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LINGEER (also: Linger or LINGUèRE) was the title given to the mother or sister of a king in the Serer kingdoms of Sine , Saloum
Saloum
and previously the Kingdom of Baol ; and the Wolof kingdoms of Cayor
Cayor
, Jolof , Baol
Baol
and Waalo in pre-colonial Senegal
Senegal
. The word "Lingeer" means "queen" or "princess " in Serer and Wolof language . The Lingeer
Lingeer
was considered the “great princess of royal courts.” Political power in these kingdoms was transmitted vis-à-vis her lineage, not any male lineage, as these societies utilized a matrilineal system. Various Lingeers have been noted for their resistance efforts to colonial conquest. The consequence of this resistance was the relegation of Lingeer
Lingeer
to the background of Senegal’s political space upon its colonization.

CONTENTS

* 1 Classification * 2 Characteristics and powers * 3 History * 4 Literary and filmic representations * 5 List of Lingeers * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 Bibliography * 9 External links

CLASSIFICATION

Although the royal title Lingeer
Lingeer
was generally given to the mother or sister of the king, and sometimes the first wife of the king (the "Lingeer-Awo"), the title could also mean a royal princess . In this case, it meant a woman who could trace royal descent from both her paternal and maternal line . In Wolof and Serer tradition, a woman who could trace royal descent on both her paternal and maternal line automatically became a Lingeer. The male equivalent was Garmi (a man who could trace royal descent on both his paternal and maternal line). It is from these Lingeers (a woman of pure royal blood) that a king would seek to marry. The king himself was a member of the Garmi class.

CHARACTERISTICS AND POWERS

Historians are careful to not understate her influence in the pre-colonial period; the Lingeer
Lingeer
is said to both make and unmake kings. In the Wolof state, the Lingeer’s political significance traditionally included: control of some of the king’s land, which they would administer by using captives; provision of food and maintenance for their retainers; and integration into the clan system. Members of the community needed to charm and persuade a Lingeer
Lingeer
if they held hopes of acquiring a political career.

In the Serer kingdoms of Sine and Saloum, the Lingeer
Lingeer
was considered to hold ultimate power, showing her influence in several realms of a given kingdom. In the religious realm, she held the unique position of guardian of the fetishes. In the economic realm, like her Wolof counterpart, the Lingeer
Lingeer
of Serer societies controlled several villages, the contributions of which she was free to utilize. The inhabitants of such villages would traditionally cultivate a field of grain for their Lingeer.

Many noble families sent forth their daughters to be followers of the Lingeer; however, captives often filled this role as well.

The Lingeer
Lingeer
was accompanied by a female géwél, a professional singer or musician, regionally known as a griot . The géwél sang listeners to sleep at night and awakened them in the morning. The types of songs sung to honor a Lingeer’s sovereignty include: taggate, màdd, woy u lingeer, and buur.

The power position that the Lingeer
Lingeer
occupied was a bi- and sometimes tri-cameral one: her leadership activities were carried out at the highest tier, as a co-monarch. In the case of a conflict between a Lingeer
Lingeer
and the king, a Lingeer
Lingeer
would sometimes create new political alliances.

Towards the end of the seventeenth century, a relationship was established throughout many Wolof lands between the Lingeers and the Idaw al-Hajj , a vast grouping of Saharan immigrants that established a commercial network linking Senegambia with North Africa
Africa
and the western Sahara. In these instances, the Idaw al-Hajj served as the queen’s religious advisors.

HISTORY

While many of the Lingeer
Lingeer
are no longer known of, some of these women made their way into the historical record for their leadership and, in later cases, resistance to colonial incursions.

According to oral histories, the first known Lingeer
Lingeer
is Lingeer
Lingeer
Fatim Beye (c . 1335), the matriarch of the Joos Maternal Dynasty . She was a Serer Princess
Princess
and Queen of Sine . She was once married to King Maad a Sinig Maysa Wali . She is an early ancestor of all the Joos who went on to rule Waalo , such as her grand-daughter Lingeer Ndoye Demba (c. 1367). Lingeer
Lingeer
Ndoye Demba, also of Serer origin, established the Joos Maternal Dynasty in the Wolof kingdom of Waalo as the region's queen and Princess
Princess
of Sine . Lingeer
Lingeer
Fatoumata Sall was the mother of the possibly mythical monarch Ndiadiane Ndiaye , who was emperor of the Jolof in the 1360s.

The Lingeer’s role sometimes extended to overthrowing the current king. In 1673, Ndyai Sal or Sar , a marabout of likely Tukuloor descent, was offered marriage and military alliance from a Lingeer
Lingeer
who had been recently deposed by a new king. Together, they defeated and killed the king. They then proceeded to select a new candidate, royal by birth, but also potentially more malleable to their control.

Historians have cited instances in which the Lingeer’s role extended into negotiating the relationship between the Wolof and Serer kingdoms. One such example involves the Lingeer
Lingeer
Djembet (many variations: Jembet, Ndieumbeutt Mbodj ). In 1833, Djembet married the king of Trarza (in Mauritania
Mauritania
), Mohamed El-Habib. This political marriage provided the couple with control over the Waalo and the Trarza . The alliance was prompted not by the threat of Moorish expansion – a position encouraged by the opposition – but rather to construct a more resistant bloc against colonial invasion. The marriage faced a not insignificant amount of opposition within Waalo, yet was carried through by Djembet in order to halt French political expansion in the region. In 1841, she chose the king to succeed Fara Penda Adam Sal upon his death.

Ndaté Yalla Mbodj was the sister of Djembet and succeeded her in 1846. Her political action was similarly momentous and controversial; she is notable for her refusal of a French alliance. She prevented her son from contesting the accession of Djembet’s son to the throne. One scholar attributes this choice to N’Daate Yaala’s desire to not “break up the power of the unified kingdom.”

LITERARY AND FILMIC REPRESENTATIONS

The character of the Lingeer
Lingeer
has been featured in Senegambian literature. Ginette Ba-Curry writes of the Lingeer
Lingeer
presence in Cheikh Hamidou Kane 's novel Ambiguous Adventure: “The Most Royal Lady is a female figure belonging to pre-Islamic society, recalling the 'Linguere' … She is the reflection of the historical heroines of the Senegalese past such as the heiress of the Waalo throne, Lingeer Jombot who was in charge of the political affairs of the Waalo region and was succeeded by her sister Nade Yalla, wife of Maroso, the Prince of Kajoor”.

In artistic Serer expression, especially in oral poetry and the culture of the traditional griotte, performers depict the Lingeer character as playing an important role in their society’s functioning.

Films such as Abderrahmane Sissako
Abderrahmane Sissako
’s Timbuktu (2014) feature a Lingeer
Lingeer
character. Djibril Diop Mambety’ s Hyènes
Hyènes
(1992) features the character Linguere Ramatou as its protagonist. Her first name is an alternate spelling of Lingeer
Lingeer
and she has in fact been described as a royal of sorts: film scholars write that she is “an outcast-cum-queen who sits contemplating the horizon”.

LIST OF LINGEERS

* Lingeer Fatim Beye (c. 1335) * Lingeer Ndoye Demba (c. 1367) (grand-daughter of Fatim Beye) * Lingeer
Lingeer
Djembet or Ndieumbeutt Mbodj (active in 1830s; died September 1846). * Lingeer
Lingeer
Ndaté Yalla Mbodj , succeeded her sister in 1846.

SEE ALSO

* Maad a Sinig * Maad Saloum * Damel * Teigne (title) * Brak (African kings) * Buumi * Thilas * Loul

* Senegal
Senegal
portal * Gambia portal * Serer portal * History portal * Monarchy portal

NOTES

* ^ Sheldon, Kathleen E., "Historical dictionary of women in Sub-Saharan Africa ", vol. 1, Scarecrow Press
Scarecrow Press
, 2005, p 148 ISBN 0-8108-5331-0 * ^ Klein, Martin A. "Islam and Imperialism in Senegal
Senegal
Sine-Saloum , 1847–1914." Edinburgh University Press (1968) pp 11-15 & 262, ISBN 0-85224-029-5 * ^ A B Ba-Curry, Ginette (July 2008). "African Women, Tradition and Change in Cheikh Hamidou Kane\'s Ambiguous Adventure and Mariama Bâ\'s So Long a Letter". bsc.chadwyck.com. Itibari M. Zulu. Retrieved 2016-11-29. * ^ "Dépendance et Développement Le Statut de la Femme en Afrique Moderne". Notes Africaines. No 139. 1973. * ^ Zucarelli, François (1973-01-01). "De la chefferie traditionnelle au canton: évolution du canton colonial au Sénégal, 1855-1960 (Evolution of the Colonial "Canton" (County) in Senegal, 1885-1960)". Cahiers d'Études Africaines. 13 (50): 213–238. * ^ A B C Creevey, Lucy (1996-01-01). "Islam, Women and the Role of the State in Senegal". Journal of Religion in Africa. 26 (3): 268–307. doi :10.2307/1581646 . * ^ A B Penna-Diaw, Luciana (2014-01-01). Women\'s Songs from West Africa. Indiana University Press. pp. 124–135. ISBN 9780253010179 . * ^ Buri Mboup, Samba. "Conflicting leadership paradigms in Africa: A need for an African Renaissance perspective1". International Journal of African Renaissance Studies - Multi-, Inter- and Transdisciplinarity. 3 (1): 94–112. doi :10.1080/18186870802321608 .

* ^ James L. A. Webb, Jr. (1995-01-01). "The Evolution of the Idaw al-Hajj Commercial Diaspora (L\'évolution de la diaspora marchande Idaw al-Hajj)". Cahiers d'Études Africaines. 35 (138/139): 455–475.

* ^ Fage, John D. , Oliver, Roland , "The Cambridge history of Africa: From c. 1600 to c. 1790", p 486, ISBN 0-521-20981-1 * ^ Glinga, Werner, Diop, Papa Samba, "Sénégal-Forum. IKO-Verlag für Interkulturelle Kommunikation, 1996. p 110, ISBN 3-88939-431-0 * ^ Anyidoho, Kofi, "Cross rhythms", Volume 1, Occasional papers in African folklore, p 118, Trickster Press (1983) * ^ Colvin, Lucie Gallistel (1974-01-01). "Islam and the State of Kajoor: A Case of Successful Resistance to Jihad". The Journal of African History. 15 (4): 587–606. * ^ Ndiaye, Cheikh M. (2006-01-01). "Histoire et mythes du Pays Sérère dans la poésie de Léopold Sédar Senghor". Nouvelles Études Francophones. 21 (2): 23–32. * ^ "FESPACO 2015: After the Transition, What Next? on JSTOR" (PDF). doi :10.2979/blackcamera.7.1.238.pdf . * ^ "FESPACO 2015: After the Transition, What Next? on JSTOR" (PDF). doi :10.2979/blackcamera.7.1.238.pdf . * ^ Sheldon, Kathleen E., "Historical dictionary of women in Sub-Saharan Africa , vol. 1, Scarecrow Press
Scarecrow Press
, 2005, p. 148 ISBN 0-8108-5331-0 * ^ Adande, Alexis B.A., & Arinze, Emmanuel, "The place of Women in the Museum
Museum
of Saint-Louis , Museums & urban culture in West Africa
Africa
, Institut africain international, Oxford , 2002, p. 145-146 ISBN 0-85255-276-9

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Sarr, Alioune , "Histoire du Sine-Saloum" (Sénégal), (Introduction, bibliographie et notes par Charles Becker), Version légèrement remaniée par rapport à celle qui est parue en 1986–87. * Sheldon, Kathleen E., "Historical dictionary of women in Sub-Saharan Africa", vol. 1, Scarecrow Press, 2005, p 148 ISBN 0-8108-5331-0 * Klein, Martin A. "Islam and Imperialism in Senegal
Senegal
Sine-Saloum, 1847–1914." Edinburgh University Press (1968) pp 11–15 & 262, ISBN 0-85224-029-5 * Glinga, Werner, Diop, Papa Samba, "Sénégal-Forum. IKO-Verlag für Interkulturelle Kommunikation, 1996. p 110, ISBN 3-88939-431-0 * Anyidoho, Kofi, "Cross rhythms", Volume 1, Occasional papers in African folklore, p 118, Trickster Press (1983) * Sheldon, Kathleen E., "Historical dictionary of women in Sub-Saharan Africa, vol. 1, Scarecrow Press, 2005, p. 148 ISBN 0-8108-5331-0 * Adande, Alexis B.A., & Arinze, Emmanuel, "The place of Women in the Museum
Museum
of Saint-Louis, Museums Agence universitaire de la francophonie, Paris, Montréal, 2006, pp. 327–328 ISBN 2-914610-33-5

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