Sylt (known as List until 31 December 2008) is the
northernmost municipality in Germany, located on the
North Sea island
Sylt close to
Denmark in the district of
Nordfriesland in the state
10 Notable people
12 External links
List derived from the
Middle Low German
Middle Low German Liste (ledge, bar or
List was originally a Danish settlement. It was first mentioned in
1292 (Lystum). The original village was destroyed by the great flood
of 1364. The settlement was rebuilt further east from the previous
location. In the mid-15th century, a church named St. Jürgen was
mentioned. In a treaty of 1460,
Schleswig and Holstein were linked to
the Danish crown, but List remained part of the royal enclaves, small
areas of the Kingdom of
Denmark situated within the Duchy of
Schleswig, but directly controlled by the Danish king.
From the 16th century, the people of List mostly made a living from
Oyster farming, raising sheep and collecting and selling gull eggs. At
the time, List was an important protective anchorage. In 1644, a
Swedish-Dutch fleet of 26 ships commanded by Admiral Thijssen was
attacked in the Lister Tief and defeated by Danish ships commanded by
king Christian IV of Denmark. The anchorage north of today's town was
Königshafen to honour this event.:231
After the Danish-German war of 1864, List became part of Prussia. In
1908, List had 13 houses and 70 inhabitants.:231
The plebiscite of 1920 drew the border just north of List, with the
next island (Rømø) being returned to Denmark.
In World War I, List became a naval air base. The first fortifications
were constructed in 1914, followed by a hangar for naval planes. In
1927, a station of the
Deutsche Verkehrsfliegerschule opened in List.
This served both to train civilian pilots (for Lufthansa) as well as
providing training for military purposes, officially forbidden by the
Treaty of Versailles.
Much of today's town was built in the 1930s, when the Nazis expanded
their military installations and added housing for military
personnel. The current church of St. Jürgen was built. The
population increased from 449 in 1933 to 3,000 by 1939, excluding
After the end of World War II, the small town of List had to house
around 2,000 displaced Germans, including 15 families from Heligoland,
occupied by the British. The hangar was dismantled and transported to
Kiel, where it became the Ostseehalle. In 1955, the
established and the navy (Bundesmarine) returned to List.:231
More recently, the military presence was withdrawn from the area,
shifting the focus of List's economy more and more towards the tourist
industry. The Marineversorgungsschule (de) closed at the end
of 2006, ending the long period in which the military had been a major
influence and the town's largest employer.
List is the northernmost municipality of Germany, located at the
northern part of the island of Sylt. The village is surrounded by
dunes and heath, most of them protected nature reserves. To the north
of List is the "Ellenbogen", a peninsula in the shape of an elbow
(hence its name). To the west is the only shifting sand dune in
7/8ths of the area is private property owned by a group of 30
descendants of the original landowners, first mentioned in 1608.
List has the Ortsteile Klappholtal, Mellhörn, Möwenberg,
Süderheidertal and Westerheide.:230
Out of roughly 2,700 inhabitants, only around 1,600 are permanent
residents, the remainder being owners of holiday homes.
The economy is dominated by tourism. List has been a designated
Nordseebad since 1946. List is the location of the only commercial
oyster farm in Germany.:231
35 meter high Ferris wheel
The Erlebniszentrum Naturgewalten, opened in 2009, features an exhibit
on the powers of sea, wind and sand that have shaped the island as
well as on local flora and fauna.
In May 2017, a 35 meter high Ferris wheel was erected in the harbor
for the 725th anniversary of the municipality of List.
Until 2004, List was amtsfrei but since then has been part of the Amt
Landschaft Sylt, a collective administrative body. The
Bürgermeister (mayor) of List is Wolfgang Strenger.
There is a ferry from List to the Danish island of Rømø, active
since 1963. One single road leads south to the island's main town of
List was connected to the rest of
Sylt by the Sylter Nordbahn ( a
narrow gauge railway) from 1908 to 1970, when it was discontinued.
There are two lighthouses in the area, List West (de) and
Leuchtturm List Ost (de). These are the two northernmost
lighthouses in Germany.
List has two kindergarten: one German, one Danish.
List hosts a facility of the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and
Marine Research that studies the Wadden Sea.
Wolfgang von Gronau
Wolfgang von Gronau circumnavigated the globe in a
Dornier Do J
Dornier Do J in
1932, starting in List.
Jürgen Gosch (de) is the founder of a chain of restaurants that
originated in List.
^ "Statistikamt Nord – Bevölkerung der Gemeinden in
Schleswig-Holstein 4. Quartal 2016] (XLS-file)". Statistisches Amt
für Hamburg und
Schleswig-Holstein (in German).
^ Destatis: Gebietsänderungen von Januar bis September 2015,
retrieved 31 August 2015
^ a b c d e f g Kunz, Harry; Steensen, Thomas (2014). Taschenlexikon
Sylt (German). Wachholtz. ISBN 978-3-529-05525-6.
^ a b c d e f "Geschichtliches (German)". Kurverwaltung List.
Retrieved 30 April 2015.
^ a b c d e f g h "Die Gemeinde List (Sylt) (German)". Amt Landschaft
Sylt. Retrieved 30 April 2015.
^ "Erlebniszentrum (German)". Kurverwaltung List. Retrieved 30 April
^ "Ansprechpartner Gemeinde List(Sylt) (German)". Amt Landschaft Sylt.
Retrieved 30 April 2015.
^ "List West (German)". WSA Tönning. Retrieved 30 April 2015.
^ "List Ost(German)". WSA Tönning. Retrieved 30 April 2015.
Media related to List at Wikimedia Commons
Amt Landschaft Sylt
Website of the Kurverwaltung List (tourist board)
Towns and municipalities in Nordfriesland
Wyk auf Föhr