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Lisbon
Lisbon
(/ˈlɪzbən/; Portuguese: Lisboa [liʒˈbo.ɐ] (listen))[4] is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 505,526[1] within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2.[5] Lisbon's urban area extends beyond the city's administrative limits with a population of around 2.8 million people, being the 11th-most populous urban area in the European Union.[3] About 3 million people live in the Lisbon metropolitan area, including the Portuguese Riviera
Portuguese Riviera
(which represents approximately 27% of the country's population).[2] It is mainland Europe's westernmost capital city and the only one along the Atlantic coast. Lisbon
Lisbon
lies in the western Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
on the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
and the River Tagus. The westernmost portions of its metro area form the westernmost point of Continental Europe, which is known as Cabo da Roca, located in the Sintra
Sintra
Mountains. Lisbon
Lisbon
is recognised as an alpha-level global city because of its importance in finance, commerce, media, entertainment, arts, international trade, education and tourism.[6] Lisbon
Lisbon
is one of two Portuguese cities (alongside Porto) to be recognised as a global city.[7][8] It is one of the major economic centres on the continent, with a growing financial sector and one of the largest container ports on Europe's Atlantic coast.[9] Additionally, Humberto Delgado Airport served 29 million passengers in 2018, being the busiest airport in Portugal, the 3rd busiest in the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
and the 20th busiest in Europe.[10] The motorway network and the high-speed rail system of Alfa Pendular
Alfa Pendular
links the main cities of Portugal
Portugal
(such as Braga, Porto
Porto
and Coimbra) to Lisbon.[11] The city is the 9th-most-visited city in Southern Europe, after Rome, Istanbul, Barcelona, Milan, Venice, Madrid, Florence
Florence
and Athens, with 3,320,300 tourists in 2017.[12] The Lisbon region
Lisbon region
has a higher GDP PPP per capita than any other region in Portugal. Its GDP amounts to US$96.3 billion and thus $32,434 per capita.[13][14] The city occupies the 40th place of highest gross earnings in the world.[15] Most of the headquarters of multinational corporations in Portugal
Portugal
are located in the Lisbon
Lisbon
area.[16] It is also the political centre of the country, as its seat of government and residence of the head of state. Lisbon
Lisbon
is one of the oldest cities in the world, and the second-oldest European capital city (after Athens), predating other modern European capitals such as London, Paris, and Rome
Rome
by centuries. Julius Caesar made it a municipium called Felicitas Julia, adding to the name Olissipo. Ruled by a series of Germanic tribes from the 5th century, it was captured by the Moors
Moors
in the 8th century. In 1147, the Crusaders under Afonso Henriques
Afonso Henriques
reconquered the city and since then it has been the political, economic and cultural center of Portugal.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Origins 2.2 Roman era 2.3 Middle Ages 2.4 Early Modern 2.5 Modern era 2.6 Contemporary

3 Geography

3.1 Physical geography 3.2 Climate 3.3 Civil parishes 3.4 Neighborhoods

3.4.1 Alcântara 3.4.2 Alfama 3.4.3 Mouraria 3.4.4 Bairro
Bairro
Alto 3.4.5 Baixa 3.4.6 Belém 3.4.7 Chiado 3.4.8 Parque das Nações

4 Politics

4.1 Local election results 1976–2017

5 Culture 6 Demographics 7 Economy 8 Transport

8.1 Metro 8.2 Trams 8.3 Trains 8.4 Buses 8.5 Bridges and ferries 8.6 Air travel 8.7 Public transportation statistics

9 Education

9.1 International schools 9.2 Higher education 9.3 Libraries

10 Sports

10.1 Football 10.2 Other sports

11 International relations

11.1 Union of Luso-Afro-Americo-Asiatic Capital Cities 11.2 Union of Ibero-American Capital Cities 11.3 Cooperation agreements

12 See also 13 References 14 Bibliography 15 External links

Etymology[edit] One claim often repeated in non-academic literature is that the name of Lisbon
Lisbon
can be traced back to Phoenician times, referring to a supposedly Phoenician term Alis-Ubo, meaning "safe harbour".[17] Roman authors of the first century AD referred to popular legends that the city of Lisbon
Lisbon
was founded by the mythical hero Odysseus[18] on his journey home from Troy.[19] Although modern archaeological excavations show a Phoenician presence at this location since 1200 BC,[20] neither of these folk etymologies has any historical credibility. Lisbon's name origin may, in fact, have been derived from Proto-Celtic or Celtic Olisippo, Lissoppo, or a similar name which other visiting peoples like the Ancient Phoenicians, Greeks and Romans adapted accordingly. The name of the settlement may be derived from the pre-Roman appellation for the Tagus
Tagus
River, Lisso or Lucio. Lisbon's name was written Ulyssippo in Latin
Latin
by the geographer Pomponius Mela, a native of Hispania. It was later referred to as "Olisippo" by Pliny the Elder and by the Greeks as Olissipo
Olissipo
(Ὀλισσιπών) or Olissipona (Ὀλισσιπόνα).[21][22] Lisbon's name is commonly abbreviated as 'LX' or 'Lx', originating in an antiquated spelling of Lisbon
Lisbon
as ‘‘Lixbõa’’.[23] While the old spelling has since been completely dropped from usage and goes against modern language standards, the abbreviation is still commonly used.

History[edit] Main articles: History of Lisbon
History of Lisbon
and Timeline of Lisbon Origins[edit] Phoenician archaeological dig in a cloister of the Lisbon
Lisbon
Cathedral. During the Neolithic
Neolithic
period, the region was inhabited by Pre-Celtic tribes, who built religious and funerary monuments, megaliths, dolmens and menhirs, which still survive in areas on the periphery of Lisbon.[24] The Indo-European Celts invaded in the 1st millennium BC, mixing with the Pre-Indo-European population, thus giving rise to Celtic-speaking local tribes such as the Cempsi. Although the first fortifications on Lisbon's Castelo hill are known to be no older than the 2nd century BC, recent archaeological finds have shown that Iron Age
Iron Age
people occupied the site from the 8th to 6th centuries BC.[25][26][27] This indigenous settlement maintained commercial relations with the Phoenicians, which would account for the recent findings of Phoenician pottery and other material objects. Archaeological excavations made near the Castle of São Jorge (Castelo de São Jorge) and Lisbon Cathedral
Lisbon Cathedral
indicate a Phoenician presence at this location since 1200 BC,[20] and it can be stated with confidence that a Phoenician trading post stood on a site[28][29] now the centre of the present city, on the southern slope of Castle hill.[30] The sheltered harbour in the Tagus River
Tagus River
estuary was an ideal spot for an Iberian settlement and would have provided a secure harbour for unloading and provisioning Phoenician ships.[31] The Tagus
Tagus
settlement was an important centre of commercial trade with the inland tribes, providing an outlet for the valuable metals, salt and salted-fish they collected, and for the sale of the Lusitanian horses renowned in antiquity. According to legend, the location was named for the mythical Ulysses, who founded the settlement after he left Troy
Troy
to escape the Greek coalition.[32] Later, the Greek name appeared in Vulgar Latin in the form Olissipona.

Roman era[edit] Part of the Cerca Velha (Old Wall), originally built by Romans.[33] Following the defeat of Hannibal in 202 BC during the Punic wars, the Romans determined to deprive Carthage
Carthage
of its most valuable possession: Hispania
Hispania
(the Iberian Peninsula). The defeat of Carthaginian forces by Scipio Africanus
Scipio Africanus
in Eastern Hispania
Hispania
allowed the pacification of the west, led by Consul Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus. Decimus obtained the alliance of Olissipo
Olissipo
(which sent men to fight alongside the Roman Legions against the northwestern Celtic tribes) by integrating it into the empire, as the Municipium Cives Romanorum Felicitas Julia. Local authorities were granted self-rule over a territory that extended 50 kilometres (31 miles); exempt from taxes, its citizens were given the privileges of Roman citizenship, and it was then integrated with the Roman province of Lusitania
Lusitania
(whose capital was Emerita Augusta). Lusitanian raids and rebellions during Roman occupation required the construction of a wall around the settlement. During Augustus' reign, the Romans also built a great theatre; the Cassian Baths (underneath Rua da Prata); temples to Jupiter, Diana, Cybele, Tethys and Idea Phrygiae (an uncommon cult from Asia Minor), in addition to temples to the Emperor; a large necropolis under Praça da Figueira; a large forum and other buildings such as insulae (multi-storied apartment buildings) in the area between Castle Hill and the historic city core. Many of these ruins were first unearthed during the mid-18th century (when the recent discovery of Pompeii
Pompeii
made Roman archaeology fashionable among Europe's upper classes). The city prospered as piracy was eliminated and technological advances were introduced, consequently Felicitas Julia became a center of trade with the Roman provinces of Britannia (particularly Cornwall) and the Rhine. Economically strong, Olissipo
Olissipo
was known for its garum (a fish sauce highly prized by the elites of the empire and exported in amphorae to Rome), wine, salt, and horse-breeding, while Roman culture permeated the hinterland. The city was connected by a broad road to Western Hispania's two other large cities, Bracara Augusta
Bracara Augusta
in the province of Tarraconensis
Tarraconensis
(Portuguese Braga), and Emerita Augusta, the capital of Lusitania. The city was ruled by an oligarchical council dominated by two families, the Julii and the Cassiae, although regional authority was administered by the Roman Governor of Emerita or directly by Emperor Tiberius. Among the majority of Latin
Latin
speakers lived a large minority of Greek traders and slaves. Olissipo, like most great cities in the Western Empire, was a center for the dissemination of Christianity. Its first attested Bishop was Potamius (c. 356), and there were several martyrs during the period of persecution of the Christians: Verissimus, Maxima, and Julia are the most significant examples. By the time of the Fall of Rome, Olissipo had become a notable Christian center.

São Jorge Castle
São Jorge Castle
and the surrounding neighborhoods of Castelo, Mouraria, and Alfama. Middle Ages[edit] Following the disintegration of the Western Roman Empire there were barbarian invasions; between 409 and 429 the city was occupied successively by Sarmatians, Alans
Alans
and Vandals. The Germanic Suebi, who established a kingdom in Gallaecia
Gallaecia
(modern Galicia and northern Portugal), with its capital in Bracara Augusta, also controlled the region of Lisbon
Lisbon
until 585. In 585, the Suebi
Suebi
Kingdom was integrated into the Germanic Visigothic Kingdom of Toledo, which comprised all of the Iberian Peninsula: Lisbon
Lisbon
was then called Ulishbona.

.mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbinner display:flex;flex-direction:column .mw-parser-output .tmulti .trow display:flex;flex-direction:row;clear:left;flex-wrap:wrap;width:100%;box-sizing:border-box .mw-parser-output .tmulti .tsingle margin:1px;float:left .mw-parser-output .tmulti .theader clear:both;font-weight:bold;text-align:center;align-self:center;background-color:transparent;width:100% .mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbcaption text-align:left;background-color:transparent .mw-parser-output .tmulti .text-align-left text-align:left .mw-parser-output .tmulti .text-align-right text-align:right .mw-parser-output .tmulti .text-align-center text-align:center @media all and (max-width:720px) .mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbinner width:100%!important;box-sizing:border-box;max-width:none!important;align-items:center .mw-parser-output .tmulti .trow justify-content:center .mw-parser-output .tmulti .tsingle float:none!important;max-width:100%!important;box-sizing:border-box;text-align:center .mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbcaption text-align:center King Afonso Henriques conquered the city from the Almoravid Empire at the 1147 Siege of Lisbon. On 6 August 711, Lisbon
Lisbon
was taken by Muslim forces. These conquerors, who were mostly Berbers and Arabs
Arabs
from North Africa
North Africa
and the Middle East, built many mosques and houses, rebuilt the city wall (known as the Cerca Moura) and established administrative control, while permitting the diverse population (Muladi, Mozarabs, Berbers, Arabs, Jews, Zanj and Saqaliba) to maintain their socio-cultural lifestyles. Mozarabic
Mozarabic
was the native language spoken by most of the Christian population although Arabic was widely known as spoken by all religious communities. Islam was the official religion practised by the Arabs, Berbers, Zanj, Saqaliba
Saqaliba
and Muladi
Muladi
(muwalladun). The Muslim influence is still visible in the Alfama
Alfama
district, an old quarter of Lisbon
Lisbon
that survived the 1755 Lisbon
Lisbon
earthquake: many place-names are derived from Arabic and the Alfama
Alfama
(the oldest existing district of Lisbon) was derived from the Arabic "al-hamma". For a brief time Lisbon
Lisbon
was an independent Muslim kingdom known as the Taifa of Lisbon (1022-1094), before being conquered by the larger Taifa of Badajoz. In 1108 Lisbon
Lisbon
was raided and occupied by Norwegian crusaders led by Sigurd I on their way to the Holy Land
Holy Land
as part of the Norwegian Crusade and occupied by crusader forces for three years.[34] It was taken by the Moorish Almoravids
Almoravids
in 1111.

The 1384 Siege of Lisbon
Siege of Lisbon
in Froissart's Chronicles. In 1147, as part of the Reconquista, crusader knights led by Afonso I of Portugal
Portugal
besieged and conquered Lisbon. The city, with around 154,000 residents at the time, was returned to Christian rule. The reconquest of Portugal
Portugal
and re-establishment of Christianity
Christianity
is one of the most significant events in Lisbon's history, described in the chronicle Expugnatione Lyxbonensi, which describes, among other incidents, how the local bishop was killed by the crusaders and the city's residents prayed to the Virgin Mary
Virgin Mary
as it happened. Some of the Muslim residents converted to Roman Catholicism and most of those who did not convert fled to other parts of the Islamic world, primarily Muslim Spain
Muslim Spain
and North Africa. All mosques were either completely destroyed or converted into churches. As a result of the end of Muslim rule, spoken Arabic quickly lost its place in the everyday life of the city and disappeared altogether. With its central location, Lisbon
Lisbon
became the capital city of the new Portuguese territory in 1255. The first Portuguese university was founded in Lisbon
Lisbon
in 1290 by King Denis I; for many years the Studium Generale
Studium Generale
(General Study) was transferred intermittently to Coimbra, where it was installed permanently in the 16th century as the University of Coimbra. In 1384, the city was besieged by King Juan I of Castille, as a part of the ongoing 1383–1385 Crisis. The result of the siege was a victory for the Portuguese led by Nuno Álvares Pereira. During the last centuries of the Middle Ages, the city expanded substantially and became an important trading post with both Northern European and Mediterranean cities.

Early Modern[edit] The oldest known image of Lisbon
Lisbon
(1500–1510) from the Crónica de Dom Afonso Henriques
Afonso Henriques
by Duarte Galvão Most of the Portuguese expeditions of the Age of Discovery
Age of Discovery
left Lisbon during the period from the end of the 15th century to the beginning of the 17th century, including Vasco da Gama's expedition to India
India
in 1498. In 1506, 3,000 Jews
Jews
were massacred in Lisbon.[35] The 16th century was Lisbon's golden era: the city was the European hub of commerce between Africa, India, the Far East and later, Brazil, and acquired great riches by exploiting the trade in spices, slaves, sugar, textiles and other goods. This period saw the rise of the exuberant Manueline
Manueline
style in architecture, which left its mark in many 16th-century monuments (including Lisbon's Belém Tower
Belém Tower
and Jerónimos Monastery, which were declared UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Sites). A description of Lisbon
Lisbon
in the 16th century was written by Damião de Góis and published in 1554.[36]

King Manuel I ordered Jerónimos Monastery
Jerónimos Monastery
to be built in Belém, to serve Portuguese discoverers. Ribeira Palace
Ribeira Palace
and the Terreiro do Praço depicted in 1662 by Dirk Stoop. The succession crisis of 1580, initiated a sixty-year period of dual monarchy in Portugal
Portugal
and Spain
Spain
under the Spanish Habsburgs.[37][38] This is referred to as the "Philippine Dominion" (Domínio Filipino), since all three Spanish kings during that period were called Philip (Filipe). In 1589 Lisbon was the target of an incursion by the English Armada
English Armada
led by Francis Drake, while Queen Elizabeth supported a Portuguese pretender in Antonio, Prior of Crato, but support for Crato was lacking and the expedition was a failure. The Portuguese Restoration War, which began with a coup d'état organised by the nobility and bourgeoisie in Lisbon
Lisbon
and executed on 1 December 1640, restored Portuguese independence. The period from 1640 to 1668 was marked by periodic skirmishes between Portugal
Portugal
and Spain, as well as short episodes of more serious warfare until the Treaty of Lisbon
Treaty of Lisbon
was signed in 1668. In the early 18th century, gold from Brazil
Brazil
allowed King John V to sponsor the building of several Baroque
Baroque
churches and theatres in the city. Prior to the 18th century, Lisbon
Lisbon
had experienced several significant earthquakes – eight in the 14th century, five in the 16th century (including the 1531 earthquake that destroyed 1,500 houses and the 1597 earthquake in which three streets vanished), and three in the 17th century. On 1 November 1755, the city was destroyed by another devastating earthquake, which killed an estimated 30,000 to 40,000 Lisbon residents[39] of a population estimated at between 200,000 and 275,000,[40][41] and destroyed 85 percent of the city's structures.[42] Among several important buildings of the city, the Ribeira Palace
Ribeira Palace
and the Hospital Real de Todos os Santos were lost. In coastal areas, such as Peniche, situated about 80 km (50 mi) north of Lisbon, many people were killed by the following tsunami.

The 1755 Lisbon earthquake
1755 Lisbon earthquake
devastated Portugal
Portugal
with an estimated magnitude between 8.5–9.0. By 1755, Lisbon
Lisbon
was one of the largest cities in Europe; the catastrophic event shocked the whole of Europe
Europe
and left a deep impression on its collective psyche. Voltaire
Voltaire
wrote a long poem, Poême sur le désastre de Lisbonne, shortly after the quake, and mentioned it in his 1759 novel Candide
Candide
(indeed, many argue that this critique of optimism was inspired by that earthquake). Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. also mentions it in his 1857 poem, The Deacon's Masterpiece, or The Wonderful One-Hoss Shay. After the 1755 earthquake, the city was rebuilt largely according to the plans of Prime Minister Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, the 1st Marquis of Pombal; the lower town began to be known as the Baixa Pombalina (Pombaline central district). Instead of rebuilding the medieval town, Pombal decided to demolish what remained after the earthquake and rebuild the city centre in accordance with principles of modern urban design. It was reconstructed in an open rectangular plan with two great squares: the Praça do Rossio
Praça do Rossio
and the Praça do Comércio. The first, the central commercial district, is the traditional gathering place of the city and the location of the older cafés, theatres and restaurants; the second became the city's main access to the River Tagus
Tagus
and point of departure and arrival for seagoing vessels, adorned by a triumphal arch (1873) and monument to King Joseph I.

Modern era[edit] The Proclamation of the Portuguese Republic in 1910. In the first years of the 19th century, Portugal
Portugal
was invaded by the troops of Napoléon Bonaparte, forcing Queen Maria I and Prince-Regent John (future John VI) to flee temporarily to Brazil. By the time the new King returned to Lisbon, many of the buildings and properties were pillaged, sacked or destroyed by the invaders. During the 19th century, the Liberal movement introduced new changes into the urban landscape. The principal areas were in the Baixa
Baixa
and along the Chiado
Chiado
district, where shops, tobacconists shops, cafés, bookstores, clubs and theatres proliferated. The development of industry and commerce determined the growth of the city, seeing the transformation of the Passeio Público, a Pombaline era park, into the Avenida da Liberdade, as the city grew farther from the Tagus. Lisbon
Lisbon
was the site of the regicide of Carlos I of Portugal
Portugal
in 1908, an event which culminated two years later in the establishment of the First Republic.

The Palace of Ajuda
Palace of Ajuda
was built as a residence for the King of Portugal
Portugal
following the 1755 Lisbon
Lisbon
Earthquake. Queen Maria II National Theatre was built in 1842. The city refounded its university in 1911 after centuries of inactivity in Lisbon, incorporating reformed former colleges and other non-university higher education schools of the city (such as the Escola Politécnica – now Faculdade de Ciências). Today there are two public universities in the city ( University of Lisbon
University of Lisbon
and New University of Lisbon), a public university institute (ISCTE - Lisbon University Institute) and a polytechnic institute (IPL – Instituto Politécnico de Lisboa). During World War II, Lisbon
Lisbon
was one of the very few neutral, open European Atlantic ports, a major gateway for refugees to the U.S. and a haven for spies. More than 100,000 refugees were able to flee Nazi Germany
Germany
via Lisbon.[43] During the Estado Novo regime (1926–1974), Lisbon
Lisbon
was expanded at the cost of other districts within the country, resulting in nationalist and monumental projects. New residential and public developments were constructed; the zone of Belém was modified for the 1940 Portuguese Exhibition, while along the periphery new districts appeared to house the growing population. The inauguration of the bridge over the Tagus
Tagus
allowed rapid connection between both sides of the river. Lisbon
Lisbon
was the site of three revolutions in the 20th century. The first, the 5 October 1910 revolution, brought an end to the Portuguese monarchy and established the highly unstable and corrupt Portuguese First Republic. The 6 June 1926 revolution would see the end of that first republic and firmly establish the Estado Novo, or the Portuguese Second Republic, as the ruling regime.

Contemporary[edit] The Treaty of Lisbon, which forms the constitutional basis of the European Union, was signed at the Jerónimos Monastery
Jerónimos Monastery
in 2007. The Carnation Revolution, which took place on 25 April 1974, ended the right-wing Estado Novo regime and reformed the country to become as it is today, the Portuguese Third Republic. In the 1990s, many of the districts were renovated and projects in the historic quarters were established to modernise those areas, for instance, architectural and patrimonial buildings were renovated, the northern margin of the Tagus
Tagus
was re-purposed for leisure and residential use, the Vasco da Gama Bridge
Vasco da Gama Bridge
was constructed and the eastern part of the municipality was re-purposed for Expo '98
Expo '98
to commemorate the 500th anniversary of Vasco da Gama's sea voyage to India, a voyage that would bring immense riches to Lisbon
Lisbon
and cause many of Lisbon's landmarks to be built. In 1988, a fire in the historical district of Chiado
Chiado
saw the destruction of many 18th-century Pombaline style
Pombaline style
buildings. A series of restoration works has brought the area back to its former self and made it a high-scale shopping district. The Lisbon Agenda
Lisbon Agenda
was a European Union
European Union
agreement on measures to revitalise the EU economy, signed in Lisbon
Lisbon
in March 2000. In October 2007 Lisbon
Lisbon
hosted the 2007 EU Summit, where an agreement was reached regarding a new EU governance model. The resulting Treaty of Lisbon was signed on 13 December 2007 and came into force on 1 December 2009. Lisbon
Lisbon
has been the site for many international events and programmes. In 1994, Lisbon
Lisbon
was the European Capital of Culture. On 3 November 2005, Lisbon
Lisbon
hosted the MTV European Music Awards. On 7 July 2007, Lisbon
Lisbon
held the ceremony of the "New 7 Wonders Of The World"[44] election, in the Luz Stadium, with live transmission for millions of people all over the world. Every two years, Lisbon
Lisbon
hosts the Rock in Rio Lisboa Music Festival, one of the largest in the world. Lisbon
Lisbon
hosted the NATO summit (19–20 November 2010), a summit meeting that is regarded as a periodic opportunity for Heads of State and Heads of Government of NATO member states
NATO member states
to evaluate and provide strategic direction for Alliance activities.[45] The city hosts the Web Summit
Web Summit
and is the head office for the Group of Seven Plus (G7+). In 2018 it hosted the Eurovision Song Contest for the first time as well as the Michelin Gala.[46]

Geography[edit] Physical geography[edit] View of the Lisbon
Lisbon
metropolitan area, with the Portuguese Riviera and the Tagus
Tagus
River. Lisbon
Lisbon
is located at 38°42′49.75″N 9°8′21.79″W / 38.7138194°N 9.1393861°W / 38.7138194; -9.1393861, situated at the mouth of the Tagus River
Tagus River
and is the westernmost capital of a mainland European country. The westernmost part of Lisbon
Lisbon
is occupied by the Parque Florestal de Monsanto (English: Monsanto Forest Park), a 10 km2 (4 sq mi) urban park, one of the largest in Europe, and occupying 10% of the municipality. The city occupies an area of 100.05 km2 (39 sq mi), and its city boundaries, unlike those of most major cities, coincide with those of the municipality.[47] The rest of the urbanised area of the Lisbon
Lisbon
metropolitan area, known generically as Greater Lisbon (Portuguese: Grande Lisboa), extends to the city of Setúbal
Setúbal
and includes several administratively defined cities and municipalities, such as Amadora, Queluz, Agualva-Cacém, Odivelas, Loures, Sacavém, Almada, Barreiro, Seixal and Oeiras.

Climate[edit] Main article: Climate of Lisbon Lisbon
Lisbon
has a Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
(Köppen: Csa)[48] with mild, rainy winters and warm to hot, dry summers. The average annual temperature is 17.4 °C (63.3 °F), 21.3 °C (70.3 °F) during the day and 13.5 °C (56.3 °F) at night. In the coldest month – January – the highest temperature during the day typically ranges from 10 to 18 °C (50 to 64 °F), the lowest temperature at night ranges from 3 to 13 °C (37 to 55 °F) and the average sea temperature is 15 °C (59 °F).[49] In the warmest month – August – the highest temperature during the day typically ranges from 25 to 32 °C (77 to 90 °F), the lowest temperature at night ranges from 14 to 20 °C (57 to 68 °F) and the average sea temperature is 20 °C (68 °F).[49] Among European cities with a population above 500,000, Lisbon
Lisbon
ranks among those with the warmest winters (below Valencia
Valencia
or Málaga) and the mildest night time temperatures, with an average of 8.3 °C (46.9 °F) in the coldest month, and 18.6 °C (65.5 °F) in the warmest month. The minimum temperature recorded in Lisbon
Lisbon
was −1.2 °C (30 °F) in February 1956 and −1 °C (30 °F) in January 1985. The maximum temperature recorded in Lisbon
Lisbon
was 44.0 °C (111.2 °F) on 4 August 2018.[50] Sunshine hours are 2,806 per year, from an average of 4.6 hours of sunshine duration per day in December to an average of 11.4 hours of sunshine duration per day in July.[51] The annual average rainfall is 774 mm (30.5 in), being November the wettest month.

Climate data for Lisbon
Lisbon
(altitude: 77 m.a.s.l., ~1km from sea, location on map)

Month

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Year

Average high °C (°F)

14.8(58.6)

16.2(61.2)

18.8(65.8)

19.8(67.6)

22.1(71.8)

25.7(78.3)

27.9(82.2)

28.3(82.9)

26.5(79.7)

22.5(72.5)

18.2(64.8)

15.3(59.5)

21.3(70.4)

Daily mean °C (°F)

11.6(52.9)

12.7(54.9)

14.9(58.8)

15.9(60.6)

18.0(64.4)

21.2(70.2)

23.1(73.6)

23.5(74.3)

22.1(71.8)

18.8(65.8)

15.0(59.0)

12.4(54.3)

17.4(63.4)

Average low °C (°F)

8.3(46.9)

9.1(48.4)

11.0(51.8)

11.9(53.4)

13.9(57.0)

16.6(61.9)

18.2(64.8)

18.6(65.5)

17.6(63.7)

15.1(59.2)

11.8(53.2)

9.4(48.9)

13.5(56.2)

Average rainfall mm (inches)

99.9(3.93)

84.9(3.34)

53.2(2.09)

68.1(2.68)

53.6(2.11)

15.9(0.63)

4.2(0.17)

6.2(0.24)

32.9(1.30)

100.8(3.97)

127.6(5.02)

126.7(4.99)

774(30.5)

Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm)

15.0

15.0

13.0

12.0

8.0

5.0

2.0

2.0

6.0

11.0

14.0

14.0

117.0

Mean monthly sunshine hours

142.6

156.6

207.7

234.0

291.4

303.0

353.4

344.1

261.0

213.9

156.0

142.6

2,806.3

Source: Instituto de Meteorologia,[52] Hong Kong Observatory[53] for data of avg. precipitation days & sunshine hours

Civil parishes[edit] The municipality of Lisbon
Lisbon
included 53 freguesias (civil parishes) until November 2012. A new law ("Lei n.º 56/2012") reduced the number of freguesias to the following 24:[54]

Ajuda Alcântara Alvalade Areeiro Arroios Avenidas Novas Beato Belém Benfica Campo de Ourique Campolide Carnide Estrela Lumiar Marvila Misericórdia Olivais Parque das Nações Penha de França Santa Clara Santa Maria Maior Santo António São Domingos de Benfica São Vicente

Neighborhoods[edit] Locally, Lisbon's inhabitants may commonly refer to the spaces of Lisbon
Lisbon
in terms of historic Bairros de Lisboa (neighbourhoods). These communities have no clearly defined boundaries and represent distinctive quarters of the city that have in common a historical culture, similar living standards, and identifiable architectural landmarks, as exemplified by the Bairro
Bairro
Alto, Alfama, Chiado, and so forth.

Alcântara[edit] Alcântara from the Port of Lisbon. Main article: Alcântara Although today it is quite central, it was once a mere suburb of Lisbon, comprising mostly farms and country estates of the nobility with their palaces. In the 16th century, there was a brook there which the nobles used to promenade in their boats. During the late 19th century, Alcântara became a popular industrial area, with lots of small factories and warehouses. In the early 1990s, Alcântara began to attract youth because of the number of pubs and discothèques. This was mainly due to its outer area of mostly commercial buildings, which acted as barriers to the noise-generating nightlife (which acted as a buffer to the residential communities surrounding it). In the meantime, some of these areas began to become gentrified, attracting loft developments and new flats, which have profited from its river views and central location. The riverfront of Alcântara is known for its nightclubs and bars. The area is commonly known as docas (docks), since most of the clubs and bars are housed in converted dock warehouses.

Alfama[edit] Main article: Alfama Alfama, with the churches of S. Vicente de Fora, S. Engrácia, and S. Estêvão, and the Tagus
Tagus
river behind. The oldest district of Lisbon, it spreads down the southern slope from the Castle of São Jorge to the River Tagus. Its name, derived from the Arabic Al-hamma, means fountains or baths. During the Islamic invasion of Iberia, the Alfama
Alfama
constituted the largest part of the city, extending west to the Baixa
Baixa
neighbourhood. Increasingly, the Alfama
Alfama
became inhabited by fishermen and the poor: its fame as a poor neighbourhood continues to this day. While the 1755 Lisbon
Lisbon
earthquake caused considerable damage throughout the capital, the Alfama
Alfama
survived with little damage, thanks to its compact labyrinth of narrow streets and small squares. It is a historical quarter of mixed-use buildings occupied by Fado
Fado
bars, restaurants, and homes with small shops downstairs. Modernising trends have invigorated the district: old houses have been re-purposed or remodeled, while new buildings have been constructed. Fado, the typically Portuguese style of melancholy music, is common (but not obligatory) in the restaurants of the district.

Mouraria[edit] The Mouraria, or Moorish quarter, is one of the most traditional neighborhoods of Lisbon,[55] although most of its old buildings were demolished by the Estado Novo between the 1930s and the 1970s.[56] It takes its name from the fact that after the reconquest of Lisbon, the Muslims who remained were confined to this part of the city.[57] In turn, the Jews
Jews
were confined to three neighbourhoods called "Judiarias"[58]

Bairro
Bairro
Alto[edit] Main article: Bairro
Bairro
Alto Duke of Cadaval Square, bordering Bairro
Bairro
Alto and the Baixa Pombalina. Bairro
Bairro
Alto (literally the upper quarter in Portuguese) is an area of central Lisbon
Lisbon
that functions as a residential, shopping and entertainment district; it is the center of the Portuguese capital's nightlife, attracting hipster youth and members of various music subcultures. Lisbon's Punk, Gay, Metal, Goth, Hip Hop and Reggae scenes all find a home in the Bairro
Bairro
with its many clubs and bars that cater to them. The crowds in the Bairro
Bairro
Alto are a multicultural mix of people representing a broad cross-section of modern Portuguese society, many of them being entertainment seekers and devotees of various music genres outside the mainstream, Fado, Portugal's national music, still survives in the midst of the new nightlife.

Baixa[edit] Main article: Baixa
Baixa
Pombalina The heart of the city is the Baixa
Baixa
or city centre; the Pombaline Baixa is an elegant district, primarily constructed after the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, taking its name from its benefactor, Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, 1st Marquis of Pombal, who was the minister of Joseph I of Portugal
Portugal
(1750–1777) and a key figure during the Portuguese Enlightenment. Following the 1755 disaster, Pombal took the lead in rebuilding Lisbon, imposing strict conditions and guidelines on the construction of the city, and transforming the organic street plan that characterised the district before the earthquake into its current grid pattern. As a result, the Pombaline Baixa
Baixa
is one of the first examples of earthquake-resistant construction. Architectural models were tested by having troops march around them to simulate an earthquake. Notable features of Pombaline structures include the Pombaline cage, a symmetrical wood-lattice framework aimed at distributing earthquake forces, and inter-terrace walls that were built higher than roof timbers to inhibit the spread of fires.

Praça do Comércio, with the Rua Augusta Arch, in the Lisbon
Lisbon
Baixa. Belém[edit] Main article: Belém Belém is famous as the place from which many of the great Portuguese explorers set off on their voyages of discovery. In particular, it is the place from which Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama
departed for India
India
in 1497 and Pedro Álvares Cabral departed for Brazil
Brazil
in 1499. It is also a former royal residence and features the 17th – 18th-century Belém Palace, a former royal residence now occupied by the President of Portugal, and the Ajuda
Ajuda
Palace, begun in 1802 but never completed. Perhaps Belém's most famous feature is its tower, Torre de Belém, whose image is much used by Lisbon's tourist board. The tower was built as a fortified lighthouse late in the reign of Dom Manuel l (1515–1520) to guard the entrance to the port. It stood on a little island in right side of the Tagus, surrounded by water. Belém's other major historical building is the Mosteiro dos Jerónimos (Jerónimos Monastery), which the Torre de Belém was built partly to defend. Belém's most notable modern feature is the Padrão dos Descobrimentos (Monument to the Discoveries) built for the Portuguese World Fair in 1940. In the heart of Belém is the Praça do Império: gardens centred upon a large fountain, laid out during World War II. To the west of the gardens lies the Centro Cultural de Belém. Belém is one of the most visited Lisbon
Lisbon
districts. Here is located the Estádio do Restelo, house of Belenenses.

View of Jerónimos Monastery
Jerónimos Monastery
and Praça do Império
Praça do Império
(Empire Square) from the top of the Padrão dos Descobrimentos
Padrão dos Descobrimentos
in Belém. Chiado[edit] Main article: Chiado Monument to Luís de Camões, considered the greatest poet of the Portuguese language, in Chiado. The Chiado
Chiado
is a traditional shopping area that mixes old and modern commercial establishments, concentrated specially in the Rua do Carmo and the Rua Garrett. Locals as well as tourists visit the Chiado
Chiado
to buy books, clothing and pottery as well as to have a cup of coffee. The most famous café of Chiado
Chiado
is A Brasileira, famous for having had poet Fernando Pessoa
Fernando Pessoa
among its customers. The Chiado
Chiado
is also an important cultural area, with several museums and theatres, including the opera. Several buildings of the Chiado
Chiado
were destroyed in a fire in 1988, an event that deeply shocked the country. Thanks to a renovation project that lasted more than 10 years, coordinated by celebrated architect Siza Vieira, the affected area has now virtually recovered. The ornate, late 18th-century Estrela Basilica
Estrela Basilica
is the main attraction of this district. The church with its large dome is located on a hill in what was at the time the western part of Lisbon
Lisbon
and can be seen from great distances. The style is similar to that of the Mafra National Palace, late baroque and neoclassical. The façade has twin bell towers and includes statues of saints and some allegorical figures. São Bento Palace, the seat of the Portuguese parliament and the official residences of the Prime Minister of Portugal
Portugal
and the President of the Assembly of the Republic of Portugal, are in this district. Also in this district is Estrela Park, a favorite with families. There are exotic plants and trees, a duck pond, various sculptures, a children's playground, and many cultural events going on through the year, including outdoor cinema, markets, and music festivals.

Parque das Nações[edit] Main article: Parque das Nações The Parque das Nações
Parque das Nações
district was initially built for the Lisbon World Expo. Parque das Nações
Parque das Nações
(Park of Nations) is the newest district in Lisbon; it emerged from an urban renewal program to host the 1998 World Exhibition of Lisbon, also known as Expo'98. The area suffered massive changes giving Parque das Nações
Parque das Nações
a futuristic look. A long lasting legacy of the same, the area has become another commercial and higher-end residential area for the city. Central in the area is the Gare do Oriente
Gare do Oriente
(Orient railway station), one of the main transport hubs of Lisbon
Lisbon
for trains, buses, taxis, and the metro. Its glass and steel columns are inspired by Gothic architecture, lending the whole structure a visual fascination (especially in sunlight or when illuminated at night). It was designed by the architect Santiago Calatrava
Santiago Calatrava
from Valencia, Spain. The Parque das Nações is across the street. The area is pedestrian-friendly with new buildings, restaurants, gardens, the Casino Lisbon, the FIL building (International Exhibition and Fair), the Camões Theatre and the Oceanário de Lisboa (Lisbon Oceanarium), which is the second largest in the world. The district's Altice Arena
Altice Arena
has become Lisbon's "jack-of-all-trades" performance arena. Seating 20,000, it has staged events from concerts to basketball tournaments.

Politics[edit] Lisbon
Lisbon
City Hall, ceremonial seat of the Lisbon's municipal government. See also: List of mayors of Lisbon and Lisbon
Lisbon
politics (in German) Fernando Medina is the current and 77th Mayor of Lisbon.

Local election results 1976–2017[edit]

Summary of local elections for Lisbon
Lisbon
city hall, 1976–2017

Election year

PCP

PS

PSD

CDS

PPM

UDP

APU

AD

CDU

BE

CR

HR

PAN

Oth

Inv

Turnout

1976

20.7

35.5

15.2

19.0

0.4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

6.5

2.6

66.5

1979

-

23.4

-

-

-

2.2

25.1

46.7

-

-

-

-

-

0.7

2.0

75.6

1982

-

27.0

-

-

-

0.8

26.7

41.3

-

-

-

-

-

1.4

2.9

72.2

1985

-

18.0

44.8

-

5.1

1.5

27.5

-

-

-

-

-

-

0.7

2.5

58.7

1989

-

49.1

42.1

-

-

-

w.PS

-

-

-

-

5.2

3.7

54.8

1993

-

56.7

26.4

7.8

-

-

-

-

w.PS

-

-

-

-

5.8

3.5

53.5

1997

-

51.9

39.3

-

-

-

-

w.PS

-

-

-

-

4.5

4.3

48.3

2001

-

41.7

42.0

7.6

w.PSD

-

-

-

w.PS

3.8

-

-

-

1.8

3.1

55.0

2005

-

26.6

42.4

5.9

-

-

-

-

11.4

7.9

-

-

-

1.5

4.4

52.7

2007

-

29.5

15.7

3.7

0.4

-

-

-

9.5

6.8

16.7

10.2

-

3.9

3.9

37.4

2009

-

44.0

38.7

-

-

-

8.1

4.6

-

-

-

2.1

2.6

53.4

2013

-

50.9

22.4

1.2

-

-

-

9.9

4.6

-

-

2.3

1.8

6.9

45.1

2017

-

42.0

11.2

20.6

-

-

-

9.6

7.1

-

-

3.0

2.3

4.2

51.2

Source: Comissão Nacional de Eleições

Culture[edit] See also: Tourism in Lisbon The National Coach Museum
National Coach Museum
has the largest collection of royal carriages in the world and is one of Lisbon's most visited institutions The city of Lisbon
Lisbon
is rich in architecture; Romanesque, Gothic, Manueline, Baroque, Modern and Postmodern
Postmodern
constructions can be found all over Lisbon. The city is also crossed by historical boulevards and monuments along the main thoroughfares, particularly in the upper districts; notable among these are the Avenida da Liberdade
Avenida da Liberdade
(Avenue of Liberty), Avenida Fontes Pereira de Melo, Avenida Almirante Reis and Avenida da República (Avenue of the Republic). Lisbon
Lisbon
is home to numerous prominent museums and art collections, from all around the world. The National Museum of Ancient Art, which has one of the largest art collections in the world, and the National Coach Museum, which has the world's largest collection of royal coaches and carriages, are the two most visited museums in the city. Other notable national museums include the National Museum of Archaeology, the Museum of Lisbon, the National Azulejo Museum, the National Museum of Contemporary Art, and the [[National Museum of Natural History and Science, LisbonNational Museum of Natural History &

The National Museum of Ancient Art
National Museum of Ancient Art
has one of the largest art collections in the world The Belém Tower, one of the most famous and visited landmarks in Lisbon
Lisbon
and throughout Portugal. Prominent private museums and galleries include the Gulbenkian Museum (run by the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, one of the wealthiest foundations in the world), which houses one of the largest private collections of antiquaries and art in the world, the Berardo Collection Museum, which houses the private collection of Portuguese billionaire Joe Berardo, the Museum of Art, Architecture and Technology, and the Museum of the Orient. Other popular museums include the Electricity Museum, the Ephemeral Museum, the Museu da Água, and the Museu Benfica, among many others. Lisbon's Opera House, the Teatro Nacional de São Carlos, hosts a relatively active cultural agenda, mainly in autumn and winter. Other important theatres and musical houses are the Centro Cultural de Belém, the Teatro Nacional D. Maria II, the Gulbenkian Foundation, and the Teatro Camões. The monument to Christ the King (Cristo-Rei) stands on the southern bank of the Tagus
Tagus
River, in Almada. With open arms, overlooking the whole city, it resembles the Corcovado monument in Rio de Janeiro, and was built after World War II, as a memorial of thanksgiving for Portugal's being spared the horrors and destruction of the war. 13 June is Lisbon´s holiday in honour of the city's saint, Anthony of Lisbon
Lisbon
(Portuguese: Santo António). Saint Anthony, also known as Saint Anthony of Padua, was a wealthy Portuguese bohemian who was canonised and made Doctor of the Church
Doctor of the Church
after a life preaching to the poor. Although Lisbon’s patron saint is Saint Vincent of Saragossa, whose remains are housed in the Sé Cathedral, there are no festivities associated with this saint. Eduardo VII Park, the second largest park in the city following the Parque Florestal de Monsanto (Monsanto Forest Park), extends down the main avenue (Avenida da Liberdade), with many flowering plants and greenspaces, that includes the permanent collection of subtropical and tropical plants in the winter garden (Portuguese: Estufa Fria). Originally named Parque da Liberdade, it was renamed in honour of Edward VII of England
Edward VII of England
who visited Lisbon
Lisbon
in 1903.

Rossio Square, with Queen Maria II National Theatre in the background Lisbon
Lisbon
is home every year to the Lisbon
Lisbon
Gay & Lesbian Film Festival,[59] the Lisboarte, the DocLisboa – Lisbon International Documentary Film Festival,[60] the Festival Internacional de Máscaras e Comediantes, the Lisboa Mágica – Street Magic World Festival, the Monstra – Animated Film Festival, the Lisbon
Lisbon
Book Fair,[61] the Peixe em Lisboa – Lisbon
Lisbon
Fish and Flavours,[62] and many others. Lisbon
Lisbon
has two sites listed by UNESCO
UNESCO
as a World Heritage Site: Belém Tower and Jerónimos Monastery. Furthermore, in 1994, Lisbon
Lisbon
was the European Capital of Culture
European Capital of Culture
and, in 1998, organised the Expo '98
Expo '98
(1998 Lisbon
Lisbon
World Exposition). Lisbon
Lisbon
is also home to the Lisbon
Lisbon
Architecture Triennial,[63] the Moda Lisboa (Fashion Lisbon),[64] ExperimentaDesign – Biennial of Design[65] and LuzBoa – Biennial of Light.[66] In addition, the mosaic Portuguese pavement
Portuguese pavement
(Calçada Portuguesa) was born in Lisbon, in the mid-1800s. The art has since spread to the rest of the Portuguese Speaking world. The city remains one of the most expansive examples of the technique, nearly all walkways and even many streets being created and maintained in this style. In May 2018, the city hosted the 63rd edition of the Eurovision Song Contest, after the victory of Salvador Sobral
Salvador Sobral
with the song "Amar pelos dois" in Kiev
Kiev
on 13 May 2017.

Demographics[edit] The historical population of the city was around 35,000 in 1300 AD. Up to 60,000 in 1400 AD, and rising to 70,000 in 1500 AD. Between 1528–1590 the population went from 70,000 to 120,000. The population was about 150,000 in 1600 AD, and almost 200,000 in 1700 AD.[67][68][69] The Lisbon metropolitan area
Lisbon metropolitan area
incorporates two NUTS III
NUTS III
(European statistical subdivisions): Grande Lisboa
Grande Lisboa
(Greater Lisbon), along the northern bank of the Tagus
Tagus
River, and Península de Setúbal
Setúbal
(Setúbal Peninsula), along the southern bank. These two subdivisions make for the Região de Lisboa
Região de Lisboa
( Lisbon
Lisbon
Region). The population density of the city itself is 6,458 inhabitants per square kilometre (16,730/sq mi). Lisbon
Lisbon
has 552,700[70] inhabitants within the administrative center on the area of only 100.05 km2[5] Administratively defined cities that exist in the vicinity of the capital are in fact part of the metropolitan perimeter of Lisbon. The urban area has a population of 2,666,000 inhabitants, being the eleventh largest urban area in the European Union
European Union
after Paris, London, Ruhr area, Madrid, Milan, Barcelona, Berlin, Rome, Naples and Athens.[3] The whole metropolis of Lisbon
Lisbon
(metropolitan area) has about 3 million inhabitants. According to official government data, the Lisbon metropolitan area has 3,121,876 inhabitants.[2] Other sources also show a similar number, according to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development – 2,797,612 inhabitants;[71] according to the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations
United Nations
– 2,890,000;[72] according to the European Statistical Office Eurostat
Eurostat
– 2,839,908;[73] according to the Brookings Institution
Brookings Institution
has 2,968,600 inhabitants.[74]

Demographic evolution of Lisbon
Lisbon
administrative center

43

900

1552

1598

1720

1755

1756

1801

1849

1900

1930

1960

1981

1991

2001

2011

30,000

100,000

100,000

150,000

185,000

180,000

165,000

203,999

174,668

350,919

591,939

801,155

807,937

663,394

564,657

545,245

Economy[edit] Avenida da Liberdade
Avenida da Liberdade
is one of the most expensive shopping streets in Europe
Europe
and famous as a popular destination for luxury goods shopping. The Lisbon region
Lisbon region
is the wealthiest region in Portugal
Portugal
and it is well above the European Union's GDP per capita
GDP per capita
average – it produces 45% of the Portuguese GDP. Lisbon's economy is based primarily on the tertiary sector. Most of the headquarters of multinationals operating in Portugal
Portugal
are concentrated in the Grande Lisboa
Grande Lisboa
Subregion, specially in the Oeiras municipality. The Lisbon metropolitan area
Lisbon metropolitan area
is heavily industrialized, especially the south bank of the Tagus
Tagus
river (Rio Tejo). The Lisbon region
Lisbon region
is rapidly growing, with GDP (PPP) per capita calculated for each year as follows: €22,745 (2004)[75] – €23,816 (2005)[76] – €25,200 (2006)[77] – €26,100 (2007).[78] The Lisbon metropolitan area
Lisbon metropolitan area
had a GDP amounting to $96.3 billion, and $32,434 per capita.[79]

Lisbon
Lisbon
is the home of Web Summit, the largest tech event in the world. The Port of Lisbon
Port of Lisbon
is one of the busiest ports in Europe.[80] The country's chief seaport, featuring one of the largest and most sophisticated regional markets on the Iberian Peninsula, Lisbon
Lisbon
and its heavily populated surroundings are also developing as an important financial centre and a dynamic technological hub. Automobile manufacturers have erected factories in the suburbs, for example, AutoEuropa. Lisbon
Lisbon
has the largest and most developed mass media sector of Portugal, and is home to several related companies ranging from leading television networks and radio stations to major newspapers. The Euronext Lisbon
Euronext Lisbon
stock exchange, part of the pan-European Euronext system together with the stock exchanges of Amsterdam, Brussels
Brussels
and Paris, is tied with the New York Stock Exchange
New York Stock Exchange
since 2007, forming the multinational NYSE Euronext
Euronext
group of stock exchanges. Lisbonite industry has very large sectors in oil, as refineries are found just across the Tagus, textile mills, shipyards and fishing. Before Portugal's sovereign debt crisis and an EU-IMF rescue plan, for the decade of 2010 Lisbon
Lisbon
was expecting to receive many state funded investments, including building a new airport, a new bridge, an expansion of 30 km (18.64 mi) underground, the construction of a mega-hospital (or central hospital), the creation of two lines of a TGV
TGV
to join Madrid, Porto, Vigo
Vigo
and the rest of Europe, the restoration of the main part of the town (between the Marquês de Pombal roundabout and Terreiro do Paço), the creation of a large number of bike lanes, as well as modernization and renovation of various facilities.[81] Lisbon
Lisbon
was the 18th most "livable city" in the world in 2015 according to lifestyle magazine Monocle.[82]

Transport[edit] Metro[edit] The Lisbon Metro
Lisbon Metro
is Portugal's oldest and largest subway system. Main article: Lisbon
Lisbon
Metro The Lisbon Metro
Lisbon Metro
connects the city centre with the upper and eastern districts, and also reaches some suburbs that are part of the Lisbon metropolitan area, such as Amadora
Amadora
and Loures. It is the fastest way to get around the city and it provides a good number of interchanging stations with other types of transportation. From the Lisbon
Lisbon
Airport station to the city centre it may take roughly 25 mins. As of 2018, the Lisbon Metro
Lisbon Metro
comprises four lines, identified by individual colours (blue, yellow, green and red) and 56 stations, with a total length of 44.2 km. Several expansion projects have been proposed, being the most recent the transformation of the Green Line into a circular line and the creation of two more stations (Santos and Estrela).

Trams[edit] A Lisbon
Lisbon
tram by Lisbon Cathedral
Lisbon Cathedral
and Santo António Church. Main article: Trams in Lisbon A traditional form of public transport in Lisbon
Lisbon
is the tram. Introduced in 1901, electric trams were originally imported from the US,[83] and called the americanos. The earliest trams can still be seen in the Museu da Carris
Carris
(the Public Transport Museum). Other than on the modern Line 15, the Lisbon
Lisbon
tramway system still employs small (four wheel) vehicles of a design dating from the early twentieth century. These distinctive yellow trams are one of the tourist icons of modern Lisbon, and their size is well suited to the steep hills and narrow streets of the central city.[84][85]

Trains[edit] Gare do Oriente
Gare do Oriente
train station, designed by Santiago
Santiago
Calatrava. There are four commuter train lines departing from Lisbon: the Cascais, Sintra
Sintra
and Azambuja
Azambuja
lines (operated by CP – Comboios de Portugal), as well as a fourth line to Setúbal
Setúbal
(operated by Fertagus), which crosses the Tagus
Tagus
river via the 25 de Abril Bridge. The major railway stations are Santa Apolónia, Rossio, Gare do Oriente, Entrecampos, and Cais do Sodré.

Buses[edit] The local bus service within Lisbon
Lisbon
is operated by Carris. There are other commuter bus services from the city (connecting cities outside Lisbon, and connecting these cities to Lisbon): Vimeca,[86] Rodoviária de Lisboa,[87] Transportes Sul do Tejo,[88] Boa Viagem,[89] Barraqueiro[90] are the main ones, operating from different terminals in the city. Lisbon
Lisbon
is connected to its suburbs and throughout Portugal
Portugal
by an extensive motorway network. There are three circular motorways around the city; the 2ª Circular, the IC17 (CRIL), and the A9 (CREL).

Bridges and ferries[edit] The 25 de Abril Bridge
25 de Abril Bridge
crosses the Tagus River
Tagus River
from Alcântara to Almada. The city is connected to the far side of the Tagus
Tagus
by two important bridges:

The 25 de Abril Bridge, inaugurated (as Ponte Salazar) on 6 August 1966, and later renamed after the date of the Carnation Revolution, was the longest suspension bridge in Europe.[91] The Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama
Bridge, inaugurated in May 1998 is, at 17.2 km (10.7 mi), the longest bridge in Europe.[92] The foundations for a third bridge across the Tagus
Tagus
have already been laid, but the overall project has been postponed due to the economic crisis in Portugal
Portugal
and all of Europe. Another way of crossing the river is by taking the ferry. The operator is Transtejo & Soflusa,[93] which runs from different locations within the city: Cacilhas, Seixal, Montijo, Porto
Porto
Brandão and Trafaria
Trafaria
under the brand Transtejo and to Barreiro under the brand Soflusa.

Air travel[edit] Humberto Delgado Airport is located within the city limits. It is the headquarters and hub for TAP Portugal
Portugal
as well as a hub for Easyjet, Azores Airlines, Ryanair, EuroAtlantic Airways, White Airways, and Hi Fly. A second airport has been proposed, but the project has been put on hold because of the Portuguese and European economic crisis, and also because of the long discussion on whether a new airport is needed. However, the last proposal is military air base in Montijo that would be replaced by a civil airport. So, Lisbon
Lisbon
would have two airports, the current airport in north and a new in the south of the city. Cascais
Cascais
Aerodrome, 20 km West of the city centre, in Cascais, offers commercial domestic flights.

Public transportation statistics[edit] The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Lisbon, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 59 min. 11.5% of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 14 min, while 23.1% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 6 km, while 10% travel for over 12 km in a single direction.[94]

Education[edit] The rectory and main campus of the New University of Lisbon. International schools[edit] In Greater Lisbon
Greater Lisbon
area, particularly in the Portuguese Riviera, an area popular with expats and foreign nationals, there are numerous international schools, including the Carlucci American International School of Lisbon
Lisbon
(only American school in Portugal), Saint Julian's School (British), Saint Dominic's International School (British), Deutsche Schule Lissabon
Deutsche Schule Lissabon
(German), Instituto Español Giner de los Ríos (Spanish), and Lycée Français Charles Lepierre
Lycée Français Charles Lepierre
(French).

Higher education[edit] Various departments of the University of Lisbon, including the Instituto Superior Técnico, are based on the Alameda D. Afonso Henriques. In the city, there are three public universities and a university institute. The University of Lisbon, which is the largest university in Portugal, was created in 2013 with the union of the Technical University of Lisbon
University of Lisbon
and the Classical University of Lisbon
University of Lisbon
(which was known as the University of Lisbon). The New University of Lisbon, founded in 1973, is another public university in Lisbon
Lisbon
and is known internationally by its Nova School of Business and Economics
Nova School of Business and Economics
(Nova SBE),its economics and management faculty. The third public university is Universidade Aberta. Additionally, there's ISCTE - Lisbon University Institute (founded in 1972), a university institute that provides degrees in all academic disciplines. Major private institutions of higher education include the Portuguese Catholic University, focused on law and management, as well as the Lusíada University, the Universidade Lusófona, and the Universidade Autónoma de Lisboa, among others. The total number of enrolled students in higher education in Lisbon was, for the 2007–2008 school year, of 125,867 students, of whom 81,507 in the Lisbon's public institutions.[95]

Libraries[edit] Lisbon
Lisbon
is home to Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal, the Portuguese national library, which has over 3 million books and manuscripts. The library has some rare books and manuscripts, such as an original Gutenberg Bible and original books by Erasmus, Christophe Platin and Aldus Manutius. Another relevant library is the Torre do Tombo National Archive, one of the most important archives in the world, with over 600 years and one of the oldest active Portuguese institutions. There are, among several others, the Arquivo Histórico Ultramarino and the Arquivo Histórico Militar.

Sports[edit] Estádio da Luz (top), home to S.L. Benfica, and Estádio do Alvalade (bottom), home to Sporting Lisbon. Lisbon
Lisbon
has a long tradition in sports. It hosted several matches, including the final, of the UEFA Euro 2004
UEFA Euro 2004
championship. The city also played host to the final of the 2001 IAAF World Indoor Championships and the European Fencing Championships in 1983 and 1992, as well as the 2003 World Men's Handball Championship, and the 2008 European Judo Championships. From 2006 to 2008, Lisbon
Lisbon
was the starting point for the Dakar Rally. The city hosted the 2014 UEFA Champions League Final. In 2008 and 2016, the city hosted the European Triathlon Championships. Lisbon
Lisbon
has a leg at the Volvo Ocean Race.

Football[edit] The city hosts three association football clubs in Portugal's highest league, the Primeira Liga. Sport Lisboa e Benfica, commonly known as simply Benfica, has won 37 league titles in addition to two European Cups. Lisbon's second-most successful club is Sporting Clube de Portugal
Portugal
(commonly known as Sporting and mistankenly referred to as Sporting Lisbon
Sporting Lisbon
in the English-speaking world), winner of 18 league titles and the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup. A third club, C.F. Os Belenenses
Belenenses
(commonly Belenenses
Belenenses
or Belenenses Lisbon), based in the Belém quarter, has solely won one league title. Other major clubs in Lisbon
Lisbon
include Atlético, Casa Pia, and Oriental. Lisbon
Lisbon
has two UEFA category four stadiums; Benfica's Estádio da Luz (Stadium of Light), with a capacity of over 65,000 and Sporting's Estádio José Alvalade, with a capacity of over 50,000. There is also Belenenses' Estádio do Restelo, with a capacity of over 30,000. The Estádio Nacional, in nearby Oeiras, has a capacity of 37,000 and was used exclusively for Portuguese international football matches and cup finals until the construction of larger stadia in the city. It held the 1967 European Cup
European Cup
Final.

Other sports[edit] Other sports, such as futsal, handball, basketball, roller hockey, volleyball and rugby union are also popular; the latter's national stadium is in Lisbon. There are many other sport facilities in Lisbon, ranging from athletics, sailing, golfing to mountain-biking. Lisboa and Troia golf course are two of many stunning golf courses located in Lisbon. Every March the city hosts the Lisbon
Lisbon
Half Marathon, while in September the Portugal
Portugal
Half Marathon.

International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Portugal Union of Luso-Afro-Americo-Asiatic Capital Cities[edit] Lisbon
Lisbon
is part of the Union of Luso-Afro-Americo-Asiatic Capital Cities[96][97][98] from 28 June 1985, establishing brotherly relations with the following cities:

Bissau, Guinea-Bissau Dili, East Timor Luanda, Angola Macau, China Maputo, Mozambique Panaji
Panaji
(Panjim), India Praia, Cape Verde Rio de Janeiro, Brazil São Tomé, São Tomé
São Tomé
and Príncipe

Union of Ibero-American Capital Cities[edit] Lisbon
Lisbon
is part of the Union of Ibero-American Capital Cities[99] from 12 October 1982 establishing brotherly relations with the following cities:

Andorra
Andorra
la Vella, Andorra Asunción, Paraguay Bogotá, Colombia Buenos Aires, Argentina Caracas, Venezuela Guatemala
Guatemala
City, Guatemala Havana, Cuba Quito, Ecuador La Paz, Bolivia Lima, Peru Madrid, Spain Managua, Nicaragua Mexico
Mexico
City, Mexico Montevideo, Uruguay Panama
Panama
City, Panama Rio de Janeiro, Brazil San Jose, Costa Rica San Juan, Puerto Rico, United States San Salvador, El Salvador Santiago, Chile Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic Tegucigalpa, Honduras

Cooperation agreements[edit] Lisbon
Lisbon
has additional cooperation agreements with the following cities:[97][98]

Algiers, Algeria, since 1988[97][98] Asunción, Paraguay, since 2014[100] Bangkok, Thailand, since 2016[101] Bethlehem, Palestine, since 1995[97][98][102] Budapest, Hungary, since 1992[97][98] Buenos Aires, Argentina, since 1992[97][98] Curitiba, Brazil, since 2005[98] Gdańsk, Poland, since 2001[98] Guimarães, Portugal, since 1993[97][98] Haimen, China, since 2011[98] Kiev, Ukraine, since 2000[98] Madrid, Spain, since 1979[97][98][103] Malacca City, Malaysia, since 1984[97][98][104] Manila, Philippines, since 2003[98] Miami, United States, since 1987[97][98] Montevideo, Uruguay, since 1993[97][98] Moscow, Russia, since 1997[97][98] Paris, France, since 1998[97][98] Peking, China, since 2007[98] Qingdao, China, since 2010[98] Rabat, Morocco, since 1988[97][98] Santa Catarina, Cape Verde, since 1997[97][98] Sofia, Bulgaria, since 2001[98] Toronto, Canada, since 1987[97][98] Tunis, Tunisia, since 1993[97][98] Zagreb, Croatia, since 1977[97]

See also[edit]

Portugal
Portugal
portal List of people from Lisbon List of tallest buildings in Lisbon References[edit]

^ a b c "PORDATA - População residente: Total e por grandes grupos etários"..mw-parser-output cite.citation font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .citation q quotes:"""""""'""'" .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration color:#555 .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output code.cs1-code color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error display:none;font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format font-size:95% .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left padding-left:0.2em .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right padding-right:0.2em

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^ a b c Demographia: World Urban Areas, 2017

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Lisbon
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Lisbon
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Lisbon
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Lisbon
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Lisbon
Earthquake". Nisee.berkeley.edu. 12 November 1998. Archived from the original on 11 March 2011. Retrieved 21 November 2010.

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Portugal
for the First Time, International Meetings Review, 17.07.2018

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Portugal
(in Portuguese), Lisbon, Portugal: Instituto Geográfico Português

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Lisbon
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Lisbon
highest temperature record". 5 August 2018.

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Portugal
(1981–2010)". Instituto de Meteorologia. Retrieved 10 August 2012.

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Jews
and Muslims of Portugal: King Manuel I and the End of Religious Tolerance (1496–7). BRILL. p. 41. ISBN 978-90-04-16262-4.

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Lisbon
Gay and Lesbian Film Festival. Retrieved 6 November 2006.

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Europe
and Japan by Luis Frois, S.J. Routledge. p. 194. ISBN 978-1-317-91781-6.

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Bibliography[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of Lisbon External links[edit]

Lisbonat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Resources from Wikiversity

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Portugal
– Official page by the Government of Portugal Associação de Turismo de Lisboa – Official site of the Lisbon Tourism Association OTLIS – Official site of the Lisbon
Lisbon
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Lisbon
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Marina Cascais
Cascais
Jazz Festival Casino Estoril Castle of the Moors Citadel of Cascais Condes de Castro Guimarães
Guimarães
Museum Convent of the Capuchos Cresmina Dune Fort of Guincho Fort of Santo António da Barra Fountain of Armés Guia Lighthouse Horasis Global Meeting Guincho Beach Lawrence's Hotel Lisbon
Lisbon
& Estoril Film Festival Monserrate Palace Museum of Portuguese Music NewsMuseum Palácio dos Condes da Guarda Palmela Palace Pena National Palace Santa Marta Lighthouse Sanctuary of Peninha Seteais Palace Sintra
Sintra
National Palace Sintra
Sintra
Natural History Museum Summer architecture Queluz National Palace Quinta da Regaleira Quinta da Ribafria Quinta do Relógio Other Bugio Tower Castle of Alcácer do Sal Castle of Alenquer Castle of Almourol Christ the King statue Centro de Apoio Social de Runa Ceramics Museum of Sacavém Festroia International Film Festival Fort of Santiago
Santiago
do Outão Mafra National Palace Monastery of Jesus of Setúbal Palace of the High-Courier Setúbal
Setúbal
Cathedral

Other topics related to Lisbon vteMunicipalities of the Lisbon
Lisbon
District Alenquer Amadora Arruda dos Vinhos Azambuja Cadaval Cascais Lisbon Loures Lourinhã Mafra Odivelas Oeiras Sintra Sobral de Monte Agraço Torres Vedras Vila Franca de Xira

vte Capital cities of the member states of the European Union

Netherlands:Amsterdam

Greece:Athens

Germany:Berlin

Slovakia:Bratislava

Belgium:Brussels

Romania:Bucharest

Hungary:Budapest

Denmark:Copenhagen

Ireland:Dublin

Finland:Helsinki

Portugal:Lisbon

Slovenia:Ljubljana

United Kingdom:London

Luxembourg:Luxembourg

Spain:Madrid

Cyprus:Nicosia

France:Paris

Czech Republic:Prague

Latvia:Riga

Italy:Rome

Bulgaria:Sofia

Sweden:Stockholm

Estonia:Tallinn

Malta:Valletta

Austria:Vienna

Lithuania:Vilnius

Poland:Warsaw

Croatia:Zagreb

vteEuropean Capitals of Culture .mw-parser-output .nobold font-weight:normal 1985 Athens 1986 Florence 1987 Amsterdam 1988 West Berlin 1989 Paris 1990 Glasgow 1991 Dublin 1992 Madrid 1993 Antwerp 1994 Lisbon 1995 Luxembourg
Luxembourg
City 1996 Copenhagen 1997 Thessaloniki 1998 Stockholm 1999 Weimar 2000 Reykjavík Bergen Helsinki Brussels Prague Kraków Santiago
Santiago
de Compostela Avignon Bologna 2001 Rotterdam Porto 2002 Bruges Salamanca 2003 Graz Plovdiv 2004 Genoa Lille 2005 Cork 2006 Patras 2007 Luxembourg
Luxembourg
City and Greater Region Sibiu 2008 Liverpool Stavanger 2009 Linz Vilnius 2010 Ruhr Istanbul Pécs 2011 Turku Tallinn 2012 Maribor Guimarães 2013 Košice Marseille 2014 Umeå Riga 2015 Mons Plzeň 2016 San Sebastián Wrocław 2017 Aarhus Paphos 2018 Valletta Leeuwarden 2019 Plovdiv Matera 2020 Rijeka Galway 2021 Timișoara Elefsina Novi Sad 2022 Kaunas Esch-sur-Alzette 2023 Veszprém

vteCapitals of European states and territoriesCapitals of dependent territories and states whose sovereignty is disputed shown in italics. Amsterdam, Netherlands1 Andorra
Andorra
la Vella, Andorra Ankara, Turkey3 Athens, Greece Baku, Azerbaijan3 Belgrade, Serbia Berlin, Germany Bern, Switzerland Bratislava, Slovakia Brussels, Belgium2 Bucharest, Romania Budapest, Hungary Chișinău, Moldova San Marino, San Marino Copenhagen, Denmark Douglas, Isle of Man (UK) Dublin, Ireland Episkopi Cantonment, Akrotiri and Dhekelia (UK)4 Gibraltar, Gibraltar (UK) Helsinki, Finland Kiev, Ukraine Lisbon, Portugal Ljubljana, Slovenia London, United Kingdom Longyearbyen, Svalbard (Norway) Luxembourg, Luxembourg Madrid, Spain Mariehamn, Åland Islands (Finland) Minsk, Belarus Monaco, Monaco Moscow, Russia3 Nicosia, Cyprus4 North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus4, 5 Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan3 Oslo, Norway Paris, France Podgorica, Montenegro Prague, Czech Republic Pristina, Kosovo5 Reykjavík, Iceland Riga, Latvia Rome, Italy Saint Helier, Jersey (UK) Saint Peter Port, Guernsey (UK) Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina Skopje, North Macedonia Sofia, Bulgaria Stepanakert, Republic of Artsakh3, 5 Stockholm, Sweden Sukhumi, Abkhazia3, 5 Tallinn, Estonia Tbilisi, Georgia3 Tirana, Albania Tiraspol, Transnistria5 Tórshavn, Faroe Islands (Denmark) Tskhinvali, South Ossetia3, 5 Vaduz, Liechtenstein Valletta, Malta Vatican City, Vatican City Vienna, Austria Vilnius, Lithuania Warsaw, Poland Yerevan, Armenia4 Zagreb, Croatia

1 Also the capital of the Kingdom of the Netherlands 2 Also the seat of the European Union, see Institutional seats of the European Union
European Union
and Brussels
Brussels
and the European Union 3 Transcontinental country 4 Entirely in Western Asia but having socio-political connections with Europe 5 Partially recognised country

vtePhoenician cities and coloniesAlgeria Camarata Cartennae
Cartennae
(Tenes) Hippo Regius Icosium
Icosium
(Algiers) Igilgili
Igilgili
(Jijel) Iol (Cherchell) Iomnium
Iomnium
(Tigzirt) Kirtan (Constantine) Kissi (Djinet) Macomades Malaca Rusazus
Rusazus
(Azeffoun) Rusguniae (Tamentfoust) Rusicade (Skikda) Rusippisir
Rusippisir
(Taksebt) Rusubbicari
Rusubbicari
( Zemmouri
Zemmouri
El Bahri) Rusuccuru (Dellys) Sarai (Aïn Oulmene) Thagora (Taoura) Tipasa in Mauretania Tipasa in Numidia Timici Cyprus Dhali Kition
Kition
(Larnaca) Lapathus Marion Greece Callista (Santorini) Paxi Rhodes Israel Achzib Akka (Acre) Dora Michal Jaffa Reshef Shikmona (Haifa) Strato's Tower (Caesarea) Italy Agrigento Bitan (Chia) Cape Melqart (Cefalù) Drepanum (Trapani) Eryx (Erice) Heraclea Minoa Kapara (Soluntum) Karaly (Cagliari) Lilybaeum Motya Neapolis Nora Olbia Pantelleria Selinunte Sulci
Sulci
(Sant'Antioco) Tharros Ziz (Palermo) Lebanon Amia Ampi Arqa Athar (Tripoli) Baalbek Birut (Beirut) Botrys Gebal (Byblos) Sarepta Sur (Tyre) Sidon Ushu Libya Lepcis (Khoms) Oyat (Tripoli) Tsabratan Malta Ann (Mdina) Gaulos (Gozo) Għajn Qajjet Mtarfa Ras il-Wardija Tas-Silġ Morocco Azama (Azemmour) Arambys (Mogador) Caricus Murus Heq she Elisha (Ksar es-Seghir) Likush (Larache) Shalat (Chellah) Tamusida Tinga (Tangier) Portugal Portus Hannibalis Portus Magonis (Portimão) Olissipona (Lisbon) Ossonoba (Faro) Spain Abdera (Adra) Abyla
Abyla
(Ceuta) Akra Leuka (Alicante) Gadir (Cadiz) Herna Iboshim (Ibiza) Mahón Malake (Málaga) Onoba Carthage
Carthage
(Cartagena) Rushadir (Melilla) Saguntum Sexi (Almunecar) Tagilit (Tíjola) Toscanos (Velez) Tyreche Syria Aynook (Arwad) Marat (Amrit) Safita Shuksi Sumur Ugarit Tunisia Aspis (Kelibia) Bulla Regia Carthage Hadrumetum
Hadrumetum
(Sousse) Hippo Diarrhytus (Bizerte) Kerkouane Lepcis (Monastir) Maqom Hadesh
Maqom Hadesh
(Ounga) Meninx (Djerba) Ruspe Ruspina Sicca (El Kef) Tabarka Tayinat (Thyna) Thapsus Thysdrus
Thysdrus
(El Djem) Utica Other Myriandrus Phoenicus  /  Gibraltar

Authority control GND: 4035919-0 LCCN: n79059721 MusicBrainz: 9aee8c1a-c7d5-4713-af71-c022bccf50b4 NARA: 10045676 NDL: 00874544 NLI: 000975536 VIAF: 124321959 WorldCat Identities
WorldCat Identities
(via

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