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LinkedIn
LinkedIn
(/lɪŋkt.ɪn/) is a business- and employment-oriented service that operates via websites and mobile apps. Founded on December 28, 2002,[5] and launched on May 5, 2003,[6] it is mainly used for professional networking, including employers posting jobs and job seekers posting their CVs. As of 2015, most of the company's revenue came from selling access to information about its members to recruiters and sales professionals.[7] As of April 2017, LinkedIn
LinkedIn
had 500 million members in 200 countries, out of which more than 106 million members are active.[4] LinkedIn
LinkedIn
allows members (both workers and employers) to create profiles and "connections" to each other in an online social network which may represent real-world professional relationships. Members can invite anyone (whether an existing member or not) to become a connection.[8] The "gated-access approach" (where contact with any professional requires either an existing relationship or an introduction through a contact of theirs) is intended to build trust among the service's members. LinkedIn
LinkedIn
participated in the EU's International Safe Harbor Privacy Principles.[9] The site has an Alexa Internet
Internet
ranking as the 20th most popular website (October 2016[update]).[3] According to the New York Times, US high school students are now creating LinkedIn
LinkedIn
profiles to include with their college applications. [10] Based in the United States, the site is, as of 2013, available in 24 languages,[11] including Arabic, Chinese, English, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch, Swedish, Danish, Romanian, Russian, Turkish, Japanese, Czech, Polish, Korean, Indonesian, Malay, and Tagalog.[12][13] LinkedIn
LinkedIn
filed for an initial public offering in January 2011 and traded its first shares on May 19, 2011, under the NYSE symbol "LNKD".[14] On June 13, 2016, Microsoft
Microsoft
announced plans to acquire LinkedIn
LinkedIn
for $26.2 billion.[15][16] The acquisition was completed on December 8, 2016.[17] The transaction resulted in the payment of approximately $26.4 billion in cash merger consideration.[18]

Contents

1 Company overview 2 History

2.1 Founding to 2010 2.2 2011 to present 2.3 Acquisitions 2.4 Lawsuit

3 Membership

3.1 User profile
User profile
network 3.2 Security and technology 3.3 Applications

3.3.1 External, third party applications 3.3.2 Embedded in profile

3.4 Mobile 3.5 Groups 3.6 Job
Job
listings 3.7 Online recruiting 3.8 Skills 3.9 Publishing platform 3.10 Influencers 3.11 Advertising
Advertising
and for-pay research

4 Future plans

4.1 Economic graph

5 New user interface in 2017

5.1 User reaction

6 Discontinued features 7 Business units 8 Reception 9 International restrictions 10 SNA LinkedIn 11 Surveillance and NSA program 12 Criticism

12.1 Use of e-mail accounts of members for spam sending 12.2 Moving Outlook mails on LinkedIn
LinkedIn
servers 12.3 Privacy policy

13 See also 14 References 15 External links

Company overview[edit]

Former LinkedIn
LinkedIn
headquarters on Stierlin Court in Mountain View, CA

LinkedIn
LinkedIn
is headquartered in Sunnyvale, California, with offices in Omaha, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco, Washington DC, Sao Paulo, London, Dublin, Amsterdam, Milan, Paris, Munich, Madrid, Stockholm, Singapore, Hong Kong, China, Japan, Australia, Canada, India and Dubai. In January 2016, the company had around 9,200 employees.[2] LinkedIn's CEO is Jeff Weiner,[11] previously a Yahoo!
Yahoo!
Inc. executive. Founder Reid Hoffman, previously CEO of LinkedIn, is Chairman of the Board.[11][19] It is funded by Sequoia Capital, Greylock, Bain Capital Ventures,[20] Bessemer Venture Partners
Bessemer Venture Partners
and the European Founders Fund.[21] LinkedIn
LinkedIn
reached profitability in March 2006.[22] Through January 2011, the company had received a total of $103 million of investment.[23] History[edit] Founding to 2010[edit] The company was founded in December 2002 by Reid Hoffman
Reid Hoffman
and founding team members from PayPal
PayPal
and Socialnet.com (Allen Blue, Eric Ly, Jean-Luc Vaillant, Lee Hower, Konstantin Guericke, Stephen Beitzel, David Eves, Ian McNish, Yan Pujante, Chris Saccheri).[24] In late 2003, Sequoia Capital
Sequoia Capital
led the Series A investment in the company.[25] In August 2004, LinkedIn
LinkedIn
reached 1 million users.[26] In March 2006, LinkedIn
LinkedIn
achieved its first month of profitability.[26] In April 2007, LinkedIn
LinkedIn
reached 10 million users.[26] In February 2008, LinkedIn launched a mobile version of the site.[27] In June 2008, Sequoia Capital, Greylock Partners, and other venture capital firms purchased a 5% stake in the company for $53 million, giving the company a post-money valuation of approximately $1 billion.[28] In November 2009, LinkedIn
LinkedIn
opened its office in Mumbai[29] and soon thereafter in Sydney, as it started its Asia-Pacific team expansion. In 2010, LinkedIn
LinkedIn
opened an International Headquarters in Dublin, Ireland,[30] received a $20 million investment from Tiger Global Management LLC at a valuation of approximately $2 billion,[31] announced its first acquisition, Mspoke,[32] and improved its 1% premium subscription ratio.[33] In October of that year, Silicon Valley Insider ranked the company No. 10 on its Top 100 List of most valuable start ups.[34] By December, the company was valued at $1.575 billion in private markets.[35] 2011 to present[edit]

LinkedIn
LinkedIn
office building at 222 Second Street
222 Second Street
in San Francisco (opened in March 2016)

LinkedIn
LinkedIn
Office in Toronto.

LinkedIn
LinkedIn
filed for an initial public offering in January 2011. The company traded its first shares on May 19, 2011, under the NYSE symbol "LNKD", at $45 per share. Shares of LinkedIn
LinkedIn
rose as much as 171% on their first day of trade on the New York Stock Exchange
New York Stock Exchange
and closed at $94.25, more than 109% above IPO price. Shortly after the IPO, the site's underlying infrastructure was revised to allow accelerated revision-release cycles.[11] In 2011, LinkedIn
LinkedIn
earned $154.6 million in advertising revenue alone, surpassing Twitter, which earned $139.5 million.[36] LinkedIn's fourth-quarter 2011 earnings soared because of the company's increase in success in the social media world.[37] By this point, LinkedIn
LinkedIn
had about 2,100 full-time employees compared to the 500 that it had in 2010.[38] In Q2 2012, LinkedIn
LinkedIn
leased 57,120 square feet on three floors of the One Montgomery Tower
One Montgomery Tower
building in the Financial District of San Francisco, which was expanded to 135,000 square feet by 2014.[39][40] In May 2012, LinkedIn
LinkedIn
announced that its Q1 2012 revenues were up to $188.5 million compared to $93.9 million in Q1 2011. Net income increased 140% over Q1 2011 to $5 million. Revenue
Revenue
for Q2 was estimated to be between $210 to $215 million.[41] In November 2012, LinkedIn
LinkedIn
released its third quarter earnings, reporting earnings-per-share of $0.22 on revenue of $252 million. As a result of these numbers, LinkedIn's stock increased to roughly $112 a share.[42] In April 2014, LinkedIn
LinkedIn
announced that it had leased 222 Second Street, a 26-story building under construction in San Francisco's SoMa district, to accommodate up to 2,500 of its employees,[40] with the lease covering 10 years.[2] The goal was to join all San Francisco-based staff (1,250 as of January 2016) in one building, bringing sales and marketing employees together with the research and development team.[2] They started to move in in March 2016.[2] In February 2016, following an earnings report, LinkedIn's shares dropped 43.6% within a single day, down to $108.38 per share. LinkedIn
LinkedIn
lost $10 billion of its market capitalization that day.[43][44] On June 13, 2016, Microsoft
Microsoft
announced that it would acquire LinkedIn for $196 a share, a total value of $26.2 billion and the largest acquisition made by Microsoft
Microsoft
to date. The acquisition would be an all-cash, debt-financed transaction. Microsoft
Microsoft
would allow LinkedIn
LinkedIn
to "retain its distinct brand, culture and independence", with Weiner to remain as CEO, who would then report to Microsoft
Microsoft
CEO Satya Nadella. Analysts believed Microsoft
Microsoft
saw the opportunity to integrate LinkedIn with its Office product suite to help better integrate the professional network system with its products. The deal was completed on December 8, 2016.[16] In late 2016, LinkedIn
LinkedIn
announced a planned increase of 200 new positions in its Dublin office, which would bring the total employee count to 1,200.[45] Acquisitions[edit] In July 2012, LinkedIn
LinkedIn
acquired 15 key Digg
Digg
patents for $4 million including a "click a button to vote up a story" patent.[46]

Number Acquisition date Company Business Country Price Description Ref.

1 000000002010-08-04-0000August 4, 2010 mspoke Adaptive personalization of content  USA $0.6 million[47] LinkedIn
LinkedIn
Recommendations [48]

2 000000002010-09-23-0000September 23, 2010 ChoiceVendor Social B2B Reviews  USA $3.9 million[49] Rate and review B2B service providers [50]

3 000000002011-01-26-0000January 26, 2011 CardMunch Social Contacts  USA $1.7 million[47] Scan and import business cards [51]

4 000000002011-10-05-0000October 5, 2011 Connected Social CRM  USA - LinkedIn
LinkedIn
Connected [52]

5 000000002011-10-11-0000October 11, 2011 IndexTank Social search  USA - LinkedIn
LinkedIn
Search [53]

6 000000002012-02-22-0000February 22, 2012 Rapportive Social Contacts  USA $15 million[54] - [55]

7 000000002012-05-03-0000May 3, 2012 SlideShare Social Content  USA $119 million Give LinkedIn
LinkedIn
members a way to discover people through content [56]

8 000000002013-04-11-0000April 11, 2013 Pulse Web / Mobile newsreader  USA $90 million Definitive professional publishing platform [57]

9 000000002014-02-06-0000February 6, 2014 Bright.com Job
Job
Matching  USA $120 million

[58]

10 000000002014-07-14-0000July 14, 2014 Newsle Web application  USA - Allows users to follow real news about their Facebook
Facebook
friends, LinkedIn
LinkedIn
contacts, and public figures. [59]

11 000000002014-07-22-0000July 22, 2014 Bizo Web application  USA $175 million Helps advertisers reach businesses and professionals [60]

12 000000002015-03-16-0000March 16, 2015 Careerify Web application  Canada - Helps businesses hire people using social media [61]

13 000000002015-04-02-0000April 2, 2015 Refresh.io Web application  USA - Surfaces insights about people in your networks right before you meet them [62]

14 000000002015-04-09-0000April 9, 2015 Lynda.com eLearning  USA $1.5 billion[63] Lets users learn business, technology, software, and creative skills through videos [64]

15 000000002015-08-28-0000August 28, 2015 Fliptop Predictive Sales and Marketing
Marketing
Firm  USA - Using data science to help companies close more sales [65]

16 000000002016-02-04-0000February 4, 2016 Connectifier Web application  USA - Helps companies with their recruiting [66]

17 000000002016-07-26-0000July 26, 2016 PointDrive Web application  USA - Lets salespeople share visual content with prospective clients to help seal the deal [67]

Lawsuit[edit] In 2013, a class action lawsuit entitled Perkins vs. LinkedIn
LinkedIn
Corp was filed against the company, accusing it of automatically sending invitations to contacts in a member's email address book without permission. The court agreed with LinkedIn
LinkedIn
that permission had in fact been given for invitations to be sent, but not for the two further reminder emails.[68] LinkedIn
LinkedIn
settled the lawsuit in 2015 for $13 million.[69] Many members should have received a notice in their email with the subject line "Legal Notice of Settlement of Class Action". The Case No. is 13-CV-04303-LHK .[70] Membership[edit]

Social media websites can also use "traditional" marketing approaches, as seen in these LinkedIn-branded chocolates.

As of 2015, LinkedIn
LinkedIn
had more than 400 million members in over 200 countries and territories.[11][71] It is significantly ahead of its competitors Viadeo
Viadeo
(50 million as of 2013)[72] and XING (11 million as of 2016).[73] In 2011, its membership grew by approximately two new members every second.[74] As of 2018, there are over half a billion LinkedIn
LinkedIn
members.[75] User profile
User profile
network[edit] The basic functionality of LinkedIn
LinkedIn
allows users (workers and employers) to create profiles, which for employees typically consist of a curriculum vitae describing their work experience, education and training, skills, and a personal photo. The site also enables members to make "connections" to each other in an online social network which may represent real-world professional relationships. Members can invite anyone (whether a site member or not) to become a connection. However, if the invitee selects "I don't know" or "Spam", this counts against the inviter. If the inviter gets too many of such responses, the member's account may be restricted or closed.[8] A member's list of connections can then be used in a number of ways:

Users can obtain introductions to the connections of connections (termed second-degree connections) and connections of second-degree connections (termed third-degree connections) Users can search for second-degree connections who work at a specific company they are interested in, and then ask a specific first-degree connection in common for an introduction[76] Users can find jobs, people and business opportunities recommended by someone in one's contact network. Employers can list jobs and search for potential candidates. Job
Job
seekers can review the profile of hiring managers and discover which of their existing contacts can introduce them. Users can post their own photos and view photos of others to aid in identification. Users can follow different companies. Users can save (i.e. bookmark) jobs that they would like to apply for. Users can "like" and "congratulate" each other's updates and new employments. Users can wish each other a happy birthday. Users can see who has visited their profile page. Users can share video with text and filters with the introduction of LinkedIn
LinkedIn
Video.[77][78] Users can write posts and articles[79] within the LinkedIn
LinkedIn
platform to share with their network.

The "gated-access approach" (where contact with any professional requires either an existing relationship, or the intervention of a contact of theirs) is intended to build trust among the service's users. LinkedIn
LinkedIn
participated in the EU's International Safe Harbor Privacy Principles.[9] Security and technology[edit] In June 2012, cryptographic hashes of approximately 6.4 million LinkedIn
LinkedIn
user passwords were stolen by hackers who then published the stolen hashes online.[80] This action is known as the 2012 LinkedIn hack. In response to the incident, LinkedIn
LinkedIn
asked its users to change their passwords. Security experts criticized LinkedIn
LinkedIn
for not salting their password file and for using a single iteration of SHA-1.[81] On May 31, 2013 LinkedIn
LinkedIn
added two-factor authentication, an important security enhancement for preventing hackers from gaining access to accounts.[82] In May 2016, 117 million LinkedIn
LinkedIn
usernames and passwords were offered for sale online for the equivalent of $2,200.[83] These account details are believed to be sourced from the original 2012 LinkedIn
LinkedIn
hack, in which the number of user IDs stolen had been underestimated. To handle the large volume of emails sent to its users every day with notifications for messages, profile views, important happenings in their network, and other things, LinkedIn
LinkedIn
uses the Momentum email platform from Message Systems.[84] In 2014, Dell SecureWorks Counter Threat Unit (CTU) discovered that Threat Group-2889, an Iran-based group, created 25 fake LinkedIn accounts. The accounts were either fully developed personas or supporting personas, and they use spearphishing or malicious websites to comprise victims' information.[85][third-party source needed] Applications[edit] LinkedIn
LinkedIn
'applications' often refers to external third party applications that interact with LinkedIn's developer API. However, in some cases it could refer to sanctioned applications featured on a user's profile page. External, third party applications[edit] On February 12, 2015 LinkedIn
LinkedIn
released an updated terms of use for their developer API.[86] The developer API allows both companies and individuals the ability to interact with LinkedIn's data through creation of managed third party applications. Applications must go through a review process and request permission from the user before accessing a user's data. Normal use of the API is outlined in LinkedIn's developer documents,[87] including:

Sign into external services using LinkedIn Add items or attributes to a user profile Share items or articles to user's timeline

Embedded in profile[edit] In October 2008, LinkedIn
LinkedIn
enabled an "applications platform" which allows external online services to be embedded within a member's profile page. Among the initial applications were an Amazon Reading List that allows LinkedIn
LinkedIn
members to display books they are reading, a connection to Tripit, and a Six Apart, WordPress
WordPress
and TypePad application that allows members to display their latest blog postings within their LinkedIn
LinkedIn
profile.[88] In November 2010, LinkedIn
LinkedIn
allowed businesses to list products and services on company profile pages; it also permitted LinkedIn
LinkedIn
members to "recommend" products and services and write reviews.[89] Shortly after, some of the external services were no longer supported, including Amazon's Reading List[90] Mobile[edit] A mobile version of the site was launched in February 2008, which gives access to a reduced feature set over a mobile phone. The mobile service is available in six languages: Chinese, English, French, German, Japanese and Spanish.[91] In January 2011, LinkedIn
LinkedIn
acquired CardMunch, a mobile app maker that scans business cards and converts into contacts.[92] In June 2013, CardMunch was noted as an available LinkedIn
LinkedIn
app.[11] In August 2011, LinkedIn
LinkedIn
revamped its mobile applications on the iPhone, Android and HTML5. At the time, mobile page views of the application were increasing roughly 400% year over year according to CEO Jeff Weiner.[93] In October 2013, LinkedIn announced a service for iPhone users called "Intro", which inserts a thumbnail of a person's LinkedIn
LinkedIn
profile in correspondence with that person when reading mail messages in the native iOS Mail program.[94] This is accomplished by re-routing all emails from and to the iPhone through LinkedIn
LinkedIn
servers, which security firm Bishop Fox asserts has serious privacy implications, violates many organizations' security policies, and resembles a man-in-the-middle attack.[95][96] Groups[edit] LinkedIn
LinkedIn
also supports the formation of interest groups, and as of March 29, 2012 there are 1,248,019 such groups whose membership varies from 1 to 744,662.[97][98] The majority of the largest groups are employment related, although a very wide range of topics are covered mainly around professional and career issues, and there are currently[when?] 128,000 groups for both academic and corporate alumni.[citation needed] Groups support a limited form of discussion area, moderated by the group owners and managers.[99] Since groups offer the functionality to reach a wide audience without so easily falling foul of anti-spam solutions, there is a constant stream of spam postings, and there now exist a range of firms who offer a spamming service for this very purpose. LinkedIn
LinkedIn
has devised a few mechanisms to reduce the volume of spam,[100] but recently[when?] took the decision to remove the ability of group owners to inspect the email address of new members in order to determine if they were spammers.[citation needed] Groups also keep their members informed through emails with updates to the group, including most talked about discussions within your professional circles.[97][101] Groups may be private, accessible to members only or may be open to Internet
Internet
users in general to read, though they must join in order to post messages. In December 2011, LinkedIn
LinkedIn
announced that they are rolling out polls to groups.[102] In November 2013, LinkedIn
LinkedIn
announced the addition of Showcase Pages to the platform.[103] In 2014, LinkedIn
LinkedIn
announced they were going to be removing Product and Services Pages[104] paving the way for a greater focus on Showcase Pages.[105] Job
Job
listings[edit] LinkedIn
LinkedIn
allows users to research companies, non-profit organizations, and governments they may be interested in working for. Typing the name of a company or organization in the search box causes pop-up data about the company or organization to appear. Such data may include the ratio of female to male employees, the percentage of the most common titles/positions held within the company, the location of the company's headquarters and offices, and a list of present and former employees. In July 2011, LinkedIn
LinkedIn
launched a new feature allowing companies to include an "Apply with LinkedIn" button on job listing pages.[106] The new plugin allowed potential employees to apply for positions using their LinkedIn
LinkedIn
profiles as resumes.[106] Online recruiting[edit] Job
Job
recruiters, head hunters, and personnel HR are increasingly using LinkedIn
LinkedIn
as a source for finding potential candidates. By using the Advanced search tools, recruiters can find members matching their specific key words with a click of a button. They then can make contact with those members by sending a request to connect or by sending InMail about a specific job opportunity he or she may have. Recruiters also often join industry based groups on LinkedIn
LinkedIn
to create connections with professionals in that line of business.[107] Skills[edit] Since September 2012, LinkedIn
LinkedIn
has enabled users to "endorse" each other's skills. This feature also allows users to efficiently provide commentary on other users' profiles – network building is reinforced. However, there is no way of flagging anything other than positive content.[108] LinkedIn
LinkedIn
solicits endorsements using algorithms that generate skills members might have. Members cannot opt out of such solicitations, with the result that it sometimes appears that a member is soliciting an endorsement for a non-existent skill.[109] Publishing platform[edit] LinkedIn
LinkedIn
continues to add different services to its platform to expand the ways that people use it. On May 7, 2015, LinkedIn
LinkedIn
added an analytics tool to its publishing platform. The tool allows authors to better track traffic that their posts receive.[110] Influencers[edit] The LinkedIn
LinkedIn
Influencers program launched in October 2012 and features global thought leaders who share their professional insights with LinkedIn's members. As of May 2016, there are 750+ Influencers, approximately 74% of which are male.[111] The program is invite-only and features leaders from a range of industries including Richard Branson, Narendra Modi, Arianna Huffington, Greg McKeown, Rahm Emanuel, Jamie Dimon, Martha Stewart, Deepak Chopra, Jack Welch, and Bill Gates.[112][113] Advertising
Advertising
and for-pay research[edit] In mid-2008, LinkedIn
LinkedIn
launched LinkedIn
LinkedIn
DirectAds as a form of sponsored advertising.[114] In October 2008, LinkedIn
LinkedIn
revealed plans to open its social network of 30 million professionals globally as a potential sample for business-to-business research. It is testing a potential social network revenue model – research that to some appears more promising than advertising.[115] On July 23, 2013, LinkedIn
LinkedIn
announced their Sponsored Updates ad service. Individuals and companies can now pay a fee to have LinkedIn
LinkedIn
sponsor their content and spread it to their user base. This is a common way for social media sites such as LinkedIn
LinkedIn
to generate revenue.[116] Future plans[edit] Economic graph[edit] Inspired by Facebook's "social graph", LinkedIn
LinkedIn
CEO Jeff Weiner
Jeff Weiner
set a goal in 2012 to create an "economic graph" within a decade.[117] The goal is to create a comprehensive digital map of the world economy and the connections within it.[118] The economic graph was to be built on the company's current platform with data nodes including companies, jobs, skills, volunteer opportunities, educational institutions, and content.[119][120][121] They have been hoping to include all the job listings in the world, all the skills required to get those jobs, all the professionals who could fill them, and all the companies (nonprofit and for-profit) at which they work.[119] The ultimate goal is to make the world economy and job market more efficient through increased transparency.[117] In June 2014, the company announced its "Galene" search architecture to give users access to the economic graph's data with more thorough filtering of data, via user searches like "Engineers with Hadoop experience in Brazil."[122][123] LinkedIn
LinkedIn
has used economic graph data to research several topics on the job market, including popular destination cities of recent college graduates,[124] areas with high concentrations of technology skills,[125] and common career transitions.[126] LinkedIn
LinkedIn
provided the City of New York with data from economic graph showing "in-demand" tech skills for the city's "Tech Talent Pipeline" project.[127] New user interface in 2017[edit] Soon after LinkedIn's acquisition by Microsoft, on January 19, 2017, LinkedIn's new desktop version was introduced.[128] The new version was meant to make the user experience seamless across mobile and desktop. Some of the changes were made according to the feedback received from the previously launched mobile app. Features that were not heavily used were removed. For example, the contact tagging and filtering features are not supported any more.[129] User reaction[edit] Following the launch of the new interface, some users, including blogger Zubair Abbas, complained about the missing features which were there in the older version, slowness and bugs in the UI.[130] The issues were faced by both free and premium users, and with both the desktop version and the mobile version of the site. Discontinued features[edit] In January 2013, LinkedIn
LinkedIn
dropped support for LinkedIn
LinkedIn
Answers, and cited a new 'focus on development of new and more engaging ways to share and discuss professional topics across LinkedIn' as the reason for the retirement of the feature. The feature had been launched in 2007, and allowed users to post question to their network and allowed users to rank answers.[131] On September 1, 2014 LinkedIn
LinkedIn
retired InMaps, a feature which allowed you to visualize your professional network.[132] The feature had been in use since January 2011. The reason given for retirement of the feature was "Sometimes we have to retire tools we love so we can focus our attention and resources on creating even better experiences for our members. We’re currently looking at new ways to help you visualize and gain insights from your professional network. That’s why we’re discontinuing InMaps as of September 1, 2014." Business units[edit] LinkedIn
LinkedIn
derives its revenues from four business divisions:[133]

Talent Solutions, through which recruiters and corporations pay for branded corporation and career listing pages, pay-per-click targeted job ads, and access to the LinkedIn
LinkedIn
database of users and resumes Marketing
Marketing
Solutions, which advertisers pay for pay per click-through targeted ads Premium Subscriptions, through which LinkedIn
LinkedIn
users can pay for advanced services, such as LinkedIn
LinkedIn
Business, LinkedIn
LinkedIn
Talent (for recruiters), LinkedIn
LinkedIn
JobSeeker, and LinkedIn
LinkedIn
Sales for sales professions Learning Solutions, through which users can learn various skills related to their job function or personal learning goals, on the Lynda.com
Lynda.com
or LinkedIn
LinkedIn
Learning platforms

Some elements of the various subscription services are also on a pay per use basis like InMail[definition needed]. Reception[edit] LinkedIn
LinkedIn
has been described by online trade publication TechRepublic as having "become the de facto tool for professional networking".[134] LinkedIn
LinkedIn
has also been praised for its usefulness in fostering business relationships.[135] " LinkedIn
LinkedIn
is, far and away, the most advantageous social networking tool available to job seekers and business professionals today," according to Forbes.[136] LinkedIn
LinkedIn
has also received criticism, primarily regarding e-mail address mining and auto-update.

The sign-up process includes a step for users to enter their email password (there is an opt-out feature). LinkedIn
LinkedIn
will then offer to send out contact invitations to all members in that address book or that the user has had email conversations with. When the member's email address book is opened it is opened with all email addresses selected and the member is advised invitations will be sent to "selected" email addresses, or to all. Up to 1,500 invitations can then be sent out in one click, with no possibility to undo or withdraw them. LinkedIn
LinkedIn
was sued for sending out another two follow-up invitations to each contact from members to link to friends who had ignored the initial, authorized, invitation. In November 2014, LinkedIn
LinkedIn
lost a motion to dismiss the lawsuit, in a ruling that the invitations were advertisements not broadly protected by free speech rights that would otherwise permit use of people's names and images without authorization.[137][138][139][140] The lawsuit was eventually settled in 2015 in favor of LinkedIn
LinkedIn
members.[69] Changing the description below a member's name is seen as a change in a job title, even if it is just a wording change or even a change to "unemployed". Unless a member opts to "turn off activity updates", an update is sent to all of that person's contacts, telling them to congratulate the member on the "new job".[141] The feature that allows LinkedIn
LinkedIn
members to "endorse" each other's skills and experience has been criticized as meaningless, since the endorsements are not necessarily accurate or given by people who have familiarity with the member's skills.[142] In October 2016, LinkedIn acknowledged that it "really does matter who endorsed you" and began highlighting endorsements from "coworkers and other mutual connections" to address the criticism.[143] In 2014, the Catalan language
Catalan language
advocacy organization Fundació puntCat launched an online campaign asking LinkedIn
LinkedIn
to support the language both in the platform's interface and as CV language; it gained more than 3000 online signatures.[144] In 2016, Plataforma per la Llengua started another campaign asking for such a change.[145] LinkedIn
LinkedIn
has inspired the creation of specialised professional networking opportunities, such as co-founder Eddie Lou's Chicago startup, Shiftgig (released in 2012 as a platform for hourly workers).[146]

International restrictions[edit] In 2009, Syrian users reported that LinkedIn
LinkedIn
server stopped accepting connections originating from IP addresses assigned to Syria. The company's customer support stated that services provided by them are subject to US export and re-export control laws and regulations and "As such, and as a matter of corporate policy, we do not allow member accounts or access to our site from Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Sudan, or Syria."[147] In February 2011, it was reported that LinkedIn
LinkedIn
was being blocked in China after calls for a "Jasmine Revolution". It was speculated to have been blocked because it is an easy way for dissidents to access Twitter, which had been blocked previously.[148] After a day of being blocked, LinkedIn
LinkedIn
access was restored in China.[149] In February 2014, LinkedIn
LinkedIn
launched its Simplified Chinese language version named "领英" (pinyin: Lǐngyīng; literally: "leading elite"), officially extending their service in China.[150][151] LinkedIn
LinkedIn
CEO Jeff Weiner
Jeff Weiner
acknowledged in a blog post that they would have to censor some of the content that users post on its website in order to comply with Chinese rules, but he also said the benefits of providing its online service to people in China outweighed those concerns.[150][152] Since Autumn 2017 are Job
Job
Postings from western countries for China aren`t possible anymore.[153] On 4 August 2016, a Moscow court ruled that LinkedIn
LinkedIn
must be blocked in Russia for violating a new data retention law, which requires the user data of Russian citizens to be stored on servers within the country. This ban was upheld on 10 November 2016, and all Russian ISPs began blocking LinkedIn
LinkedIn
thereafter. LinkedIn's mobile app was also banned from Google
Google
Play Store and iOS App Store in Russia in January 2017.[154][155] SNA LinkedIn[edit] The Search, Network, and Analytics (SNA) team at LinkedIn
LinkedIn
has a website[156] that hosts the open source projects built by the group. Notable among these projects is Project Voldemort,[157] a distributed key-value structured storage system with low-latency similar in purpose to Amazon.com's Dynamo and Google's Bigtable. Surveillance and NSA program[edit] In the 2013 global surveillance disclosures, documents released by Edward Snowden
Edward Snowden
revealed that British Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) (an intelligence and security organisation) infiltrated the Belgian telecommunications network Belgacom
Belgacom
by luring employees to a false LinkedIn
LinkedIn
page.[158] Criticism[edit] Use of e-mail accounts of members for spam sending[edit] LinkedIn
LinkedIn
sends "invite emails" to Outlook contacts from its members' email accounts. The consent of the users is not at all or sometimes difficult comprehensible overtaken. The "invitations" give the impression that the e-mail holder himself has sent the invitation. If there is no response, the answer will be repeated several times ("You have not yet answered XY's invitation.") LinkedIn
LinkedIn
was sued in the United States
United States
on charges of hijacking e-mail accounts and spamming. The company argued with the right to freedom of expression. In addition, the users concerned would be supported in building a network.[159][160][161] Moving Outlook mails on LinkedIn
LinkedIn
servers[edit] At the end of 2013, it was announced that the LinkedIn
LinkedIn
app intercepted users' emails and silently moved them to LinkedIn
LinkedIn
servers for full access.[162] LinkedIn
LinkedIn
used man-in-the-middle attacks.[163] Privacy policy[edit] The German Stiftung Warentest
Stiftung Warentest
has criticized that the allotment of rights between users and LinkedIn
LinkedIn
is disproportionate, restricting users' rights excessively while granting the company far-reaching rights.[164] It has also been claimed that LinkedIn
LinkedIn
does not respond to consumer protection center requests.[165] In November 2016, Russia announced its intention to block the network in its own country, as it "illegally stores data of Russian users on servers abroad." The relevant law had been in force there since 2014.[166][167] See also[edit]

Business network Employment
Employment
website List of social networking websites Reputation systems Social network Social software Timeline of social media

References[edit]

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LinkedIn
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LinkedIn
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Adopts 'Recommend' Over 'Like'", Clickz.com, November 2, 2010 ^ What happened to Amazon reading list..., Quora, January 08, 2013 ^ "Social-networking site LinkedIN introduces mobile version". tweakers.net. Retrieved February 25, 2008.  ^ CardMunch acquired by LinkedIn, shoutEx.com Feb 2011 ^ Geron, Tomio (August 16, 2011). " LinkedIn
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'Intro'duces Insecurity". Bishop Fox. Retrieved 2015-10-06.  ^ Fox, Bishop (2013-11-01). "An Introspection On Intro Security". Bishop Fox. Retrieved 2015-10-06.  ^ a b "Groups Directory". LinkedIn. Retrieved December 8, 2011.  ^ "World's Largest LinkedIn
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to Headhunt". US News & World Report. Retrieved July 3, 2015.  ^ "What endorsements mean". NetworkComputing. Retrieved 29 April 2014.  ^ Taub, Eric A. (December 4, 2013). "The Path to Happy Employment, Contact by Contact on LinkedIn". The New York Times.  ^ By Ingrid Lunden, TechCrunch. ""Who's Viewed Your Posts?" LinkedIn Adds Analytics To Its Publishing Platform." May 7, 2015. May 7, 2015. ^ "Will LinkedIn
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Builds Its Publishing Presence", The New York Times, New York,16 June 2013. Retrieved on 19 July 2013. ^ " LinkedIn
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Direct Ads vs Google
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LinkedIn
Expands Ad Program With Launch Of Sponsored Updates Program". Techcruch.com. Retrieved 2015-10-06.  ^ a b Steve Kovach Nov. 27, 2012 Jeff Weiner
Jeff Weiner
Just Revealed A Surprising Long-Term Vision For LinkedIn
LinkedIn
Business Insider ^ Rachel King September 9, 2013 LinkedIn's long-term plan? Build the 'world's first economic graph,' says CEO ZDNet's Between the Lines ^ a b Tomio Geron September 9, 2013. Jeff Weiner: LinkedIn
LinkedIn
Is Building A Massive Global 'Economic Graph' Forbes ^ Ingrid Lunden Jan 15, 2014 LinkedIn
LinkedIn
Expands Its Jobs Database With A New Volunteer Marketplace For Unpaid Non-Profit Work TechCrunch ^ Bill Chappell August 19, 2013 University Pages: LinkedIn
LinkedIn
Launches New College Profiles NPR's the two-way ^ Harrison Weber June 5, 2014 LinkedIn
LinkedIn
launches ‘Galene’ search architecture to build the first ‘economic graph’ VentureBeat ^ Rachel King June 5, 2014 LinkedIn
LinkedIn
plans to reinvent search in order to map its economic graph ZDNet's Between the Lines ^ "The most attractive cities worldwide for new graduates – Quartz". Qz.com. 2014-06-04. Retrieved 2015-10-06.  ^ "Where Is the Top City to Spot Tech Talent?". Blogs.wsj.com. 2014-06-24. Retrieved 2015-10-06.  ^ "Oh, the Places You'll Go! (Or Not.)". Blogs.wsj.com. 2014-12-08. Retrieved 2015-10-06.  ^ " LinkedIn
LinkedIn
Economic Graph Research: Helping New Yorkers Connect With The Jobs Of Tomorrow [INFOGRAPHIC]". Blog.linkedin.com. Retrieved July 3, 2015.  ^ LinkedIn
LinkedIn
Corporate Communications Team for LinkedIn
LinkedIn
Newsroom. Jan. 19, 2017 Introducing the New LinkedIn
LinkedIn
Desktop ^ "Filtering and Tagging Connections Feature – No Longer Available". LinkedIn
LinkedIn
Help Pages. February 2, 2017.  ^ Zubair Abbas Why #IMissOld LinkedIn
LinkedIn
and LinkedIn's Reaction on It, LinkedIn
LinkedIn
Pulse February 8, 2017 ^ Wasserman, Todd (Jan 17, 2013). " LinkedIn
LinkedIn
will pull the plug on LinkedIn
LinkedIn
Answers, its Quora-like Q&A service, on Jan. 31". Mashable.  ^ " LinkedIn
LinkedIn
Is Quietly Retiring Network Visualization Tool InMaps". Retrieved 27 November 2017.  ^ Niu, Evan (May 20, 2015). "This Company Has The Best Business Model in Social Media". The Motley Fool. Retrieved June 13, 2016.  ^ "Five Benefits of LinkedIn
LinkedIn
for Organizations (and IT Pros) TechRepublic." Web. May 9, 2011. ^ "LinkedIn.com, a business-orientated networking site, can be an ideal way for professionals to present an online profile of themselves ... Unlike social networking sites, [with] LinkedIn
LinkedIn
you're outlining all your credentials; presenting the professional rather than the personal you. Considering the sheer vastness of the digital space, the potential for building up a solid base of contacts and fostering new business relationships is boundless." O'Sullivan, James (2011), "Make the most of the networking tools that are available", Evening Echo, May 9, 2011. Pg 32. Note that the Evening Echo
Evening Echo
is located close to the European headquarters of LinkedIn ^ Foss, Jenny (July 6, 2012). "Your LinkedIn
LinkedIn
Intervention: 5 Changes You Must Make". Forbes.  ^ LinkedIn
LinkedIn
sued over 'hacking' address books to send spam marketing emails, Daily Mail ^ LinkedIn
LinkedIn
to face lawsuit for spamming users' email address books, BetaNews ^ LinkedIn
LinkedIn
is "breaking into" user emails, spamming contacts – lawsuit, Gigaom.com ^ "Judge Rejects LinkedIn's Free-Speech Argument In Battle Over Email Invitations". Mediapost.com. Retrieved July 3, 2015.  ^ "How LinkedIn
LinkedIn
can thwart your job search". Forbes. Retrieved 29 April 2014.  ^ "All you need to know about endorsements". Forbes. Retrieved 29 April 2014.  ^ " LinkedIn
LinkedIn
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LinkedIn
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LinkedIn
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LinkedIn
vice president as new CEO". chicagotribune.com. Retrieved 2017-09-20.  ^ "Syria: Linkedin Kicks Off Syrian Users!". Global Voices Advocacy. April 18, 2009. Retrieved April 30, 2010.  ^ Ungerleider, Neal (February 25, 2011). "China blocks access to LinkedIn". Fast Company. Retrieved February 25, 2011.  ^ Baker, Liana (February 25, 2011). " LinkedIn
LinkedIn
website working again in China". Reuters.  ^ a b Oreskovic, Alexei (25 Feb 2014). " LinkedIn
LinkedIn
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Chinese language
site". Reuters. Retrieved 29 March 2014.  ^ "专业社交网站LinkedIn推出中文版". BBC Chinese. 25 February 2014. Retrieved 29 March 2014.  ^ Jeff Weiner
Jeff Weiner
(24 February 2014). " LinkedIn
LinkedIn
in China: Connecting the World's Professionals". Linkedin official blog. Retrieved 29 March 2014.  ^ "No Job
Job
Postings for China on LinkedIn
LinkedIn
anymore". Stephan Koß. November 10, 2017. Retrieved January 22, 2018.  ^ "Russia is erasing Linkedin from app stores". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved 7 January 2017.  ^ "Moscow Court Upholds Decision to Ban LinkedIn
LinkedIn
in Russia". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 10 November 2016.  ^ "SNA-projects.com". SNA-projects.com. August 11, 2011. Archived from the original on July 15, 2012. Retrieved December 8, 2011.  ^ "Project-voldemort.com". Project-voldemort.com. Archived from the original on April 23, 2011. Retrieved December 8, 2011.  ^ "NSA Infected 50,000 Computer Networks for Surveillance". SecurityWeek Network. Retrieved November 25, 2013.  ^ LinkedIn
LinkedIn
argues it has free speech right to email Mediapost.com in 19 September 2014. ^ LinkedIn
LinkedIn
'Credit Reports' Give Job
Job
Seekers Trouble Courthouse News Service in 13 October 2014. ^ LinkedIn
LinkedIn
illegally sold your professional data lawsuit claims News Mic in 13 October 2014. ^ LinkedIns new mobile app called a dream for attackers New York Times in 24 October 2013. ^ LinkedIn
LinkedIn
liest Ihre Mails mit PC-Welt
PC-Welt
in 28 October 2018. ^ Stiftung Warentest
Stiftung Warentest
kritisiert Facebook, LinkedIn
LinkedIn
und Myspace golem.de (German) in 3 March 2018. ^ Soziale Netzwerke: Datenschutz oft mangelhaft Stiftung Warentest (German) in 24 March 2014. ^ "Russland blockiert LinkedIn". Spiegel Online (in German). 2016-11-17. Retrieved 2018-03-03.  ^ Andreas Wilkens (2016-11-17). "Russland blockiert Linkedin". heise.de (in German). Retrieved 2018-03-03. 

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Buzz Heello Jaiku Meme Me2day Natter Posterous Pownce Qaiku

Platforms

OStatus-compatible

Friendica GNU social Mastodon

Diaspora OpenMicroBlogging pump.io Twister Webfinger

Features

Reblogging Activity stream Lifestreaming Hashtag Backchannel Mention/Replies

Other topics

Microblogging in China Microblogging novel Micropoetry

Comparison of microblogging services

Internet
Internet
portal San Francisco Bay Area portal Business porta

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