List of micronations * List of rebel groups that control territory * List of states with limited recognition
List of states with limited recognition
* List of territorial disputes

* Sovereign state
Sovereign state

* List of sovereign states and dependent territories by continent * List of shortest-lived sovereign states

* List of sovereign states by date of formation

* Lists of sovereign states by year

* Table of administrative divisions by country * Template:Clickable world map * Terra nullius
Terra nullius

NOTES

* ^ This column indicates whether or not a state is a member of the United Nations
United Nations
. It also indicates which non-member states participate in the United Nations
United Nations
System through membership in the International Atomic Energy Agency
International Atomic Energy Agency
or one of the specialized agencies of the United Nations
United Nations
. All United Nations
United Nations
members belong to at least one specialized agency and are parties to the statute of the International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice
. * ^ This column indicates whether or not a state is the subject of a major sovereignty dispute. Only states whose entire sovereignty is disputed by another state are listed. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ _K_ _L_ _M_ _N_ _O_ _P_ _Q_ _R_ _S_ _T_ _U_ _V_ _W_ _X_ _Y_ _Z_ _AA_ _AB_ _AC_ The member states of the European Union
European Union
have transferred part of their sovereignty in the form of legislative, executive, and judicial powers to the institutions of the EU, which is an example of supranational union . The EU has 28 member states.

* ^ Information is included on:

* The extent to which a state's sovereignty is recognised internationally. More information can be found at List of states with limited recognition , * Membership in the European Union
European Union
, where applicable, * Any dependencies , if applicable, which are generally not part of the territory of the sovereign state, * federal structure of the state, where applicable. More information can be found at Federated state, * Any autonomous areas inside the territory of the sovereign state, * Any situations where one person is the Head of State of more than one state, * Any governments in exile recognised by at least one state.

* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ _K_ _L_ _M_ _N_ _O_ _P_ Commonwealth realms are members of the Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
in which the head of state is Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
. The realms are sovereign states; see Relationship of the realms . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ _K_ _L_ _M_ _N_ _O_ _P_ _Q_ _R_ _S_ _T_ _U_ _V_ _W_ For more information on divisions with a high degree of autonomy, see the List of autonomous areas by country
List of autonomous areas by country
.

* ^ The Argentine Constitution (Art. 35) recognises the following denominations for Argentina: "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata", "Argentine Republic" and "Argentine Confederation"; furthermore, it establishes the usage of "Argentine Nation" for purposes of legislation. * ^ Formerly referred to as Dahomey , its official name until 1975. * ^ Also known as Burkina; formerly referred to as Upper Volta, its official name until 1984. * ^ The legal name for Canada
Canada
is the sole word; an officially sanctioned, though disused, name is Dominion
Dominion
of Canada
Canada
(which includes its legal title); see: Name of Canada
Canada
, Dominion
Dominion
. * ^ _A_ _B_ The People\'s Republic of China
China
(PRC) is commonly referred to as "China", while the Republic of China
China
(ROC) is commonly referred to as "Taiwan". The ROC is also occasionally known diplomatically as Chinese Taipei
Chinese Taipei
, along with other names . * ^ _A_ _B_ In 1949, the Republic of China
China
government led by the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
(KMT) lost the Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
to the Communist Party of China
China
(CPC) and set up a provisional capital in Taipei
Taipei
. The CPC established the PRC. As such, the political status of the ROC and legal status of Taiwan
Taiwan
(alongside the territories under ROC jurisdiction) are in dispute. In 1971, the United Nations
United Nations
gave the China
China
seat to the PRC and the ROC withdrew from the UN. Most states recognise the PRC to be the sole legitimate representative of all China, and the UN classifies Taiwan
Taiwan
as "Taiwan, Province of China
China
". The ROC has de facto relations with most sovereign states. A significant political movement within Taiwan
Taiwan
advocates Taiwan independence . * ^ See also Dates of establishment of diplomatic relations with the People\'s Republic of China
China
and Foreign relations
Foreign relations
of China
China
. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ More information on more or less federal structures can be found at a List of federations . * ^ Also known as Congo-Kinshasa. Formerly referred to as Zaire
Zaire
, its official name from 1971 to 1997. * ^ Also known as Congo-Brazzaville. * ^ A simpler official short-form name has been encouraged by the Czech government: the English variant CZECHIA remains uncommon, but variants in Czech (_Česko_) and some other languages are more popular. See Name of the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
* ^ The government of East Timor
East Timor
uses "Timor-Leste" as the English translation. * ^ Åland was demilitarised by the Treaty of Paris in 1856, which was later affirmed by the League of Nations
League of Nations
in 1921, and in a somewhat different context reaffirmed in the treaty on Finland's admission to the European Union
European Union
in 1995. * ^ Also known as Guinea-Conakry. * ^ While sometimes referred to as the "REPUBLIC OF ICELAND" and sometimes its counterpart _Lýðveldið Ísland_ in Icelandic, the official name of the country is simply Iceland. One example of the former is the name of the Constitution of Iceland
Iceland
, which in Icelandic is _Stjórnarskrá lýðveldisins Íslands_ and literally means "the Constitution of the republic of Iceland", but note that "republic" is not capitalized. The official title of the President of Iceland (_Forseti Íslands_) does also not include the word republic as in some other republics. See Names for Iceland
Iceland
. * ^ _A_ _B_ Both North Korea
North Korea
and South Korea
South Korea
claim to be the sole legitimate government of Korea
Korea
. See also Foreign relations
Foreign relations
of North Korea
Korea
and Foreign relations
Foreign relations
of South Korea
South Korea
. * ^ The government changed the state's official name in English from "Union of Myanmar" to "Republic of the Union of Myanmar" in October 2010. * ^ Sovereignty
Sovereignty
over Kashmir
Kashmir
is disputed between India
India
and Pakistan ; smaller parts are disputed by the People\'s Republic of China
China
and the Republic of China
China
. Kashmir
Kashmir
is divided between India, Pakistan
Pakistan
and the PRC. See the List of territorial disputes. * ^ The Constitution of the Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
Republic (Art. 1.2) recognizes "Artsakh Republic" as an alternative denomination. * ^ The sovereignty over the Spratly Islands
Spratly Islands
is disputed by China
China
, Taiwan
Taiwan
, Vietnam
Vietnam
, and in part by Brunei
Brunei
, Malaysia
Malaysia
, and the Philippines
Philippines
. Except for Brunei, each of these countries occupies part of the islands (see List of territorial disputes). * ^ The Sovereign Military Order of Malta
Malta
is not included, as despite being a sovereign entity it lacks territory and does not claim statehood. Entities considered to be micronations are not included. It is often up to debate whether a micronation truly controls its claimed territory. Also omitted from this list are all uncontacted peoples , either who live in societies that cannot be defined as states or whose statuses as such are not definitively known.

REFERENCES

* ^ _A_ _B_ Press Release ORG/1469 (July 3, 2006). "United Nations Member States". United Nations. Retrieved February 28, 2011. * ^ " Andorra
Andorra
country profile". BBC News. Retrieved November 8, 2011. * ^ Government of Antigua and Barbuda. "Chapter 44: The Barbuda Local Government Act" (PDF). _Laws of Antigua and Barbuda_. Retrieved November 10, 2010. * ^ " Pakistan
Pakistan
Worldview, Report 21, Visit to Azerbaijan" (PDF). Senate of Pakistan
Pakistan
Foreign Relations Committee. 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 19, 2009. * ^ Nilufer Bakhtiyar: "For Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Pakistan
Pakistan
does not recognise Armenia
Armenia
as a country" September 13, 2006 – Today.Az * ^ " Pakistan
Pakistan
the only country not recognizing Armenia
Armenia
– envoy". News.Az. February 5, 2014. Retrieved February 17, 2014. We are the only country not recognizing Armenia
Armenia
as a state. * ^ Europa, retrieved February 28, 2011 * ^ Stjepanović, Dejan (2015). "Dual Substate Citizenship as Institutional Innovation: The Case of Bosnia's Brčko District". _Nationalism and Ethnic Politics_. 21 (4): 382–383. ISSN 1353-7113 . OCLC
OCLC
5927465455 . doi :10.1080/13537113.2015.1095043 . eISSN 1557-2986 . (Subscription required (help)). * ^ Constitution of Comoros, Art. 1. * ^ Andreas S. Kakouris (July 9, 2010). " Cyprus
Cyprus
is not at peace with Turkey". CNN. Retrieved May 17, 2014. Turkey
Turkey
stands alone in violation of the will of the international community. It is the only country to recognize the "TRNC" and is the only country that does not recognize the Republic of Cyprus
Cyprus
and its government. * ^ Republic of Turkey
Turkey
Ministry for European Union
European Union
Affairs Retrieved June 12, 2012_._ * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 10, 2015. Retrieved May 20, 2015. * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on February 14, 2014. Retrieved May 20, 2014. * ^ " Rotuma
Rotuma
Act". _Laws of Fiji_ (1978 ed.). Suva, Fiji: Government of Fiji. 1927. Archived from the original on June 21, 2010. Retrieved July 10, 2010. * ^ Government of Fiji, Office of the Prime Minister (1978). "Chapter 122: Rotuma
Rotuma
Act". _Laws of Fiji_. University of the South Pacific. Retrieved November 10, 2010. * ^ Constitution of Greece, Art. 105. * ^ http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/281235/Iceland * ^ http://unstats.un.org/unsd/geoinfo/ungegn/docs/26th-gegn-docs/WP/WP54_UNGEGN%20WG%20Country%20Names%20Document%202011.pdf * ^ http://www.visindavefur.is/svar.php?id=54970 * ^ Iraqi constitution * ^ Daly, Mary E. (January 2007). "The Irish Free State/Éire/Republic of Ireland/Ireland: "A Country by Any Other Name"?". _Journal of British Studies_. Cambridge University Press on behalf of The North American Conference on British Studies. 46 (1). doi :10.1086/508399 . (Subscription required (help)). * ^ "Ireland" is the official _name_ in English. "Republic of Ireland" (the official _description_ in English) and "Éire" (the official name in Irish) have sometimes been used unofficially to distinguish the state from the larger island of Ireland
Ireland
; this is officially deprecated. See names of the Irish state . * ^ _Basic Law: Jerusalem, Capital of Israel_ * ^ "Disputes: International". CIA World
World
Factbook. Retrieved November 8, 2011. * ^ Gold, Dore; Institute for Contemporary Affairs (August 26, 2005). "Legal Acrobatics: The Palestinian Claim that Gaza is Still "Occupied" Even After Israel
Israel
Withdraws". _Jerusalem Issue Brief, Vol. 5, No. 3_. Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. Retrieved July 16, 2010. * ^ Bell, Abraham (January 28, 2008). "International Law and Gaza: The Assault on Israel\'s Right to Self-Defense". _Jerusalem Issue Brief, Vol. 7, No. 29_. Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. Retrieved July 16, 2010. * ^ "Address by Foreign Minister Livni to the 8th Herzliya Conference" (Press release). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Israel. January 22, 2008. Retrieved July 16, 2010. * ^ Salih, Zak M. (November 17, 2005). "Panelists Disagree Over Gaza\'s Occupation Status". University of Virginia School of Law. Retrieved July 16, 2010. * ^ "Israel: \'Disengagement\' Will Not End Gaza Occupation". Human Rights Watch. October 29, 2004. Retrieved July 16, 2010. * ^ "Treaty on Basic Relations between Japan
Japan
and the Republic of Korea". Retrieved October 27, 2008. * ^ Keun Min. "Greetings". Jeju Special
Special
Self-Governing Province. Retrieved November 10, 2010. * ^ " Myanmar
Myanmar
gets new flag, official name, anthem". Reuters. October 21, 2010. Retrieved October 22, 2010. * ^ Federal Foreign Office of Germany
Germany
(November 2009). "Beziehungen zu Deutschland". Government of Germany. Retrieved July 16, 2010. For more information, see Foreign relations
Foreign relations
of the Cook Islands
Cook Islands
. * ^ China
China
Internet Information Centre (December 13, 2007). "Full text of joint communique on the establishment of diplomatic relations between China
China
and Niue". Xinhua News Agency. Retrieved July 16, 2010. * ^ Republic of Nauru
Nauru
Permanent Mission to the United Nations. "Foreign Affairs". United Nations. Archived from the original on October 4, 2014. Retrieved July 16, 2010. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ http://untreaty.un.org/cod/repertory/art102/english/rep_supp8_vol6-art102_e_advance.pdf * ^ Constitution of Pakistan, Art. 1. * ^ Aslam, Tasnim (December 11, 2006). "\' Pakistan
Pakistan
Does Not Claim Kashmir
Kashmir
As An Integral Part...\'". _Outlook India_. The Outlook Group.

* ^ Williams, Kristen P. (2001). _Despite nationalist conflicts: theory and practice of maintaining world peace_. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 154–155. ISBN 978-0-275-96934-9 . * ^ Pruthi, R.K. (2001). _An Encyclopaedic Survey Of Global Terrorism In 21St Century_. Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. pp. 120–121. ISBN 978-81-261-1091-9 . * ^ http://home.ajk.gov.pk/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=72&catid=14 * ^ _A_ _B_ http://gbtribune.files.wordpress.com/2012/09/self-governance-order-2009.pdf * ^ _Political Handbook of the World
World
2014_. Retrieved October 5, 2014. * ^ http://www.ajkassembly.gok.pk/AJK_Interim_Constitution_Act_1974.pdf * ^ Palestine Liberation Organization. "Road For Palestinian Statehood: Recognition and Admission". Negotiations Affairs Department. Retrieved July 28, 2011.

* ^ See the following on statehood criteria:

* Mendes, Errol (March 30, 2010). "Statehood and Palestine for the purposes of Article 12 (3) of the ICC Statute" (PDF). March 30, 2010: 28, 33. Retrieved April 17, 2011: "...the Palestinian State also meets the traditional criteria under the Montevideo Convention..."; "...the fact that a majority of states have recognised Palestine as a State should easily fulfill the requisite state practice". * McKinney, Kathryn M. (1994). "The Legal Effects of the Israeli-PLO Declaration ofPrinciples: Steps Toward Statehood for Palestine". _Seattle University Law Review_. Seattle University. 18 (93): 97. Retrieved April 17, 2011: "It is possible, however, to argue for Palestinian statehood based on the constitutive theory". * McDonald, Avril (Spring 2009). "Operation Cast Lead: Drawing the Battle Lines of the Legal Dispute". _Human Rights Brief_. Washington College of Law, Center for Human Rights and Humanitarian Law. 25. Retrieved April 17, 2011: "Whether one applies the criteria of statehood set out in the Montevideo Convention
Montevideo Convention
or the more widely accepted constitutive theory of statehood, Palestine might be considered a state."

* ^ _A_ _B_ "Non-member States and Entities". United Nations. February 29, 2008. Archived from the original on May 9, 2009. Retrieved August 30, 2010. * ^ United Nations
United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. "Arab States: Palestine". United Nations. Retrieved December 3, 2011. * ^ "Bilateral relations of the Holy See". Holy See
Holy See
website. Retrieved June 5, 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Chavez Backs Abkhazia, South Ossetia". _St. Petersburg Times_. Associated Press. July 27, 2010. Retrieved June 5, 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Абхазия, Южная Осетия и Приднестровье признали независимость друг друга и призвали всех к этому же (IN RUSSIAN). NEWSRU.COM. NOVEMBER 17, 2006. RETRIEVED JUNE 5, 2011. * ^ " United Nations
United Nations
Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo". _UN_. Retrieved January 8, 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Ker-Lindsay, James (2012). _The Foreign Policy of Counter Secession: Preventing the Recognition of Contested States_. Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
. p. 53. ...there are three other territories that have unilaterally declared independence and are generally regarded as having met the Montevideo criteria for statehood but have not been recognized by any states: Transnistria, Nagorny Karabakh, and Somaliland. * ^ Krüger, Heiko (2010). _The Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
Conflict: A Legal Analysis_. Springer. p. 55. ISBN 978-3-642-11787-9 . * ^ Nikoghosyan, Hovhannes (August 2010). " Kosovo
Kosovo
ruling implications for Armenia
Armenia
and Azerbaijan". _HULIQ.com_. Hareyan Publishing, LLC. Retrieved April 17, 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Вице-спикер парламента Абхазии: Выборы в НКР соответствуют всем международным стандартам: "Абхазия, Южная Осетия, НКР и Приднестровье уже давно признали независимость друг друга и очень тесно сотрудничают между собой", – сказал вице-спикер парламента Абхазии. ... "...Абхазия признала независимость Нагорно-Карабахской Республики..." – сказал он." * ^ "In detail: The foreign policy of Pridnestrovie". Pridnestrovie . May 26, 2010. Archived from the original on May 11, 2008. Retrieved June 29, 2010. * ^ Regions and territories_: Nagorno-Karabakh_ (January 17, 2006). BBC News. Retrieved January 17, 2006. * ^ The World
World
Factbook Cyprus
Cyprus
(January 10, 2006). Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved January 17, 2006_._ * ^ "Self-Determination, Sovereignty, and the Failure of States: Somaliland
Somaliland
and the Case for Justified Secession" (PDF). _Minnesota Journal of International Law _. 19:2: 380–381. 2010. Considering each of these factors, Somaliland
Somaliland
has a colorable argument that it meets the theoretical requirements of statehood. ... On these bases, Somaliland
Somaliland
appears to have a strong claim to statehood. * ^ International Crisis Group (May 23, 2006). "Somaliland: Time for African Union
African Union
leadership" (PDF). _Africa Report_ (110): 10–13. Retrieved April 19, 2011 * ^ Mesfin, Berouk (September 2009). "The political development of Somaliland
Somaliland
and its conflict with Puntland" (PDF). _ISS Paper_. Institute for Security Studies (200): 8. Retrieved April 19, 2011 * ^ Arieff, Alexis. "De Facto Statehood? The Strange Case of Somaliland" (PDF). _Yale Journal of International Affairs_ (Spring/Summer 2008). Retrieved April 17, 2011 * ^ Regions and territories_: Somaliland_ (December 30, 2005). BBC News. Retrieved January 17, 2006. * ^ Jansen, Dinah (2009). "The Conflict between Self-Determination and Territorial Integrity: the South Ossetian Paradigm" (PDF). _Geopolitics vs. Global Governance: Reinterpreting International Security_. Centre for Foreign Policy Studies, University of Dalhousie: 222–242. ISBN 978-1-896440-61-3 * ^ " Russia
Russia
condemned for recognizing rebel regions". _CNN.com_. Cable News Network. August 26, 2008. Retrieved August 26, 2008. * ^ "Ma refers to China
China
as ROC territory in magazine interview". _ Taipei
Taipei
Times _. October 8, 2008. * ^ Regions and territories_: Trans-Dniester_ (December 13, 2005). BBC News. Retrieved January 17, 2006. * ^ Hersch Lauterpacht (2012). _Recognition in International Law_. Cambridge University Press. p. 419. ISBN 9781107609433 . * ^ Hahn, Gordon (2002). _Russia's Revolution from Above, 1985-2000: Reform, Transition, and Revolution in the Fall of the Soviet Communist Regime_. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers. p. 527. ISBN 978-0765800497 . * ^ Griffiths, Ryan (2016). _Age of Secession: The International and Domestic Determinants of State Birth_. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 85, 213–242. ISBN 978-1107161627 . * ^ The following bullets are grouped according to the availability of sources for the two criteria ((a) and/or (b)). This arrangement is not intended to reflect the relative importance of the two theories. Additional details are discussed in the state's individual entries.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Bissio, Roberto Remo, ed. (1995). _The World: A Third World
World
Guide: 1995/96_. Montevideo: Instituto del Tercer Mundo. ISBN 978-0-85598-291-1 . OCLC
OCLC
476299738 . * "Countries or areas, codes and abbreviations". Statistics Division, United Nations. April 1, 2010. * Davis, Tim (February 19, 2009). " World
World
Countries and States List". _Timdavis.com.au_. * "Geographic Names" (PDF). Department of Public Information, Cartographic Section, United Nations. September 7, 2000. * " ISO 3166-1Country names and code elements". International Organization for Standardization. 2010. * "List of countries, territories and currencies". Publications Office of the European Union. May 4, 2010. * "The World
World
Factbook". United States: Central Intelligence Agency. 2010. * World
World
of Information (Firm), and International Chamber of Commerce (2003). _Middle East Review 2003/04: The Economic and Business Report_ (27th ed.). London: Kogan Page. p. 161. ISBN 978-0-7494-4066-4 . OCLC 51992589 .

* v * t * e

Lists of sovereign states and dependent territories by continent

CONTINENTS

* Africa * Antarctica * Asia * Europe * North America * Oceania * South America

SUPERCONTINENTS

* Americas * Eurasia

* v * t * e

Lists of sovereign states by year

AD (CE )

Current list of sovereign states

CENTURIES

1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 19th

YEARS

2nd century 220 6th century 501 502 503 12th century 1143 15th century 1400 1494 1496 16th century 1500 1528 17th century 1620 1648 1660 1661 1662 18th century 1768 1769 1776 1777 1778 1799 1800 19th century 1801 1802 1803 1804 1805 1806 1807 1808 1809 1810 1811 1812 1813 1814 1815 1816 1817 1818 1819 1820 1821 1822 1823 1824 1825 1826 1827 1828 1829 1830 1831 1832 1833 1834 1835 1836 1837 1838 1839 1840 1841 1842 1843 1844 1845 1846 1847 1848 1849 1850 1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857 1858 1859 1860 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1869 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 20th century 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1970 1971 1972 1973 1980 1981 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 21st century 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017

DECADES

1800s 1810s 1820s 1830s 1840s 1850s 1860s 1870s 1880s 1890s 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s

AGES

Classical Late Antiquity Middle

BC (BCE )

Centuries 35th BC 21st BC 20th BC 19th BC 18th BC 17th BC 16th BC 15th BC 14th BC 13th BC 12th BC 11th BC 10th BC 9th BC 8th BC 7th BC 6th BC 5th BC 4th BC 3rd BC 2nd BC 1st BC Ages Copper Bronze Iron Classical

* v * t * e

States with limited recognition

Details concerning international recognition and foreign relations provided by the articles linked in parenthesis

UN MEMBER STATES

PARTIALLY UNRECOGNISED

* Armenia
Armenia

* relations

* China
China

* relations

* Cyprus
Cyprus

* relations

* Israel
Israel

* recognition * relations

* North Korea
North Korea

* relations

* South Korea
South Korea

* relations

Non-UN member states

Recognised by at least one UN member

* Abkhazia
Abkhazia

* recognition * relations

* Kosovo
Kosovo

* recognition * relations

* Northern Cyprus
Cyprus

* relations

* Palestine

* recognition * relations

* Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
( Western Sahara
Western Sahara
)

* recognition * relations

* South Ossetia
South Ossetia

* recognition * relations

* Taiwan
Taiwan

* relations

Recognised only by non-UN members

* Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh

* recognition * relations

* Transnistria
Transnistria

* recognition * relations

UNRECOGNISED

* Somaliland
Somaliland

* relations

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