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In materials science, liquefaction[1] is a process that generates a liquid from a solid or a gas[2] or that generates a non-liquid phase which behaves in accordance with fluid dynamics.[3] It occurs both naturally and artificially. As an example of the latter, a "major commercial application of liquefaction is the liquefaction of air to allow separation of the constituents, such as oxygen, nitrogen, and the noble gases."[4] Another is the conversion of solid coal into a liquid form usable as a substitute for liquid fuels.[5]

Geology

In geology, soil liquefaction refers to the process by which water-saturated, unconsolidated sediments are transformed into a substance that acts like a liquid, often in an earthquake.[6] Soil liquefaction was blamed for building collapses in the city of Palu, Indonesia in October 2018.[7]

In a related phenomenon, liquefaction of bulk materials in cargo ships may cause a dangerous shift in the load.[8][9]

Physics and chemistry

In physics and chemistry, the phase transitions from vapour to liquid (melting, respectively) may be referred to as liquefaction. The melting point (sometimes called liquefaction point) is the temperature and pressure at which a vapour becomes a liquid. In commercial and industrial situations, the process of condensing a gas to liquid is sometimes referred to as liquefaction of gases.

Coal

In physics and chemistry, the phase transitions from vapour to liquid (melting, respectively) may be referred to as liquefaction. The melting point (sometimes called liquefaction point) is the temperature and pressure at which a vapour becomes a liquid. In commercial and industrial situations, the process of condensing a gas to liquid is sometimes referred to as liquefaction of gases.

Coal

Coal liquefaction is the production of liquid fuels from coal using a variety of industrial processes.

Dissolution

Liquefaction is also used in commercial and industrial settings to refer to mechanical dissolution of a solid by mixing, grinding or blending with a liquid.

Food preparation