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Lingeer
Lingeer
Fatim Beye Joos Fadiou[3] (commonly Lingeer
Lingeer
Fatim Beye) was a 14th-century (c. 1335[1]) Serer princess and queen (Lingeer) from the Kingdom of Sine.[4] She is the matriarch and early ancestor of the Joos Maternal Dynasty
Dynasty
of Waalo.[5][6] She is usually regarded by some sources as the founder of the Joos Maternal Dynasty.[5] The pre-colonial Kingdoms of Sine and Waalo
Waalo
now lies within present-day Senegal. Her surname is Beye (English-Gambia) or Bèye (French-Senegal). Joos Fadiou is her maternal clan. In Serer, "Fa-tim" means "the maternal clan of..." Lingeer
Lingeer
Ndoye Demba, maternal granddaughter of Lingeer
Lingeer
Fatim Beye, was given in marriage to the king of Waalo
Waalo
Brak Caaka Mbaar Mbooj[7]),[2][8] in c. 1367. Lingeer
Lingeer
Ndoye Demba went on to establish the Joos Maternal Dynasty
Dynasty
in Waalo
Waalo
which lasted from the 14th century to 1855, the year Waalo
Waalo
fell to the French resulting in the disestablishment of the monarchy.[9] From the 14th century to 1855, the Joos Maternal Dynasty
Dynasty
provided many kings of Waalo
Waalo
but also contributed to its instability due to dynastic struggles between the competing maternal dynasties of the country (Joos, Tedyek and Loggar[10]).[11][12]

Contents

1 Biography 2 Joos Maternal Dynasty 3 See also 4 References 5 Bibliography

Biography[edit] Further information: Lamane, Kingdom of Sine, and Serer history (medieval era to present) Lingeer
Lingeer
Fatim Beye was a member of the Serer ethnic group and the matriarch of the Joos Maternal Dynasty
Dynasty
of Waalo.[2][4] The Joos Maternal Dynasty
Dynasty
(Serer proper : Joos Fadiou or Dioss Fahou/Fadiou[8][10]) was a Serer maternal dynasty in the Wolof Kingdom of Waalo.[2][13] Fatim Beye was a contemporary of Ndiadiane Ndiaye[5] (founder of the Jolof Empire) and Maad a Sinig Maysa Wali Jaxateh Manneh
Maad a Sinig Maysa Wali Jaxateh Manneh
(var : Manyeasa Wali Dione[2]) who was the first Guelowar
Guelowar
to rule in Sine or any of the Serer countries.[2] Some sources note that, she was once married to Maad a Sinig
Maad a Sinig
Maysa Wali[2] thereby linking this matriclan to a rather significant part of Serer medieval history, i.e. the constitutional change in Sine which shaped its medieval to 20th century history.[14] The marriage of Lingeer
Lingeer
Fatim Beye to one of the most historical personalities of 14th century Senegambian royalty agrees pretty much with the general consensus regarding Serer-Guelowar relations. It was a union based on marriage among the upper echelons Serer and Guelowar
Guelowar
society.[15] According to Henry Gravrand, the defeat of the Guelowars by the Ñaancos at the Battle of Troubang in(1335) at Kaabu,[16] spearheaded their migration to Serer territory after the massacre inflicted upon them at Troubang. In reporting this tradition, Gravrand did not notice that this is actually a description of the 1867 (or 1865) Battle of Kansala although the departure of the Guelowar
Guelowar
can probably be explained by a war or a conflict of succession.[17] It was the Serer nobility to which Lingeer
Lingeer
Fatim Beye's family were a member of, who granted them asylum after their escape from Kaabu, the country of their birth.[15] As an early ancestor of the Joos Maternal Dynasty, with royal ties to two pre-colonial Senegambian kingdoms from the start of their constitutional change, Lingeer
Lingeer
Fatim Beye is regarded as one of the most significant female personalities of Serer and Senegambian dynastic history.[5][6][18] Her descendants went on to shape Senegambian medieval to 19th century history.[11] Joos Maternal Dynasty[edit] Main article: Joos Maternal Dynasty The Joos Maternal Dynasty
Dynasty
originated from the Serer Kingdom of Sine and entered the Wolof Kingdom of Waalo
Waalo
via the maternal granddaughter of Lingeer
Lingeer
Fatim Beye ( Lingeer
Lingeer
Ndoye Demba). The Serer princess - Lingeer
Lingeer
Ndoye Demba, originated from Sine[18] where she was married off to the king of Waalo. Although established in Waalo
Waalo
in c. 1367 by Lingeer
Lingeer
Ndoye Demba following her marriage to the king of Waalo
Waalo
(Caaka Mbaar Mbooj[7]),[2][8] this Serer family is linked to old Serer royalty and just one of many of the Serer matriclans.[19] Caaka Mbar was the son of Bakar Mbooj[20] the founder of the Mbooj paternal dynasty of Waalo
Waalo
and an early holder of the royal title Brak.[8] Ndoye Demba's marriage to one of the earliest Braks established the Joos Maternal Dynasty
Dynasty
which lasted for nearly 600 years.[8][9] As of c. 1367, this maternal dynasty provided many Braks of Waalo. Brak Yerim Mbanyik was the first king from this maternal dynasty.[21] He was the son of Lingeer
Lingeer
Ndoye Demba and Brak Caaka Mbar.[21] The Braks themselves predated by the Lamanes,[22][6] ruled over Waalo
Waalo
from the 14th century until the disestablishment of the monarchy in 1855 due to French colonialism.[9] Although Lingeer
Lingeer
Ndoye Demba is generally regarded as the ancestor of the Joos of Waalo, and Lingeer
Lingeer
Fatim Beye as an early ancestor and matriarch,[2] some sources suggests that Fatim Beye was the founder of the Joos Dynasty.[5]

“ That Fatim Bey [Beye] is called the founder of Dioss [Joos] does not conflict with the view that Ndoye Demba is Dioss' ancestor. Fatim/Fatimata Beye was an earlier ancestor.[5] ”

See also[edit]

Maad Ndaah Njemeh Joof Maad Semou Njekeh Joof Kingdom of Saloum Kingdom of Baol Timeline of Serer history History of Senegal History of the Gambia

Serer people
Serer people
portal Monarchy portal Senegal
Senegal
portal Gambia
Gambia
portal History portal

References[edit]

^ a b Married to Maad a Sinig Maysa Wali Jaxateh Manneh
Maad a Sinig Maysa Wali Jaxateh Manneh
king of Sine just after Battle of Troubang. See : BIFAN 1955, p 317; & Sarr, p 19 ^ a b c d e f g h i Institut français d'Afrique noire, Bulletin de l'Institut français d'Afrique noire: Sciences humaines, Volume 17. IFAN, (1955), p 317 (in French) ^ Many variations : Fatimata Beye (see BIFAN, 1979, pp 225, 233), Fatim/Fatimata Beye (see BIFAN, 1979, p 234), Fatime Bey (BIFAN, 1979, p 234), etc. The Serer surname Beye or Bèye, following its French spelling in Senegal
Senegal
is also a Serer matriclan. Fatim (proper : Fa tim) in Serer language
Serer language
means "the maternal clan of..." For more on Serer matrilineality, see: Jean-Marc Gastellu « 'Petit traité de matrilinarité. L'accumulation dans deux sociétés rurales d'Afrique de l'Ouest', Cahiers ORSTOM, série Sciences Humaines (1985) » (in French), and Jean-Marc Gastellu, "Matrilineages, Economic Groups and Differentiation in West Africa" : A Note (O.R.S.TO.M) ^ a b Bulletin de l'Institut fondamental d'Afrique noire: Sciences humaines, Volume 41 (1979) , p 225 ^ a b c d e f BIFAN (1979), p 234 ^ a b c Dyao, Yoro, "Légendes et coutumes sénégalaises", Cahiers de Yoro Dyao: publiés et commentés par Henri Gaden. (E. Leroux, 1912) (in French) ^ a b Variations : Thiaka Mbar (see BIFAN, 1979, p 234) or Tiacka Mbar (see BIFAN, 1955, p 317) ^ a b c d e Bulletin. Serie B: Sciences humaines / Institut fondamental d'Afrique noire, Volume 41. p 234, (1979) ^ a b c Barry, 1985, p 41 ^ a b Many variations : Joos = Dioss Fahou/Fadiou (see BIFAN, p 234, 1979), Dyoss (see BIFAN 1955, p 317), Dieuss, Dihosou, Diouss, Dyoos (see Barr, 1985, p 73), Djeus (see Brigaud, p 16); Tedyek = Tédiek (see Brigaud) or Teedyekk (see Barry 1985);etc. Loggar = Logar. They are the three reigning maternal dynasties of Waalo. The kings of Waalo
Waalo
(Brak) must be a member of one of these three as well as from the patrilineage Mbooj (or Mbodj) before being eligible to succeed to the throne. See : Barry, 1985, p 73 ^ a b Barry, 1985, pp 183-186. ^ Ogot, Bethwell A., "Africa from the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Century", (Editors : Bethwell A. Ogot, Unesco. International Scientific Committee for the Drafting of a General History of Africa; contributors : Bethwell A. Ogot, Unesco. International Scientific Committee for the Drafting of a General History of Africa, University of California Press (1992), p 281, ISBN 0435948113 [1] (Retrieved : 11 July 2012) ^ Barry, Boubacar, "Le Royaume du Waalo: le Sénégal
Sénégal
avant la conquête", KARTHALA Editions (1985), p 73, ISBN 2865371417 (in French) ^ For more on this, see : Lamane, Maad a Sinig
Maad a Sinig
Maysa Wali Jaxateh Manneh, Guelowar
Guelowar
and Kingdom of Sine ^ a b « Babacar Sédikh Diouf » in: Ngom, Biram "La question Gelwaar et l’histoire du Siin", Dakar, Université de Dakar (1987), p 69 (in French) ^ Sarr, Alioune, "Histoire du Sine-Saloum" (Sénégal). Introduction, bibliographie et notes par Charles Becker. Version légèrement remaniée par rapport à celle qui est parue en 1986-87. p 19 (in French) ^ Sarr, Alioune, Histoire du Sine-Saloum
Sine-Saloum
(Sénégal) Introduction, bibliographie et notes par Charles Becker. 1986-87, p 19 ^ a b Brigaud, Félix, "Histoire du Sénégal: Des origines aux traités de protectorat", Clair-afrique (1964), p 16 (in French) ^ Dupire, Marguerite, "Sagesse sereer: Essais sur la pensée sereer ndut, KARTHALA Editions (1994) (in French). The book deals in depth with the Serer matriclans and means of succession through the matrilineal line. See also pages : 38, 95-99, 104, 119-20, 123, 160, 172-4 [2] ISBN 2865374874 (Retrieved : 9 July 2012) ^ Varitation : Barka Mbodj (see BIFAN, 1979, p 234) ^ a b Monteil, pp 39-40 ^ Boulègue, Jean, "Le Grand Jolof", (XVIIIe - XVIe Siècle). (Paris, Edition Façades), Karthala (1987), p 30 (in French)

Bibliography[edit]

Sarr, Alioune, "Histoire du Sine-Saloum" (Sénégal). Introduction, bibliographie et notes par Charles Becker. Version légèrement remaniée par rapport à celle qui est parue en 1986-87. p 19 Monteil, Vincent, " Esquisses sénégalaises", Institut Fondamental d'Afrique Noire, 1966. Wade, Amadou, "Chronique du Walo Sénégalais (1186–1855)", B. Cissé trans., V. Monteil, editor, Bulletin de l'IFAN, série B, vol. 26, nos 3/4 (1941, 1964) Barry, Boubacar. "Le royaume du Waalo": le Sénégal
Sénégal
avant la conquête, Karthala, 1985, ISBN 2865371417 (in French) The "Dyoos" (Retrieved : 8 July 2012) Barry, Boubacar, "Le royaume du waalo, le Sénégal
Sénégal
avant la conquête", F. Maspéro (1972), p 286 Bulletin. Serie B: Sciences humaines / Institut fondamental d'Afrique noire, Volume 41. (1979) Institut français d'Afrique noire. Bulletin de l'Institut français d'Afrique noire: Sciences humaines, Volume 17. IFAN, (1955) Ndiaye Leyti, Oumar, "Le Djoloff et ses Bourba", Les Nouvelles editions africaines (1981). ISBN 2723608174 Institut fondamental d'Afrique noire, Bulletin de l'Institut fondamental d'Afrique noire: Sciences humaines, Volume 31, IFAN (1969), pp 409–410 Gastellu, Jean-Marc, "Petit traité de matrilinarité", L'accumulation dans deux sociétés rurales d'Afrique de l'Ouest', Cahiers ORSTOM, série Sciences Humaines (1985) Gastellu, Jean-Marc, "Matrilineages, Economic Groups and Differentiation in West Africa" : A Note (O.R.S.TO.M) Boulègue, Jean, "Le Grand Jolof", (XVIIIe - XVIe Siècle). (Paris, Edition Façades), Karthala (1987), p 30 Dyao, Yoro, "Légendes et coutumes sénégalaises", Cahiers de Yoro Dyao: publiés et commentés par Henri Gaden. (E. Leroux, 1912) Dupire, Marguerite, "Sagesse sereer: Essais sur la pensée sereer ndut, KARTHALA Editions (1994), ISBN 2865374874 (in French) [3] (Retrieved : 9 July 2012) Sheldon, Kathleen E., "Historical dictionary of women in Sub-Saharan Africa", vol. 1, Scarecrow Press
Scarecrow Press
(2005), p 148 ISBN 0810853310 Ogot, Bethwell A., "Africa from the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Century", (Editors : Bethwell A. Ogot, Unesco. International Scientific Committee for the Drafting of a General History of Africa; contributors : Bethwell A. Ogot, Unesco. International Scientific Committee for the Drafting of a General History of Africa, University of California Press (1992), p 281, ISBN 0435948113 (in English) The "Joos" (Retrieved : 11 July 2012)

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