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LINZ (/ˈlɪnts/ ; German pronunciation: ; Czech : _Linec_) is the third-largest city of Austria and capital of the state of Upper Austria (German : _Oberösterreich_). It is in the north centre of Austria, approximately 30 kilometres (19 miles) south of the Czech border, on both sides of the River Danube . The population of the city is 200,839, and that of the Greater Linz conurbation is about 271,000.

In 2009 Linz, together with the Lithuanian capital Vilnius , was chosen as the European Capital of Culture . Since 1 December 2014 Linz is a member of the UNESCO _Creative Cities (UCCN) network_ as a _City of Media Arts_. Cities receive this title for enriching the urban lifestyle through the sponsorship and successful integration of media art and involving society in these electronic art forms. Linz is well known for the Linzer torte , which is said to be the oldest cake in the world, with its first recipe dating from 1653.

CONTENTS

* 1 Geography

* 1.1 Districts

* 2 History * 3 Population * 4 Climate * 5 Tourism

* 6 Economy

* 6.1 Shopping * 6.2 Markets

* 7 Transport * 8 Public safety * 9 Media * 10 Points of interest

* 11 Architecture

* 11.1 Cemetery

* 12 Culture

* 12.1 Museums * 12.2 Music * 12.3 Cinema * 12.4 Libraries * 12.5 Culinary specialties * 12.6 Regular events * 12.7 Other cultural institutions and venues

* 13 Colleges and universities

* 14 Leisure activities

* 14.1 Parks and gardens * 14.2 Donausteig * 14.3 Harbor tour

* 15 Sports * 16 Born in Linz

* 17 International relations

* 17.1 Twin towns — sister cities

* 18 See also * 19 Notes * 20 Bibliography * 21 External links

GEOGRAPHY

Linz is in the centre of Europe, lying on the Paris –Budapest west–east axis and the Malmö Trieste north–south axis. The Danube is the main tourism and transport connection that runs through the city.

Approximately 29.27% of the city’s 96 km2 (37 sq mi) wide area are grassland. Further 17.95% are covered with forest. All the rest areas fall on water (6.39%), traffic areas and land.

DISTRICTS

Since January 2014 the city is divided into 16 statistical districts:

NO. DISTRICT INHABITANTS AREA

1. Innere Stadt 24,785 278.9

2. Urfahr 23,581 426.8

3. Pöstlingberg 4,527 851.1

4. St. Magdalena 11,890 655.3

5. Dornach-Auhof 7,283 682.6

6. Kaplanhof 9,753 243.2

7. Franckviertel 7,216 120.7

8. Bulgariplatz 14,993 260.3

9. Froschberg 11,654 452.8

10. Bindermichl-Keferfeld 19,875 412.0

11. Spallerhof 12,021 297.1

12. Neue Heimat 13,095 413.2

13. Kleinmünchen-Auwiesen 22,209 645.1

14. Industriegebiet-Hafen 138 1,277.4

15. Ebelsberg 10,763 1,291.2

16. Pichling 7,812 1,290.0

Before 2014 Linz was divided into 9 districts and 36 statistical quarters. They were:

* Ebelsberg * Innenstadt: Altstadtviertel, Rathausviertel, Kaplanhofviertel, Neustadtviertel, Volksgartenviertel, Römerberg-Margarethen * Kleinmünchen: Kleinmünchen, Neue Welt , Scharlinz, Bergern, Neue Heimat, Wegscheid , Schörgenhub * Lustenau: Makartviertel, Franckviertel, Hafenviertel * Pöstlingberg: Pöstlingberg, Bachl-Gründberg * St. Magdalena: St. Magdalena, Katzbach, Elmberg * St. Peter * Urfahr: Alt-Urfahr, Heilham, Hartmayrsiedlung, Harbachsiedlung, Karlhofsiedlung, Auberg * Waldegg: Freinberg , Froschberg, Keferfeld, Bindermichl, Spallerhof, Wankmüllerhofviertel, Andreas-Hofer-Platz-Viertel

HISTORY

See also: Timeline of Linz Statue of Johannes Kepler in Linz, located on a pathway between Saint Martin's Church and the Linz Schloss/castle Hermann-Göring-Werke

The city was founded by the Romans , who called it _Lentia_. The name _Linz_ was first recorded in AD 799.

It was a provincial and local government city of the Holy Roman Empire , and an important trading point connecting several routes, on either side of the River Danube from the east to the west and Bohemia and Poland from north to the Balkans and Italy to the south. Being the city where the Habsburg Emperor Friedrich III spent his last years, it was, for a short period of time, the most important city in the empire. It lost its status to Vienna and Prague after the death of the Emperor in 1493.

One important inhabitant of the city was Johannes Kepler , who spent several years of his life in the city teaching mathematics. He discovered, on 15 May 1618, the distance-cubed-over-time-squared — or 'third' — law of planetary motion . The local public university, Johannes Kepler University, is named after him.

Another famous citizen was Anton Bruckner , who spent the years between 1855 and 1868 working as a local composer and organist in the Old Cathedral, Linz . The Brucknerhaus is named after him.

Adolf Hitler was born in the border town of Braunau am Inn but moved to Linz in his childhood. Hitler spent most of his youth in the Linz area, from 1898 until 1907, when he left for Vienna. The family lived first in the village of Leonding on the outskirts of town, and then on the Humboldtstrasse in Linz. After elementary education in Leonding, Hitler was enrolled in the _Realschule_ (school) in Linz, as was the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein . Notorious Holocaust architect Adolf Eichmann also spent his youth in Linz. To the end of his life, Hitler considered Linz to be his "home town", and envisioned extensive architectural schemes for it , wanting it to become the main cultural centre of the Third Reich. In order to make the city economically vibrant, Hitler initiated a major industrialisation of Linz shortly before, and during, the Second World War.

In addition to an ordnance depot, Linz has a benzol (oil) plant which was bombed during the Oil Campaign on 16 October 1944. What was once the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp is 20 km (12 miles) east of the city of Linz.

PROCESSING OF THE NAZI-PAST

In 1996, the Council of the city decided to account for its Nazi past. The widespread scientific workup, which was implemented by the municipal archives, covered the period prior 1938 and the denazification after 1945. Linz became the first city in Austria to deal intensively with its own Nazi past. In May 2001, seven scientific publications, online presentations, and numerous lectures were made public as a result of these efforts. The culture of remembrance extended to the construction of monuments for the victims of National Socialism. Especially since 1988, numerous memorials have been created in public spaces. The confrontation with the Nazi past resulted in the renaming of many streets. In 1945, immediately after the end of the Nazi dictatorship, 39 streets in Linz were renamed, whereas from 1946 to 1987, only two streets were renamed. However, since 1988, 17 new traffic areas were named after victims of National Socialism or resistance fighters. In the recent past a number of Nazi victims and activists who fought Nazism were honored by the city. Simon Wiesenthal , who founded the first Jewish Documentation Center in Linz in 1945, received an award for his work in remembrance of victims of the Second World War.

COAT OF ARMS

The coat of arms of Linz developed from the seal image, which was used as emblem since 1242. It showed the open city gate flanked by two crenelated towers on rocky ground. From 1288 on, the gate was shown standing on water. The coat of arms shows a red plate on which stands a castle with twin towers. Those towers are crowned with three crenelations. The towers include an open door; above the door the red-white-red shield of Austria is attached. The gate and towers symbolise the medieval fortified city. The wavy bars indicate the position of the city near the Danube. The Austrian shield is a reference to the former territorial city.

POPULATION

The urban area includes (parts of) 13 other municipalities with together 271,000 inhabitants. Linz is also part of the Linz-Wels-Steyr metropolitan area of Upper Austria , home to around one third of the state's population (460,000 people) and second-largest urban area in Austria. Linz has a total number of about 157,000 jobs. However, only half of vacant jobs can be covered by its inhabitants. This enormous job surplus causes a correspondingly high rate of commuters from the surrounding communities of Linz, resulting in enormous traffic problems.

HISTORICAL POPULATION

YEAR POP. ±%

1900 83,356 —

1951 184,685 +121.6%

1961 195,978 +6.1%

1971 204,889 +4.5%

1981 199,910 −2.4%

1991 203,044 +1.6%

2001 183,504 −9.6%

2006 188,968 +3.0%

2011 189,845 +0.5%

2015 197,427 +4.0%

2016 200,843 +1.7%

LARGEST GROUPS OF FOREIGN RESIDENTS

NATIONALITY POPULATION (2015)

Bosnia and Herzegovina 4,860

Turkey 3,366

Romania 3,348

Germany 2,880

Croatia 2,203

Kosovo 1,848

Serbia 1,749

Hungary 1,417

Russia 1,284

Macedonia 1,036

Afghanistan 914

CLIMATE

Linz has an oceanic climate with significant influences of continental airflows. As a result, summers are warm and winters quite cold.

CLIMATE DATA FOR LINZ

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 14.8 (58.6) 17.0 (62.6) 23.5 (74.3) 28.0 (82.4) 31.0 (87.8) 34.2 (93.6) 36.2 (97.2) 36.2 (97.2) 31.4 (88.5) 25.3 (77.5) 22.7 (72.9) 13.4 (56.1) 36.2 (97.2)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 2.0 (35.6) 4.3 (39.7) 9.9 (49.8) 14.6 (58.3) 20.4 (68.7) 22.7 (72.9) 24.8 (76.6) 24.5 (76.1) 19.7 (67.5) 14.1 (57.4) 6.6 (43.9) 3.1 (37.6) 13.9 (57)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) −0.7 (30.7) 0.7 (33.3) 5.1 (41.2) 9.3 (48.7) 14.6 (58.3) 17.3 (63.1) 19.1 (66.4) 18.7 (65.7) 14.4 (57.9) 9.4 (48.9) 3.8 (38.8) 0.6 (33.1) 9.4 (48.9)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) −2.8 (27) −1.7 (28.9) 1.7 (35.1) 5.1 (41.2) 9.8 (49.6) 12.6 (54.7) 14.4 (57.9) 14.2 (57.6) 10.7 (51.3) 6.3 (43.3) 1.7 (35.1) −1.2 (29.8) 5.9 (42.6)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) −22.0 (−7.6) −18.0 (−0.4) −18.7 (−1.7) −2.4 (27.7) −0.7 (30.7) 4.1 (39.4) 7.3 (45.1) 6.1 (43) 1.6 (34.9) −4.5 (23.9) −10.6 (12.9) −17.6 (0.3) −22.0 (−7.6)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 59.7 (2.35) 48.4 (1.906) 64.2 (2.528) 63.8 (2.512) 70.9 (2.791) 91.2 (3.591) 107.0 (4.213) 83.9 (3.303) 63.2 (2.488) 52.3 (2.059) 62.1 (2.445) 65.7 (2.587) 832.4 (32.773)

AVERAGE SNOWFALL CM (INCHES) 17.5 (6.89) 13.1 (5.16) 6.0 (2.36) 0.6 (0.24) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 4.9 (1.93) 12.0 (4.72) 54.1 (21.3)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 1.0 MM) 10.8 9.7 10.7 10.5 10.2 12.0 12.1 10.3 9.2 7.7 10.4 11.5 125.1

AVERAGE SNOWY DAYS (≥ 1.0 CM) 14.8 10.0 3.4 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.9 9.1 40.4

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 49.3 93.5 119.3 171.4 234.7 222.6 238.6 236.2 172.6 110.3 49.2 43.4 1,741.1

Source: Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics

TOURISM

The hotel business is equipped with 4,544 beds – 2,302 are located in the ten four star hotels of the city. Nine hotels have three stars and count 1,226 beds. The seven two and one star hotels are equipped with 472 beds. 544 beds are not categorised for commercial businesses. Five star hotels are not available. In 2004 Linz counted 647,428 nights’ stay. In 2013 the number increased to 775,396. 363,425 of the overnight stays were located in the four star hotels, 226,647 in the three star hotels, 67,593 in the two and one star hotels and 53,194 stays can be counted to other accommodation.

544 gastronomy businesses are located in the city. Germans are the most frequent guests (167,639), followed by Italians (22,886), Dutch and Swiss (16,828) – the ranking is equal to the overnight stays ranking which is listed in the following.

Overnight stay RANK STATE NUMBER OF OVERNIGHT STAYS

1. Austria 377,062

2. Germany 167,639

3. Italy 22,886

4. Switzerland , Liechtenstein 16,828

5. United States 13,610

6. United Kingdom 12,903

7. China 11,482

8. Netherlands 10,650

9. France , Monaco 10,156

10. Hungary 10,118

ECONOMY

Church of Saints Michael and Ursula, Linz The Neues Rathaus ( Linz Town Hall) The Pöstlingberg Church in Linz The Brucknerhaus The now demolished Eisenbahnbrücke (railway bridge) at night, with the more modern VÖEST bridge in the background TipsArena Linz , in Linz The Lentos Art Museum The Landestheater

Linz is one of the main economic centres of Austria. The Voestalpine AG is a large steel concern (founded as the "Hermann-Göring-Werke " during the Second World War), which is known for the LD- ("Linz-Donawitz" ) procedure for the production of steel. The former "Chemie Linz" chemical group has been split up into several companies. These companies have made Linz one of Austria's most important economic centres.

About 190,000 people are employed in Linz, which is almost twice as many employed persons who live in Linz. Therefore, Linz has to deal with a lot of commuter traffic. At a workday around 100,000 employed persons commute to Linz and about 18,500 out of Linz.

Furthermore, due to the fact that one of the four Donau-Harbors (Donauhäfen) in Austria is located in Linz, it constitutes an attractive location in regards to logistic and trading enterprises. Nonetheless manufacturing plants can – for instance - be found at the waterfront as well. The economic importance of Linz was founded over centuries in trade. Moreover, the long-standing image of Linz as an industrial city was a result of the National Socialism. As a result of this large industrial enterprises are still located in Linz nowadays. Great examples in regards to this are Voestalpine AG or “Chemie Linz” – as already mentioned above. From an economical perspective they represent a large number of jobs and of course industry related enterprises.

The Meeting Industry Report Austria (mira) ranks Linz as the third most important destination for congresses in Austria, with a share of 7,4 % in the total number of congresses, conferences and seminars held in Austria. Linz has more than 60 congress and event venues. With the Blue Meeting® concept, the local tourism association has developed a conference format which focuses on individual needs of participants and adapts to the idea of green meetings, therefore supporting waste prevention, energy efficiency, climate-neutral travel and regional added value.

SHOPPING

Linz offers many different shopping possibilities, which include various shopping centres or popular shopping streets.

SHOPPING CENTRES

Thirteen malls can be found in Linz, three of them are situated in the city centre. The total List of shopping centres in Linz:

* Arkade * Arkade * Atrium City Center * Shopping Mall Auwiesen * Shopping Mall Biesenfeld * Shopping Mall Industriezeile * Shopping Mall Kleinmünchen * Shopping Mall Muldenstraße * EuroCenter Oed * Shopping Mall Wegscheid * Infra Center * Lentia City * Passage * PRO-Kaufland

SHOPPING STREETS

According to a study of Infrapool in Oktober 2010, the Linzer Landstraße is the busiest shopping street outside of Vienna. The weekly frequency is noted between 240,500 (Monday-Saturday, 8 a.m. until 7 p.m.) and 228,400 (8 a.m. until 6 p.m.) passers-by, which is the second highest value - only in 2005 more passers-by were detected. Further shopping streets in Linz:

Linz north:

* Alturfahr West * Hauptstraße Urfahr

Linz centre:

* City * Altstadt * Pfarrplatz * Promenade * Eisenhandstraße * Südbahnhofmarkt

Linz south:

* Einkaufsviertel Wiener Straße * Franckviertel * Bindermichl * Kleinmünchen * Ebelsberg

Close to Linz:

* Plus City shopping center

MARKETS

There are eleven farmer’s markets as well as one weekly flea market and two Christmas markets in Linz. One of the most popular ones is the “Urfahraner Markt“, which takes place in spring and fall every year. Visitors can enjoy a mix of leisure facilities, stalls and party tents. Furthermore, there are annually Christmas and New Year’s Markets. The aim of the market administration is to provide the population with a wide range of products, as well as operating the markets in an economical, suitable and customer oriented manner. Additionally, the annual market called “Linzer Marktfrühling” sets further accents and lures new customers with attractive offers.

TRANSPORT

Linz serves as an important transport hub for the region of both Upper Austria and, to a lesser degree, southern Bohemia.

The "Blue Danube" Linz Airport lies about 14 kilometres (8.7 mi) southwest of the town centre, in the municipality of Hörsching . The airport can be reached easily via federal highways B139 and B1. The bus line 601 connects the airport within 20 minutes with the centre of Linz. There is also a free shuttle service from Hörsching railway station . Direct flights include Frankfurt , Düsseldorf and Vienna with additional seasonal routes added during the summer and winter months, like for example Antalya, Kos, Ibiza or Korfu. Ryanair flies to London Stansted Airport and Tenerife .

The city also has a central railway station (German : _Hauptbahnhof _) on Austria's main rail axis, the West railway , linking Vienna with western Austria, Germany and Switzerland. There are also varying types of river transport on the Danube, from industrial barges to tourist cruise ships.

Local public transport comprises the city tram network , the city trolleybus network and the city bus network, all operated by the Linz Linien division of Linz AG. The city tram network includes the Pöstlingbergbahn , a steeply graded tramway which climbs a small mountain at the northwest edge of the town.

PUBLIC SAFETY

POLICE

The National Police Directorate forms the security authority for the city. The city’s police commands function as law enforcement agencies.

FIRE BRIGADE

In Linz, one of six Austrian professional fire brigades is located. Four volunteer fire brigades (Ebelsberg, Pichling, Pöstlingberg, St. Magdalena) and nine company fire brigades complement Linz’ firemanship. Additionally, the national school of firemanship, which is subjected to the Upper Austrian fire-brigade federation, is located in Linz. In this school, all members of Upper Austrian fire brigades are being educated.

MEDIA

The newspaper _ Oberösterreichische Nachrichten _ has its head office in Linz.

POINTS OF INTEREST

Trinity on top of the Holy Trinity column

The main street "Landstraße" leads from the "Blumauerplatz" to "Taubenmarkt" (Pigeonmarket) near the main square. In the middle of the main square the high "Pestsäule" ("plague column ", also known as "Dreifaltigkeitssäule" (Dreifaltigkeit means Holy Trinity )) was built to remember the people who died in the plague epidemics.

Near the Schloss/castle, being the former seat of Friedrich the III — the oldest Austrian church is located: Sankt/Saint Martins church. It was built during early medieval Carolingian times.

Other points of interest include:

* St. Mary\'s Cathedral (Mariä-Empfängnis-Dom), Roman Catholic., in Gothic-Revival style. With a total height of 134,8 meters, the cathedral is the tallest church in Austria. Constructed in the years of 1862 and 1924, it is fully built of sandstone with unfinished front details. * Mozarthaus: birthplace and house of the famous Austrian composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart , which was constructed at the end of the 16th century. During 3 days in November of 1783, being a resident of the house, he composed the “Linzer Sinfonie” and “Linzer Sonate”. Today, it is allowed to visit the backyard of the house but prohibited to enter the house itself. * Pöstlingberg-Kirche: pilgrimage church on the Pöstlingberg hill. The basilica is the city’s landmark and was built from 1738 until 1774, located on 537m sea level. * Pöstlingbergbahn is the steepest mountain rail in the world which was built in 1898 and operates gear-wheel free (functional grip between wheel and rail: gradient of 10,5%) * Linzer Grottenbahn: A grotto railway is based up on the hill of Pöstling * Brucknerhaus — the concert hall named after the composer Anton Bruckner, who was born in Ansfelden , a small town next to Linz. * Gugl Stadium , is home to the LASK (Linzer Athletik Sport Klub), which is claimed to be the third oldest football club in Austria. * Linzer Landestheater * Kremsmünsterer Haus: is to find at the „Alter Markt“, located in the inner city of Linz where, as legends say, emperor Friedrich III. had died. * Landhaus: The country house was built in the 16th century and is the headquarters of the governor, the Bavarian parliament and the government of upper Austria. Johannes Kepler used to teach here for more than 14 years.

ARCHITECTURE

As many central European cities, the cityscape of Linz is characterised by small and several sacred buildings. The Mariä Empfängnis Dom or New Cathedral is the biggest church in Austria, not by height (it is roughly 2 metres shorter than the St. Stephen\'s Cathedral (_Stephansdom_) in Vienna), but by capacity.

The historic centre is characterised by its medieval architectural style, whereas in those parts of the city that border with the historic centre the architecture is of neoclassical , neo-baroque and neo-renaissance styles. Even further from the historic centre there are living areas, such as _Franckviertel_, _Froschberg_, _Bindermichl_ and _Kleinmünchen_ southern of the Danube and _Alt-Urfahr_ northern of the Danube. These areas are where residential buildings can be found that are still referred to as "Hitlerbauten" or "Hitler buildings", because they were built during the interwar period and the time of Nazi dictatorship. The residential area called _Gugl_ became a well liked living area among the wealthy at around 1900, which is why there are numerous villas still there today.

Amongst the newer buildings is the new Central Station , which was designed by Wilhelm Holzbauer and added the Terminal Tower skyscraper as part of a mixed-use complex. Between 2005 und 2011 it was voted Austria’s most beautiful railway station seven times in a row by the _Verkehrsclub Österreich_. The Wissensturm ("Tower of knowledge") with a height of about 63 metres, houses the public library and the _Volkshochschule _, an adult education centre. It was designed by Franz Kneidinger and Heinz Stögmüller and opened in 2007. Lentos Art Museum , which opened in 2003, was designed by Zürich-based architects Weber "> Stadtwerkstatt Linz Musiktheater Linz

The Brucknerhaus , a famous concert hall in Linz is named after Anton Bruckner. It is situated just some 200 metres away from the "Lentos". It is home to the "Bruckner Orchestra", and is frequently used for concerts, as well as balls and other events. It is also the venue of the " Linz Fest" which takes place annually in May as well as one of the venues during the Ars Electronica Festival in early September. In June, July and August the "Musikpavillon" is placed in the park where musical groups of different styles perform on Thursdays, Fridays, Saturdays and Sundays free of charge.

The Musiktheater (music theatre) was opened in April 2013 and is considered to be one of the most modern opera houses in Europe. It offers five stages of varying sizes; the big hall ("Großer Saal") with 1,200 seats, the BlackBox with up to 270 seats, the BlackBoxLounge with up to 150 seats, the orchestra hall ("Orchestersaal") with up to 200 seats and another stage in the foyer ("FoyerBühne"). Performances at the Musiktheater include operas and typically Austrian operettas , ballets and musicals .

The ensemble of the Landestheater (regional theatre) Linz used to perform musical productions as well as theatre productions at a venue located on the "Promenade" in the inner city of Linz (this venue is still referred to simply as "Landestheater"). Since the opening of the new Musiktheater, only theatre performances take place at the "Promenade" venue, whereas musical productions are shown in the Musiktheater. The Landestheater Linz is especially renowned for its theatre for young audiences called uhof:.

The _Kapu_ is a venue for various contemporary music styles, such as hip hop , noise rock and crust and also houses a cinema and a recording studio.

The _Posthof_ is one of the biggest event centres in Linz with three rooms offering up to 630 seats or standing room for about 1,200 people respectively in the big hall. The programme focuses on contemporary art and covers concerts, theatre, cabaret, dance and literature. Artists from Linz are regularly invited in order to improve the local cultural scene; e.g. bands from Linz get the opportunity to play as pre-bands alongside nationally and internationally known artists. Altogether a total of about 250 events take place at the _Posthof_ each year with a total number of visitors of about 80.000.

The _ Stadtwerkstatt _ is an independent association for culture and was founded in 1979. Its headquarters is located in the Urfahr district on the north bank of the Danube close to the Ars Electronica Centre and serves as venue for music events and other artistic and cultural activities. Situated at the same address is the Stadtwerkstatt’s own Café Strom, a café/bar popular amongst young adults.

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart wrote his Symphony No. 36 (1783) in Linz for a concert to be given there, and the work is known today as the _Linz Symphony_. He reportedly also composed his Piano Sonata 13 in B flat while in Linz, although it was published in Vienna. The first version of Anton Bruckner's Symphony No. 1 in C minor is known as the Linz version.

Anton Bruckner was born in Ansfelden near Linz and spent several years working as a conductor and organist in Linz, where he also started to compose. The first version of Anton Bruckner's Symphony No. 1 in C minor is known as the Linz version. The Brucknerhaus, a concert hall in Linz as well as its annual international Brucknerfest are named after him.

The musician and DJ Marcus Füreder, better known by his stage name Parov Stelar was born in Linz.

CINEMA

The history of cinema and film begins in Linz in September 1896, when, as part of a variety programme, a film programme was shown in "Roithner's vaudeville" for the first time in Upper Austria. Until the next screening of a film it took until 20 March 1897, when Johann Bläser’s travelling cinema guested in the "Hotel of the Golden Ship”.

Until the opening of the first cinemas with regular programme, it took till the end of the year 1908. At that time, Karl Lifka opened his "Lifka's Grand Théâtre électrique" in that building, where already the very first film showing took place. Subsequently, the second cinema of Linz was opened a few months later.

As the owner of travelling cinemas, Johann Bläser, got settled in Linz, he bought the “Hotel of the Golden Ship”, and installed a cinema in it, the “Bio-Kinematograph”. The third stationary cinema, called “Kino Kolloseum”, in town was founded around 1910 by the vaudeville operator Karl Roithner. Its first location was the former festival hall at Hessenplatz.

LIBRARIES

In September 2007 the “Wissensturm”, next to the central station, was completed. There the Main Library and the adult education centre are housed. In the same year the expansion of the National Library on Schillerplatz began.

* Main Library and 10 branches: 1,159,212 borrowings (2013) * National library: 86,262 Borrowings (2005)

The Main Library is the largest public library in Upper Austria. The library has a stock of 220,000 media, of which approximately 60,000 audiovisual media, as well as numerous magazines. The library also offers public Internet access and computers for surfing. The public library focuses on supporting reading. Thus in addition, regularly events such as readings, workshops or reading consultations take place.

CULINARY SPECIALTIES

In Linz you can find both traditional restaurants and old wine taverns, as well as modern and exotic cuisine. The influence of 140 nations can be felt in Linz's culinary offerings. A coalition of over 40 restaurants, cafes and among other locations bars are called “hotspots”. Moreover, Linz has several à la carte restaurants and Gault Millau gourmet restaurants.

Typical dishes in Linz include not only the famous Linzer torte but also knödel and strudel in all different kind of variations. Another specialty is the erdäpfelkäs , a spread made from mashed potatoes and cream. Some well-known chefs from Linz are Lukas Erich, who cooks in the _Verdi_ and Georg Essig from the _Der neue Vogelkäfig_.

REGULAR EVENTS

* ARS ELECTRONICA FESTIVAL: the Ars Electronica Festival is a festival for media art which has been taking place annually in Linz since 1986 and includes exhibitions, concerts, performances, symposia and interventions on changing themes that take place in public settings such as churches and industrial halls. The events focus on art, technology and society and the nexus among them. In 2013 a total of about 75,000 visitors took part in the Ars Electronica Festival. * BUBBLE DAYS: the Bubble Days have been taking place annually in June since 2011 and are hosted by local creative collective LI.K.I.DO. During the event a number of extreme sports shows, such as aviation performances and a wake boarding contest, the Red Bull WAKE OF STEEL, take place in the harbour of Linz. Additionally there are a number of art exhibitions and live music acts and visitors can explore the harbour on boat tours, in paddle boats or kayaks. In 2013 the Bubble Days reached a total number of 12,000 visitors. * CROSSING EUROPE FILM FESTIVAL: Since 2004 this festival takes place annually in Linz. Starting at a total number of 9,000 visitors in the first year, the tenth edition of the Crossing Europe Film Festival in 2014 attracted over 20,000 people; 184 feature films, documentaries and short films from 37 countries were shown. The film screenings are accompanied by exhibitions, talks and live music acts ("Nightline"). There are currently eight different awards to be won at the Crossing Europe Film Festival in categories such as "CROSSING EUROPE Audience Award", the "FEDEORA AWARD for European Documentaries" and the "CROSSING EUROPE AWARD Local Artist". * _FESTIVAL DER REGIONEN_ (FESTIVAL OF THE REGIONS): The festival of the regions focuses on contemporary local art and culture and takes place every second year in varying locations across Upper Austria. It took place for the first time in 1993 and has been dedicated to different themes such as "the other", "marginal zones" or "normality".

* INTERNATIONAL BRUCKNERFEST: Following the opening of the "Brucknerhaus" concert hall in Linz three years earlier, the international Brucknerfest took place for the first time in 1977. Whereas the first two editions were only dedicated to classical music in general and Anton Bruckner’s pieces in particular, this changed in 1979 when the international Brucknerfest, the Ars Electronica festival and the "Klangwolke" (sound cloud), which now marks the beginning of the Brucknerfest, were merged to create a festival worthy of competing with those in Vienna and Salzburg. Taking place annually for three weeks in September/October it closes the Austrian festival season. * KLANGWOLKE (CLOUD OF SOUND) : Created as a link between the Ars Electronica Festival and the international Brucknerfest, this open-air multimedia musical event takes place annually at the beginning of September at the riverside Donaupark in Linz. It is free of charge and attracted about 110,000 people in 2013. Today there are three different "Clouds of sound", the visualised Klangwolke, in which modern music (mostly commissioned works) is staged with lasers, video projections, fireworks, ships, cranes, balloons, etc., the Klangwolke for children (since 1998) and the classical Klangwolke. * LINZFEST: This open air festival has taken place in Linz since 1990. It is financed by the city of Linz and several sponsors and organised for the broad public of all ages in cooperation with partners such as local cultural institutions. The festival is dedicated to a different theme every year (the last one in 2014 was "Old is the new new") and includes concerts, theatre, dance, comedy, art in the public space, culinary art, literature and parties, all of which are in line with the general theme of the event. It is held in the "Donaupark", a wide park area next to the Danube, also referred to as "Donaulände" or "Kulturmeile". * LINZ MARATHON is held annually in April and attracted over 15,000 participants and about 100,000 spectators in 2013. * _PFLASTERSPEKTAKEL _: The festival takes place annually since 1986 in the city centre of Linz and includes musical acts, juggling , acrobatics , pantomime , improvisational theatre , clownery , fire dancing , painting, samba parades , as well as a programme for children. With about 250,000 visitors (2014) the festival is one of the biggest street art festivals in Europe; its 28th edition featured 300 artists from 36 different nations. * THE _STADTFEST_ (CITY FESTIVAL) is held annually in August in the inner city of Linz. The three-day festival features live music acts of different styles, with each music style being represented on a different stage. The concerts are held by national and international artists. Every year about 100,000 people take part in this event. * _URFAHRANER MäRKTE_: These fairs are held twice every year (once in spring, once in autumn) in Urfahr on the northern side of the Danube. They include a fun park (with roller coasters and a Ferris wheel) and a market (with food products from local and regional farmers) and attract about 500,000 people.

OTHER CULTURAL INSTITUTIONS AND VENUES

* _ALTE WELT_: concerts and cabaret * ARCHIVE OF THE CITY OF LINZ: collection of important documents of the city of Linz, presenting Linz‘ town history * _ATELIERHAUS SALZAMT_: living and working space for artists, featuring continuous exhibitions. * BOTANIC GARDEN: about 100,000 visitors every year; featuring a summer programme of music acts, readings and dance performances in the garden pavilion * _CLUB TUNNEL_: features techno and drum’n’bass parties * _DESIGN CENTRE LINZ_: modern congress and exhibition centre * JOHANNES KEPLER OBSERVATORY: opened in 1983 * _KIJANI_: Bar/event location for concerts (electronic music) * _KINDERKULTURZENTRUM KUDDELMUDDEL_: theatre for children which includes a kindergarten * _KUBA JUGENDKULTUR_: cultural institution for teenagers and young adults, founded by the _Verein Jugend und Freizeit_, which is an association for teenagers and young adults interested in culture * _KULTUR-CAFé SMARAGD_: Bar with a small stage in the basement area; presenting regional jazz, pop and rock bands and international acts * _KULTURHAUS REIMAN_: venue for concerts, young theatre and cabaret * _KULTURZENTRUM HOF_: cultural institution featuring concerts of different music styles, cabaret performances, theatre, readings and various workshops. The _Kulturzentrum Hof_ tries to appeal to non-mainstream artistic styles. * _KUNSTRAUM GOETHESTRASSE_: founded in 1998, it is a location for temporary art * _LANDESKULTURZENTRUM URSULINENHOF_: The _Ursulinenhof_ houses cultural institutions and is a cultural venue (presenting e.g. exhibitions and hosting readings and theatre performances) and a press and event centre. * _MAIZ_: autonomous centre for migrants realising cultural projects * _TABAKFABRIK_: location for exhibitions and musical events * WINERY JOSEF CEMBRAN: location for various events, such as wine tastings and drum’n’bass parties

COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES

* Anton Bruckner Private University for Music, Drama, and Dance (private) for music (approx. 800 students) * Catholic-Theological Private University Linz (private) for Catholic theology (approx. 400 students), which has been a Papal faculty since 1978 * The Johannes Kepler University is situated in the north-east of Linz, and hosts law, business, social sciences, engineering and science faculties; about 13,416 students (October 2007) are enrolled. A spin-off of the university, as well as a _ Fachhochschule _ for various computer-related studies, (polytechnic) is located 20 miles (32 km) north of Linz in the small town of Hagenberg im Mühlkreis . Linz also hosts three other universities: * University of Arts and Industrial Design Linz , public, for arts and industrial design (approx. 800 students).

Amongst the many "Gymnasien" (high schools ) in Linz, is Linz International School Auhof (LISA) , which is one of four IB ( International Baccalaureate ) schools in Austria, and uses English as main language for instruction.

LEISURE ACTIVITIES

PARKS AND GARDENS

Linz offers many parks and holiday areas: Lakes and public swimming pools: Pichlinger See , Pleschinger See , Weikerlsee , Biesenfeldbad, Hummelhofbad, Parkbad, Schörgenhubbad. One of the first public swimming pools was the former “Fabriksarm”, a Danube branch stream (from Parkbad to Winterhafen) that was filled up in 1890. Afterwards a makeshift at the “Obere Donaulände” was built, which existed until a flood in 1954. In 1901 the “Städtische Schwimmschule” (city swimming school) was built at the place of the former Parkbad.

* Botanischer Garten: About 100,000 visitors are attracted by Botanischer Garten, which makes it one of the most visited sights of the city since 1952. Situated at Bauernberg, and comprising 4.2 hectares, the arrangement distinguishes by its harmonious design, its abundance of plant species (about 8,000 different types in culture) and the multifaceted cultural and event programme. * Donaulände or "Lände": public park on the Danube between Lentos and the Brucknerhaus . In summer, the Donaulände is a popular meeting point among young people living in Linz. It also hosts the Linzer Klangwolke. * Freinberg: public park, very well frequented by families and joggers. One of the most beautiful residential districts of Linz. * Pfenningberg: Pfenningberg is a part of the northeastern green belt directioning to Steyregg . It offers stunning views of the port facilities and the grounds of the VÖEST. * Wasserwald: Big Park (approximately 1 km²) in the south of Linz. The park is located in the district of Kleinmünchen, where large waterworks are situated. The most frequent visitors are walkers, joggers, Nordic walkers and dog owners, who enjoy the idyllic atmosphere of the park. The park is equipped with well-maintained sidewalks, playgrounds, two toboggan hills, a fitness trail, a running track and a senior park with chess. Furthermore, two public toilets are available. * Stadtpark: On 22 August 2003, the new Linz City Park between Huemer-, Museum-, Noßberger- and Körnerstraße was officially opened. With 10,807 square metres of green area, it is the second largest inner-city park. The city of Linz has acquired this area due to a barter with the Austrian postal service. Since Schiller Park in 1909, there has been no newly openend park of this magnitude in the centre of Linz. * Landschaftspark Bindermichl-Spallerhof: In the first phase of the establishment of the 8.3 -hectare sized area, which reconnects the boroughs Bindermichl and Spallerhof, the province of Upper Austria was responsible for the expansion of the park. The park replaces the urban motorway, which runs subterranean in this area since 2006. Old paths were re-established and until mid 2007 city gardener designed prethe new parkland with 550 trees and various shrubs, perennials and flower beds that give the park a varied and beautiful boroughs appearance. * Linzer Zoo: Linz Zoo is located at Pöstlingsberg and is home to around 600 animals from 110 different species on 4 acres (2 ha). In recent years, the zoo was able to increase its visitor numbers continuously. In 2014, about 132,000 visitors visited Linz Zoo. * Kirchschlag ski resort is located 15 km north of Linz and has three ski lifts: The _Hauslift_, the _Waldlift_ or the _Babylift_. The special features of the ski area include the "How fast am I - route" which automatically measures the time or the night skiing. The ski area also has a 2 km long cross-country ski run, a curling ground and a nature ice rink.

Especially in densely built-up inner-city areas smaller parks are highly important for the inhabitants of Linz, the parks act as green oases. Along the main axis of the city centre of Linz, the highway, several such small gardens are located. These are on the one handside the Landhaus Park, which has been redesigned as part of an underground car park construction until 2009, whereby the old trees have been preserved. In addition, Hessenplatz or – park is located in the city centre of Linz. Hessenplatz was the centre of Neustadtviertel in 1884. Just off the highway Schiller Park is located, which replaced the Trainkaserne in 1909, and the Volksgarten, which was created in 1829 by an entrepreneur and bought up in 1857 by the city.

DONAUSTEIG

The Donausteig is a non Alpine Austrian- Bavarian long-distance hiking trail, which is 450 kilometres (280 miles) long and is divided into 23 stages. Since the summer of 2010 it mainly leads alongside both banks of the Danube, from Passau through Linz and St. Nikola to Grein. The trail mainly runs through nature and leads to popular landscapes and viewpoints.

HARBOR TOUR

From the end of April until the beginning of October the Design- Ship „MS Linzerin“ offers a harbor tour of 100 Minutes – three times a day (Tuesday until Sunday). Starting point of the tour is the Linzer Donaupark and the tour goes along the Linzer Kulturmeile, passes the Brucknerhaus and ends at the waterfront mouth of ÖSWAG Schiffswerft Linz.

SPORTS

There are 302 Sport Clubs in Linz. 224 of those are a part of the three major umbrella organizations ASKÖ (108 Clubs with about 48,500 members), UNION (67 clubs with about 40,500 members) and ASVÖ (49 clubs with about 19,000 members). One of the more well-known clubs is „LASK” – they moved to Paschinger Waldstadion in the meantime – as well as “SK VÖEST Linz” – now called “FC Blau- Weiß Linz”. Furthermore, the popularity of the ice hockey club “EHC Black Wings Linz” has increased, in particular after they won the championship in the seasons 2002/03 and 2011/12.

The EHC Black Wings Linz play professional ice hockey in the Erste Bank Eishockey Liga .

Generali Ladies Linz is annual WTA Tour tennis tournament held in city.

BORN IN LINZ

_ Mary Anne of Austria around 1729 Alois Riegl around 1890

* Mary Anne of Austria (1683–1754), Queen consort of Portugal * Alois Riegl (1858–1905), art historian * Hermann Bahr (1863–1934), writer, playwright, director and critic * Richard Tauber (1891–1948), tenor * Hans Kronberger (1920–1970), nuclear physicist * Igo Hofstetter (1926–2002), composer * Valie Export (born 1940), artist * Waltraut Cooper (born 1937), artist, pioneer of digital art * Herwig van Staa (born 1942), former governor of Tyrol * Fritz Eckhardt (1907–1995), actor, director and writer * Frank Elstner (born 1942), presenter on German television * Shlomo Sand (born 1946), professor of history at Tel Aviv University and author of the controversial book The Invention of the Jewish People _ * Fritz von Thurn und Taxis (born 1950), Austrian sportscaster * Richard Link (born 1951), Canadian space scientist * Anton Koschany (born 1953), Canadian news producer, W5 * Elisabeth Theurer (born 1956), equestrienne * Franz Welser-Möst (born 1960), music director of the Cleveland Orchestra and the Vienna State Opera * Franz Schumann (born 1960), professional wrestler * Marcus Füreder (born 1974), producer, DJ * Vera Lischka (born 1977), breaststroke swimmer and politician * Birgit Minichmayr (born 1977), actress * Sybille Bammer (born 1980), tennis player * Marco Krainer (born 1981), Austrian specialty and TV chef with connections to the United States * Christina Stürmer (born 1982), Austrian pop/rock singer * Irene Kepl (born 1982), Austrian violinist and composer * Mateo Kovačić (born 1994), Croatian footballer

LIVING IN LINZ:

* Doug Hammond (born in Tampa, Florida , 1942) musician. * Andrew Edge (born in Leeds , England, 1956) musician.

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Austria

TWIN TOWNS — SISTER CITIES

Linz is twinned with:

* Charlottenburg , Berlin , Germany , since 1995 * České Budějovice , Czech Republic , since 1987 * Chengdu , China , since 1983 * Gabès , Tunisia , since 1977 * Halle , Saxony-Anhalt , Germany , since 1975 * Kansas City , Kansas , United States , since 1988

* Gwangyang , South Korea , since 1991 * Linköping , Sweden , since 1995 * Linz am Rhein , Rhineland-Palatinate , Germany , since 1987 * Modena , Modena , Emilia-Romagna , Italy , since 1992 * Albufeira , Algarve , Portugal , since 2008 * Sumgait , Azerbaijan , since 2009 * Brașov , Romania , since 2012

* Nizhny Novgorod , Russia , since 1993 * Norrköping , Sweden , since 1995 * San Carlos , Nicaragua since 1988 * Zaporizhia , Ukraine , since 1983 * Tampere , Finland , since 1995 * Eskişehir , Turkey , since 2012

SEE ALSO

* Linzer torte * List of mayors of Linz * Oberösterreich

NOTES

* ^ Statistik Austria - Bevölkerung zu Jahresbeginn 2002-2016 nach Gemeinden, Erstellt am 14.06.2016 (Last accessed 13.12.2016) for Linz. * ^ _A_ _B_ "LINZ - UNESCO City of Media Arts" (in German). Retrieved 10 January 2015. * ^ Stadtplanung Linz mit der Aufteilung der Flächennutzung, Mai 2014 * ^ _http://www.linz.at/zahlen/010_Stadtgebiet/_. Missing or empty title= (help ); External link in website= (help ); Missing or empty url= (help ) * ^ Paul Hofmann (5 April 1987). "Letting Linz Castle cast a spell". _The New York Times _. Retrieved 2 December 2008. * ^ Lundy, Darryl. "A genealogical survey of the peerage of Britain as well as the royal families of Europe". The Peerage. Retrieved 15 April 2008. * ^ Kershaw, Ian . _Hitler: 1889–1936: Hubris_. New York: Norton, 1998. p.15 * ^ "Adolf Hitler\'s hometown in Austria has opened an exhibition...", BBC * ^ Samuel W. Mitcham (2007). _Eagles of the Third Reich_. Stackpole. p. 261. ISBN 9780811734059 . Retrieved 27 September 2015. * ^ City of Linz Website statistik.at – Retrieved 31 October 2007 * ^ Population linz.at/zahlen – Retrieved 31 October 2007 * ^ " Linz in Zahlen". Stadt Linz. Retrieved 30 March 2015. * ^ "Klimadaten von Österreich 1971-2000 -Linz" (in German). Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics. Retrieved 6 September 2012. * ^ "LINZ AUCH IM KONGRESSBEREICH AUF ÜBERHOLSPUR" (in German). Retrieved 29 January 2015. * ^ "Tagungshandbuch 2014 web" (in German). Retrieved 29 January 2015. * ^ Linz Linien GmbH for Local Transport. Linz AG. Retrieved 29 August 2010. * ^ The Plague Column liwest.at – Retrieved 31 October 2007 * ^ The top of the column Archived 23 July 2006 at the Wayback Machine . linz.at – Retrieved 31 October 2007 * ^ "St. Martin\'s Church, Linz (in English)". Linz City Tourist Board. Retrieved 6 April 2008. * ^ "Mariendom (New Cathedral in Linz)". Mariendom. Retrieved 6 April 2008. * ^ Brucknerhaus andreas-praefcke.de – Retrieved 31 October 2007 * ^ "LASK". LASK. Archived from the original on 9 April 2008. Retrieved 6 April 2008. * ^ George Tabori . "Mein Kampf: Farce in fünf Akten" (in German). Landestheater. Retrieved 6 April 2008. * ^ "Die Spielzeit 2007/2008". Landestheater. Retrieved 6 April 2008. * ^ "Denkmäler" (in German). Retrieved 20 July 2016. * ^ The Lentos homepage lentos.at – Retrieved 10 November 2007 * ^ "Welcome Posthof 04 2008". Posthof. Retrieved 6 April 2008. * ^ "Stadtwerkstadt". Stadtwerkstadt. Retrieved 6 April 2008. * ^ " Pflasterspektakel Festival". Magistrat der Landeshauptstadt Linz. Archived from the original on 8 August 2010. Retrie