LinkedIn (/lɪŋkt.ɪn/) is a business- and employment-oriented
service that operates via websites and mobile apps. Founded on
December 28, 2002, and launched on May 5, 2003, it is mainly
used for professional networking, including employers posting jobs and
job seekers posting their CVs. As of 2015, most of the company's
revenue came from selling access to information about its members to
recruiters and sales professionals. As of April 2017,
500 million members in 200 countries, out of which more than 106
million members are active.
LinkedIn allows members (both workers
and employers) to create profiles and "connections" to each other in
an online social network which may represent real-world professional
relationships. Members can invite anyone (whether an existing member
or not) to become a connection. The "gated-access approach" (where
contact with any professional requires either an existing relationship
or an introduction through a contact of theirs) is intended to build
trust among the service's members.
LinkedIn participated in the EU's
International Safe Harbor Privacy Principles.
The site has an Alexa
Internet ranking as the 20th most popular
website (October 2016[update]). According to the New York Times, US
high school students are now creating
LinkedIn profiles to include
with their college applications.  Based in the United States, the
site is, as of 2013, available in 24 languages, including Arabic,
Chinese, English, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch,
Swedish, Danish, Romanian, Russian, Turkish, Japanese, Czech, Polish,
Korean, Indonesian, Malay, and Tagalog.
LinkedIn filed for an
initial public offering in January 2011 and traded its first shares on
May 19, 2011, under the NYSE symbol "LNKD".
On June 13, 2016,
Microsoft announced plans to acquire
$26.2 billion. The acquisition was completed on December 8,
2016. The transaction resulted in the payment of approximately
$26.4 billion in cash merger consideration.
1 Company overview
2.1 Founding to 2010
2.2 2011 to present
User profile network
3.2 Security and technology
3.3.1 External, third party applications
3.3.2 Embedded in profile
3.7 Online recruiting
3.9 Publishing platform
Advertising and for-pay research
4 Future plans
4.1 Economic graph
5 New user interface in 2017
5.1 User reaction
6 Discontinued features
7 Business units
9 International restrictions
10 SNA LinkedIn
11 Surveillance and NSA program
12.1 Use of e-mail accounts of members for spam sending
12.2 Moving Outlook mails on
13 See also
15 External links
LinkedIn headquarters on Stierlin Court in Mountain View, CA
LinkedIn is headquartered in Sunnyvale, California, with offices in
Omaha, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco, Washington DC,
Sao Paulo, London, Dublin, Amsterdam, Milan, Paris, Munich, Madrid,
Stockholm, Singapore, Hong Kong, China, Japan, Australia, Canada,
India and Dubai. In January 2016, the company had around 9,200
LinkedIn's CEO is Jeff Weiner, previously a
Yahoo! Inc. executive.
Founder Reid Hoffman, previously CEO of LinkedIn, is Chairman of the
Board. It is funded by Sequoia Capital, Greylock, Bain Capital
Bessemer Venture Partners
Bessemer Venture Partners and the European Founders
LinkedIn reached profitability in March 2006. Through
January 2011, the company had received a total of $103 million of
Founding to 2010
The company was founded in December 2002 by
Reid Hoffman and founding
team members from
PayPal and Socialnet.com (Allen Blue, Eric Ly,
Jean-Luc Vaillant, Lee Hower, Konstantin Guericke, Stephen Beitzel,
David Eves, Ian McNish, Yan Pujante, Chris Saccheri). In late
Sequoia Capital led the Series A investment in the company.
In August 2004,
LinkedIn reached 1 million users. In March 2006,
LinkedIn achieved its first month of profitability. In April 2007,
LinkedIn reached 10 million users. In February 2008, LinkedIn
launched a mobile version of the site.
In June 2008, Sequoia Capital, Greylock Partners, and other venture
capital firms purchased a 5% stake in the company for
$53 million, giving the company a post-money valuation of
approximately $1 billion. In November 2009,
its office in Mumbai and soon thereafter in Sydney, as it started
its Asia-Pacific team expansion. In 2010,
LinkedIn opened an
International Headquarters in Dublin, Ireland, received a $20
million investment from Tiger Global Management LLC at a valuation of
approximately $2 billion, announced its first acquisition,
Mspoke, and improved its 1% premium subscription ratio. In
October of that year, Silicon Valley Insider ranked the company No. 10
on its Top 100 List of most valuable start ups. By December, the
company was valued at $1.575 billion in private markets.
2011 to present
LinkedIn office building at
222 Second Street
222 Second Street in San Francisco (opened
in March 2016)
LinkedIn Office in Toronto.
LinkedIn filed for an initial public offering in January 2011. The
company traded its first shares on May 19, 2011, under the NYSE symbol
"LNKD", at $45 per share. Shares of
LinkedIn rose as much as 171% on
their first day of trade on the
New York Stock Exchange
New York Stock Exchange and closed at
$94.25, more than 109% above IPO price. Shortly after the IPO, the
site's underlying infrastructure was revised to allow accelerated
revision-release cycles. In 2011,
LinkedIn earned $154.6 million
in advertising revenue alone, surpassing Twitter, which earned $139.5
million. LinkedIn's fourth-quarter 2011 earnings soared because of
the company's increase in success in the social media world. By
LinkedIn had about 2,100 full-time employees compared to
the 500 that it had in 2010.
In Q2 2012,
LinkedIn leased 57,120 square feet on three floors of the
One Montgomery Tower
One Montgomery Tower building in the Financial District of San
Francisco, which was expanded to 135,000 square feet by 2014.
In May 2012,
LinkedIn announced that its Q1 2012 revenues were up to
$188.5 million compared to $93.9 million in Q1 2011. Net income
increased 140% over Q1 2011 to $5 million.
Revenue for Q2 was
estimated to be between $210 to $215 million. In November 2012,
LinkedIn released its third quarter earnings, reporting
earnings-per-share of $0.22 on revenue of $252 million. As a result of
these numbers, LinkedIn's stock increased to roughly $112 a share.
In April 2014,
LinkedIn announced that it had leased 222 Second
Street, a 26-story building under construction in San Francisco's SoMa
district, to accommodate up to 2,500 of its employees, with the
lease covering 10 years. The goal was to join all San
Francisco-based staff (1,250 as of January 2016) in one building,
bringing sales and marketing employees together with the research and
development team. They started to move in in March 2016. In
February 2016, following an earnings report, LinkedIn's shares dropped
43.6% within a single day, down to $108.38 per share.
$10 billion of its market capitalization that day.
On June 13, 2016,
Microsoft announced that it would acquire LinkedIn
for $196 a share, a total value of $26.2 billion and the largest
acquisition made by
Microsoft to date. The acquisition would be an
all-cash, debt-financed transaction.
Microsoft would allow
"retain its distinct brand, culture and independence", with Weiner to
remain as CEO, who would then report to
Microsoft CEO Satya Nadella.
Microsoft saw the opportunity to integrate LinkedIn
with its Office product suite to help better integrate the
professional network system with its products. The deal was completed
on December 8, 2016.
In late 2016,
LinkedIn announced a planned increase of 200 new
positions in its Dublin office, which would bring the total employee
count to 1,200.
In July 2012,
LinkedIn acquired 15 key
Digg patents for $4 million
including a "click a button to vote up a story" patent.
000000002010-08-04-0000August 4, 2010
Adaptive personalization of content
000000002010-09-23-0000September 23, 2010
Social B2B Reviews
Rate and review B2B service providers
000000002011-01-26-0000January 26, 2011
Scan and import business cards
000000002011-10-05-0000October 5, 2011
000000002011-10-11-0000October 11, 2011
000000002012-02-22-0000February 22, 2012
000000002012-05-03-0000May 3, 2012
LinkedIn members a way to discover people through content
000000002013-04-11-0000April 11, 2013
Web / Mobile newsreader
Definitive professional publishing platform
000000002014-02-06-0000February 6, 2014
000000002014-07-14-0000July 14, 2014
Allows users to follow real news about their
LinkedIn contacts, and public figures.
000000002014-07-22-0000July 22, 2014
Helps advertisers reach businesses and professionals
000000002015-03-16-0000March 16, 2015
Helps businesses hire people using social media
000000002015-04-02-0000April 2, 2015
Surfaces insights about people in your networks right before you meet
000000002015-04-09-0000April 9, 2015
Lets users learn business, technology, software, and creative skills
000000002015-08-28-0000August 28, 2015
Predictive Sales and
Using data science to help companies close more sales
000000002016-02-04-0000February 4, 2016
Helps companies with their recruiting
000000002016-07-26-0000July 26, 2016
Lets salespeople share visual content with prospective clients to help
seal the deal
In 2013, a class action lawsuit entitled Perkins vs.
LinkedIn Corp was
filed against the company, accusing it of automatically sending
invitations to contacts in a member's email address book without
permission. The court agreed with
LinkedIn that permission had in fact
been given for invitations to be sent, but not for the two further
LinkedIn settled the lawsuit in 2015 for $13
million. Many members should have received a notice in their email
with the subject line "Legal Notice of Settlement of Class Action".
The Case No. is 13-CV-04303-LHK .
Social media websites can also use "traditional" marketing approaches,
as seen in these LinkedIn-branded chocolates.
As of 2015,
LinkedIn had more than 400 million members in over 200
countries and territories. It is significantly ahead of its
Viadeo (50 million as of 2013) and XING
(11 million as of 2016). In 2011, its membership grew by
approximately two new members every second. As of 2018, there are
over half a billion
User profile network
The basic functionality of
LinkedIn allows users (workers and
employers) to create profiles, which for employees typically consist
of a curriculum vitae describing their work experience, education and
training, skills, and a personal photo. The site also enables members
to make "connections" to each other in an online social network which
may represent real-world professional relationships. Members can
invite anyone (whether a site member or not) to become a connection.
However, if the invitee selects "I don't know" or "Spam", this counts
against the inviter. If the inviter gets too many of such responses,
the member's account may be restricted or closed.
A member's list of connections can then be used in a number of ways:
Users can obtain introductions to the connections of connections
(termed second-degree connections) and connections of second-degree
connections (termed third-degree connections)
Users can search for second-degree connections who work at a specific
company they are interested in, and then ask a specific first-degree
connection in common for an introduction
Users can find jobs, people and business opportunities recommended by
someone in one's contact network.
Employers can list jobs and search for potential candidates.
Job seekers can review the profile of hiring managers and discover
which of their existing contacts can introduce them.
Users can post their own photos and view photos of others to aid in
Users can follow different companies.
Users can save (i.e. bookmark) jobs that they would like to apply for.
Users can "like" and "congratulate" each other's updates and new
Users can wish each other a happy birthday.
Users can see who has visited their profile page.
Users can share video with text and filters with the introduction of
Users can write posts and articles within the
LinkedIn platform to
share with their network.
The "gated-access approach" (where contact with any professional
requires either an existing relationship, or the intervention of a
contact of theirs) is intended to build trust among the service's
LinkedIn participated in the EU's International Safe Harbor
Security and technology
In June 2012, cryptographic hashes of approximately 6.4 million
LinkedIn user passwords were stolen by hackers who then published the
stolen hashes online. This action is known as the 2012 LinkedIn
hack. In response to the incident,
LinkedIn asked its users to change
their passwords. Security experts criticized
LinkedIn for not salting
their password file and for using a single iteration of SHA-1. On
May 31, 2013
LinkedIn added two-factor authentication, an important
security enhancement for preventing hackers from gaining access to
accounts. In May 2016, 117 million
LinkedIn usernames and
passwords were offered for sale online for the equivalent of
$2,200. These account details are believed to be sourced from the
LinkedIn hack, in which the number of user IDs stolen
had been underestimated. To handle the large volume of emails sent to
its users every day with notifications for messages, profile views,
important happenings in their network, and other things,
the Momentum email platform from Message Systems.
In 2014, Dell SecureWorks Counter Threat Unit (CTU) discovered that
Threat Group-2889, an Iran-based group, created 25 fake LinkedIn
accounts. The accounts were either fully developed personas or
supporting personas, and they use spearphishing or malicious websites
to comprise victims' information.[third-party source needed]
LinkedIn 'applications' often refers to external third party
applications that interact with LinkedIn's developer API. However, in
some cases it could refer to sanctioned applications featured on a
user's profile page.
External, third party applications
On February 12, 2015
their developer API. The developer API allows both companies and
individuals the ability to interact with LinkedIn's data through
creation of managed third party applications. Applications must go
through a review process and request permission from the user before
accessing a user's data.
Normal use of the API is outlined in LinkedIn's developer
Sign into external services using LinkedIn
Add items or attributes to a user profile
Share items or articles to user's timeline
Embedded in profile
In October 2008,
LinkedIn enabled an "applications platform" which
allows external online services to be embedded within a member's
profile page. Among the initial applications were an Amazon Reading
List that allows
LinkedIn members to display books they are reading, a
connection to Tripit, and a Six Apart,
WordPress and TypePad
application that allows members to display their latest blog postings
LinkedIn profile. In November 2010,
businesses to list products and services on company profile pages; it
LinkedIn members to "recommend" products and services
and write reviews. Shortly after, some of the external services
were no longer supported, including Amazon's Reading List
A mobile version of the site was launched in February 2008, which
gives access to a reduced feature set over a mobile phone. The mobile
service is available in six languages: Chinese, English, French,
German, Japanese and Spanish. In January 2011,
CardMunch, a mobile app maker that scans business cards and converts
into contacts. In June 2013, CardMunch was noted as an available
LinkedIn app. In August 2011,
LinkedIn revamped its mobile
applications on the iPhone, Android and HTML5. At the time, mobile
page views of the application were increasing roughly 400% year over
year according to CEO Jeff Weiner. In October 2013, LinkedIn
announced a service for iPhone users called "Intro", which inserts a
thumbnail of a person's
LinkedIn profile in correspondence with that
person when reading mail messages in the native iOS Mail program.
This is accomplished by re-routing all emails from and to the iPhone
LinkedIn servers, which security firm Bishop Fox asserts has
serious privacy implications, violates many organizations' security
policies, and resembles a man-in-the-middle attack.
LinkedIn also supports the formation of interest groups, and as of
March 29, 2012 there are 1,248,019 such groups whose membership varies
from 1 to 744,662. The majority of the largest groups are
employment related, although a very wide range of topics are covered
mainly around professional and career issues, and there are
currently[when?] 128,000 groups for both academic and corporate
alumni. Groups support a limited form of discussion
area, moderated by the group owners and managers. Since groups
offer the functionality to reach a wide audience without so easily
falling foul of anti-spam solutions, there is a constant stream of
spam postings, and there now exist a range of firms who offer a
spamming service for this very purpose.
LinkedIn has devised a few
mechanisms to reduce the volume of spam, but recently[when?] took
the decision to remove the ability of group owners to inspect the
email address of new members in order to determine if they were
spammers. Groups also keep their members informed
through emails with updates to the group, including most talked about
discussions within your professional circles. Groups may be
private, accessible to members only or may be open to
in general to read, though they must join in order to post messages.
In December 2011,
LinkedIn announced that they are rolling out polls
to groups. In November 2013,
LinkedIn announced the addition of
Showcase Pages to the platform. In 2014,
LinkedIn announced they
were going to be removing Product and Services Pages paving the
way for a greater focus on Showcase Pages.
LinkedIn allows users to research companies, non-profit organizations,
and governments they may be interested in working for. Typing the name
of a company or organization in the search box causes pop-up data
about the company or organization to appear. Such data may include the
ratio of female to male employees, the percentage of the most common
titles/positions held within the company, the location of the
company's headquarters and offices, and a list of present and former
employees. In July 2011,
LinkedIn launched a new feature allowing
companies to include an "Apply with LinkedIn" button on job listing
pages. The new plugin allowed potential employees to apply for
positions using their
LinkedIn profiles as resumes.
Job recruiters, head hunters, and personnel HR are increasingly using
LinkedIn as a source for finding potential candidates. By using the
Advanced search tools, recruiters can find members matching their
specific key words with a click of a button. They then can make
contact with those members by sending a request to connect or by
sending InMail about a specific job opportunity he or she may have.
Recruiters also often join industry based groups on
LinkedIn to create
connections with professionals in that line of business.
Since September 2012,
LinkedIn has enabled users to "endorse" each
other's skills. This feature also allows users to efficiently provide
commentary on other users' profiles – network building is
reinforced. However, there is no way of flagging anything other than
LinkedIn solicits endorsements using algorithms
that generate skills members might have. Members cannot opt out of
such solicitations, with the result that it sometimes appears that a
member is soliciting an endorsement for a non-existent skill.
LinkedIn continues to add different services to its platform to expand
the ways that people use it. On May 7, 2015,
LinkedIn added an
analytics tool to its publishing platform. The tool allows authors to
better track traffic that their posts receive.
LinkedIn Influencers program launched in October 2012 and features
global thought leaders who share their professional insights with
LinkedIn's members. As of May 2016, there are 750+ Influencers,
approximately 74% of which are male. The program is invite-only
and features leaders from a range of industries including Richard
Branson, Narendra Modi, Arianna Huffington, Greg McKeown, Rahm
Emanuel, Jamie Dimon, Martha Stewart, Deepak Chopra, Jack Welch, and
Advertising and for-pay research
LinkedIn DirectAds as a form of
sponsored advertising. In October 2008,
LinkedIn revealed plans
to open its social network of 30 million professionals globally as a
potential sample for business-to-business research. It is testing a
potential social network revenue model – research that to some
appears more promising than advertising. On July 23, 2013,
LinkedIn announced their Sponsored Updates ad service. Individuals and
companies can now pay a fee to have
LinkedIn sponsor their content and
spread it to their user base. This is a common way for social media
sites such as
LinkedIn to generate revenue.
Inspired by Facebook's "social graph",
Jeff Weiner set a
goal in 2012 to create an "economic graph" within a decade. The
goal is to create a comprehensive digital map of the world economy and
the connections within it. The economic graph was to be built on
the company's current platform with data nodes including companies,
jobs, skills, volunteer opportunities, educational institutions, and
content. They have been hoping to include all the job
listings in the world, all the skills required to get those jobs, all
the professionals who could fill them, and all the companies
(nonprofit and for-profit) at which they work. The ultimate goal
is to make the world economy and job market more efficient through
increased transparency. In June 2014, the company announced its
"Galene" search architecture to give users access to the economic
graph's data with more thorough filtering of data, via user searches
like "Engineers with Hadoop experience in Brazil."
LinkedIn has used economic graph data to research several topics on
the job market, including popular destination cities of recent college
graduates, areas with high concentrations of technology
skills, and common career transitions.
LinkedIn provided the
City of New York with data from economic graph showing "in-demand"
tech skills for the city's "Tech Talent Pipeline" project.
New user interface in 2017
Soon after LinkedIn's acquisition by Microsoft, on January 19, 2017,
LinkedIn's new desktop version was introduced. The new version
was meant to make the user experience seamless across mobile and
desktop. Some of the changes were made according to the feedback
received from the previously launched mobile app. Features that were
not heavily used were removed. For example, the contact tagging and
filtering features are not supported any more.
Following the launch of the new interface, some users, including
blogger Zubair Abbas, complained about the missing features which were
there in the older version, slowness and bugs in the UI. The
issues were faced by both free and premium users, and with both the
desktop version and the mobile version of the site.
In January 2013,
LinkedIn dropped support for
LinkedIn Answers, and
cited a new 'focus on development of new and more engaging ways to
share and discuss professional topics across LinkedIn' as the reason
for the retirement of the feature. The feature had been launched in
2007, and allowed users to post question to their network and allowed
users to rank answers.
On September 1, 2014
LinkedIn retired InMaps, a feature which allowed
you to visualize your professional network. The feature had been
in use since January 2011. The reason given for retirement of the
feature was "Sometimes we have to retire tools we love so we can focus
our attention and resources on creating even better experiences for
our members. We’re currently looking at new ways to help you
visualize and gain insights from your professional network. That’s
why we’re discontinuing InMaps as of September 1, 2014."
LinkedIn derives its revenues from four business divisions:
Talent Solutions, through which recruiters and corporations pay for
branded corporation and career listing pages, pay-per-click targeted
job ads, and access to the
LinkedIn database of users and resumes
Marketing Solutions, which advertisers pay for pay per click-through
Premium Subscriptions, through which
LinkedIn users can pay for
advanced services, such as
LinkedIn Talent (for
LinkedIn JobSeeker, and
LinkedIn Sales for sales
Learning Solutions, through which users can learn various skills
related to their job function or personal learning goals, on the
LinkedIn Learning platforms
Some elements of the various subscription services are also on a pay
per use basis like InMail[definition needed].
LinkedIn has been described by online trade publication TechRepublic
as having "become the de facto tool for professional networking".
LinkedIn has also been praised for its usefulness in fostering
business relationships. "
LinkedIn is, far and away, the most
advantageous social networking tool available to job seekers and
business professionals today," according to Forbes.
also received criticism, primarily regarding e-mail address mining and
The sign-up process includes a step for users to enter their email
password (there is an opt-out feature).
LinkedIn will then offer to
send out contact invitations to all members in that address book or
that the user has had email conversations with. When the member's
email address book is opened it is opened with all email addresses
selected and the member is advised invitations will be sent to
"selected" email addresses, or to all. Up to 1,500 invitations can
then be sent out in one click, with no possibility to undo or withdraw
LinkedIn was sued for sending out another two follow-up
invitations to each contact from members to link to friends who had
ignored the initial, authorized, invitation. In November 2014,
LinkedIn lost a motion to dismiss the lawsuit, in a ruling that the
invitations were advertisements not broadly protected by free speech
rights that would otherwise permit use of people's names and images
without authorization. The lawsuit was eventually
settled in 2015 in favor of
Changing the description below a member's name is seen as a change in
a job title, even if it is just a wording change or even a change to
"unemployed". Unless a member opts to "turn off activity updates", an
update is sent to all of that person's contacts, telling them to
congratulate the member on the "new job".
The feature that allows
LinkedIn members to "endorse" each other's
skills and experience has been criticized as meaningless, since the
endorsements are not necessarily accurate or given by people who have
familiarity with the member's skills. In October 2016, LinkedIn
acknowledged that it "really does matter who endorsed you" and began
highlighting endorsements from "coworkers and other mutual
connections" to address the criticism.
In 2014, the
Catalan language advocacy organization Fundació puntCat
launched an online campaign asking
LinkedIn to support the language
both in the platform's interface and as CV language; it gained more
than 3000 online signatures. In 2016, Plataforma per la Llengua
started another campaign asking for such a change.
LinkedIn has inspired the creation of specialised professional
networking opportunities, such as co-founder Eddie Lou's Chicago
startup, Shiftgig (released in 2012 as a platform for hourly
In 2009, Syrian users reported that
LinkedIn server stopped accepting
connections originating from IP addresses assigned to Syria. The
company's customer support stated that services provided by them are
subject to US export and re-export control laws and regulations and
"As such, and as a matter of corporate policy, we do not allow member
accounts or access to our site from Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Sudan, or
In February 2011, it was reported that
LinkedIn was being blocked in
China after calls for a "Jasmine Revolution". It was speculated to
have been blocked because it is an easy way for dissidents to access
Twitter, which had been blocked previously. After a day of being
LinkedIn access was restored in China.
In February 2014,
LinkedIn launched its Simplified Chinese language
version named "领英" (pinyin: Lǐngyīng; literally: "leading
elite"), officially extending their service in China.
Jeff Weiner acknowledged in a blog post that they would
have to censor some of the content that users post on its website in
order to comply with Chinese rules, but he also said the benefits of
providing its online service to people in China outweighed those
concerns. Since Autumn 2017 are
Job Postings from western
countries for China aren`t possible anymore.
On 4 August 2016, a Moscow court ruled that
LinkedIn must be blocked
in Russia for violating a new data retention law, which requires the
user data of Russian citizens to be stored on servers within the
country. This ban was upheld on 10 November 2016, and all Russian ISPs
LinkedIn thereafter. LinkedIn's mobile app was also
Google Play Store and iOS App Store in Russia in January
The Search, Network, and Analytics (SNA) team at
LinkedIn has a
website that hosts the open source projects built by the group.
Notable among these projects is Project Voldemort, a distributed
key-value structured storage system with low-latency similar in
purpose to Amazon.com's Dynamo and Google's Bigtable.
Surveillance and NSA program
In the 2013 global surveillance disclosures, documents released by
Edward Snowden revealed that British Government Communications
Headquarters (GCHQ) (an intelligence and security organisation)
infiltrated the Belgian telecommunications network
Belgacom by luring
employees to a false
Use of e-mail accounts of members for spam sending
LinkedIn sends "invite emails" to Outlook contacts from its members'
email accounts. The consent of the users is not at all or sometimes
difficult comprehensible overtaken. The "invitations" give the
impression that the e-mail holder himself has sent the invitation. If
there is no response, the answer will be repeated several times ("You
have not yet answered XY's invitation.")
LinkedIn was sued in the
United States on charges of hijacking e-mail accounts and spamming.
The company argued with the right to freedom of expression. In
addition, the users concerned would be supported in building a
Moving Outlook mails on
At the end of 2013, it was announced that the
LinkedIn app intercepted
users' emails and silently moved them to
LinkedIn servers for full
LinkedIn used man-in-the-middle attacks.
Stiftung Warentest has criticized that the allotment of
rights between users and
LinkedIn is disproportionate, restricting
users' rights excessively while granting the company far-reaching
rights. It has also been claimed that
LinkedIn does not respond
to consumer protection center requests.
In November 2016, Russia announced its intention to block the network
in its own country, as it "illegally stores data of Russian users on
servers abroad." The relevant law had been in force there since
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Timeline of social media
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