The Info List - Limoniinae

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ca. 150 genera

The Limoniinae are a paraphyletic assemblage of genera within the crane flies, Tipulidae, although they can usually be distinguished by the way the wings are held at rest. Limoniines usually hold/fold the wings along the back of the body, whereas other tipulids usually hold them out at right angles. Members of the genus Chionea (snow flies) have no wings at all. Limoniines are also usually smaller than other tipulids, with some exceptions. Limoniinae are a very large assemblage with nearly 10500 described species in 133 genera, and were historically treated as a subfamily, but their classification is in flux; numerous authors recently treated the group at the rank of family, but subsequent phylogenetic analyses revealed that the remaining groups of tipulids render the group paraphyletic.[1] These flies are found in damp places throughout the world, and many species form dense swarms in suitable habitats.

Wing venation (Dicranomyia spp. and Dicranoptycha spp.)

Radio forks diagram


1 Description 2 Biology 3 Species Lists 4 Evolution 5 Gallery 6 See also 7 References

Description[edit] For terms see Morphology of Diptera Limoniines are medium or small-sized, rarely large. The proboscis or rostrum lacks a beak. The apical segment of the maxillary palpi is short and never longer than subapical one. The antennae are, in most species, 14- or 16-segmente (rarely 6-, 10-, or 17-segmented), usually verticillate (whorls of trichia) and only exceptionally ctenidial or serrate (Rhipidia). There is a distinct V-shaped suture between the mesonotal prescutum and scutum (near the level of the wing bases). The wings are monochromatic or punctate and (in females more often than in males). sometimes shortened or reduced. The subcosta always fuses with the costa through Sc1. Radial vein R2 does not fuse with the costa, as in most other Tipulidae, but with radial vein R3. The radial sector Rs has one or two forks.Additional crossveins are sometimes present in cells r3 an1 and m. Cells m1 and d often not present. The genitalia of males have large separated gonocoxis and one or two pairs of appendages which are sometimes greatly folded (Dicranomyia, etc.). The ovipositor of the female has sclerotized cerci. Biology[edit] Mostly, larvae are aquatic or semi-aquatic. Most other Tipulidae larvae in comparison, are terrestrial though some are aquatic and found in huge numbers in lotic habitats like the limoniine larvae. Various species have evolved to feed on different food sources, so phytophagous, saprophagous, mycetophagous and predatory species occur. Limoniines occupy a wide range of habitats and micro habitats: in earth rich in humus, in swamps and marshes, in leaf litter and in wet spots in woods (numerous genera and species; in soils with only moderate humus content along stream borders (Gonomyia Meigen, Rhabdomastix Skuse, Arctoconopa Alexander, Hesperoconopa Alexander); in dry to saturated decaying wood in streams, where the larvae feed on fungal mycelia (Gnophomyia Osten Sacken, Teucholabis Osten Sacken, Lipsothrix Loew); in decaying plant materials (various subgenera and species of Limonia),in woody and fleshy fungi (Limonia (Metalimnobia Matsumura); in fresh water, especially rapidly flowing streams (Antocha Osten Sacken, Hesperoconopa Alexander, Cryptolabis Osten Sacken); intertidal zones and brackish water (Limonia (Idioglochina Alexander, Limonia (Diuanomyia) Stephens) ; freshwater aquatic environment during the larval stage and nearby margin areas for pupation (Limonia Meigen, Thaumastoptera Mik, many Pediciini, Hexatomini, and Eriopterini); steep cliff faces supporting a constantly wet film of algae (some species of Limonia Meigen, Orimarga Osten Sacken Elliptera Schiner); in moist to wet cushions of mosses or liverworts growing on rocks or earth (various species).[2][3] Species Lists[edit]

West Palaearctic including Russia Australasian/Oceanian Nearctic Japan

Evolution[edit] Limoniines are not particularly common in amber deposits, but a few finds (e.g. Tipunia intermedia Krzeminski & Ansorge, 1995 from the Upper Jurassic Solnhofen limestones) suggest the family has been extant since the Jurassic period. Gallery[edit]

Austrolimnophila ochracea

Dicranoptycha fuscescens

Eloeophila maculata

Limnophila schranki

Limonia nubeculosa


See also[edit] List of limoniid genera References[edit]

^ Petersen, M.J.; Bertone, M.A.; Wiegmann, B.M.; Courtney, G.W. 2010: Phylogenetic synthesis of morphological and molecular data reveals new insights into the higher-level classification of Tipuloidea (Diptera). Systematic entomology, 35: 526-545. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3113.2010.00524.x ^ Alexander C.P., Byers G.W. (1981) Tipulidae. in: McAlpine J.F. et al. (Ed.), Manual of Nearctic Diptera. Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, pp. 153–1902 ISBN 0660107317 pdf download manual ^ Ujvarosi, L., Poti T., 2006: Studies on the community structure of the Tipuloidea (Insecta, Diptera) assamblages of the După Luncă Marsh, Eastern Carpathians. Acta Biol. Debr. Oecol. Hung. 14: 253-262 pdf

Description, ranked as family Catalogue of the crane flies of the world Fossil Diptera catalog Diptera.info Images Limoniidae at EOL images

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Limoniidae.

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Extant Diptera families

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Insecta Subclass: Pterygota Infraclass: Neoptera Superorder: Endopterygota

Suborder Nematocera





Dixidae (meniscus midges) Corethrellidae (frog-biting midges) Chaoboridae (phantom midges) Culicidae (mosquitoes)


Thaumaleidae (solitary midges) Simuliidae (black flies) Ceratopogonidae (biting midges) Chironomidae (non-biting midges)


Blephariceridae (net-winged midges) Deuterophlebiidae (mountain midges) Nymphomyiidae



Bibionidae (march flies, lovebugs)


Anisopodidae (wood gnats)

Sciaroidea (fungus gnats)

Bolitophilidae Diadocidiidae Ditomyiidae Keroplatidae Mycetophilidae Sciaridae (dark-winged fungus gnats) Cecidomyiidae (gall midges)



Canthyloscelidae Perissommatidae Scatopsidae (minute black scavenger flies, or dung midges)


Psychodidae (moth flies)


Ptychopteridae (phantom crane flies) Tanyderidae (primitive crane flies)



Trichoceridae (winter crane flies)


Pediciidae (hairy-eyed craneflies) Tipulidae (crane flies)

Suborder Brachycera



Apioceridae (flower-loving flies) Apsilocephalidae Apystomyiidae Asilidae (robber flies) Bombyliidae (bee flies) Evocoidae Hilarimorphidae (hilarimorphid flies) Mydidae (mydas flies) Mythicomyiidae Scenopinidae (window flies) Therevidae (stiletto flies)


Atelestidae Hybotidae (dance flies) Dolichopodidae (long-legged flies) Empididae (dagger flies, balloon flies)


Acroceridae (small-headed flies) Nemestrinidae (tangle-veined flies)




Phoridae (scuttle flies, coffin flies, humpbacked flies) Opetiidae (flat-footed flies) Ironomyiidae (ironic flies) Lonchopteridae (spear-winged flies) Platypezidae (flat-footed flies)


Syrphidae (hoverflies) Pipunculidae (big-headed flies)




Conopidae (thick-headed flies)


Pallopteridae (flutter flies) Piophilidae (cheese flies) Platystomatidae (signal flies) Pyrgotidae Richardiidae Tephritidae (peacock flies) Ulidiidae (picture-winged flies)


Cypselosomatidae Micropezidae (stilt-legged flies) Neriidae (cactus flies, banana stalk flies)


Diopsidae (stalk-eyed flies) Gobryidae Megamerinidae Nothybidae Psilidae (rust flies) Somatiidae Strongylophthalmyiidae Syringogastridae Tanypezidae


Coelopidae (kelp flies) Dryomyzidae Helosciomyzidae Ropalomeridae Huttoninidae Heterocheilidae Phaeomyiidae Sepsidae (black scavenger flies) Sciomyzidae (marsh flies)


Chyromyidae Heleomyzidae Sphaeroceridae (small dung flies) Nannodastiidae


Celyphidae (beetle-backed flies) Chamaemyiidae (aphid flies) Lauxaniidae


Agromyzidae (leaf miner flies) Anthomyzidae Asteiidae Aulacigastridae (sap flies) Clusiidae (lekking, or druid flies) Fergusoninidae Marginidae Neminidae Neurochaetidae (upside-down flies) Odiniidae Opomyzidae Periscelididae Teratomyzidae Xenasteiidae


Camillidae Curtonotidae (quasimodo flies) Diastatidae (bog flies) Ephydridae (shore flies) Drosophilidae (vinegar and fruit flies)


Acartophthalmidae Australimyzidae Braulidae (bee lice) Canacidae (beach flies) Carnidae Chloropidae (frit flies) Cryptochaetidae Inbiomyiidae Milichiidae (freeloader flies)


Cryptochetidae Lonchaeidae (lance flies)



Anthomyiidae (cabbage flies) Fanniidae (little house flies) Muscidae (house flies, stable flies) Scathophagidae (dung flies)


Calliphoridae (blow-flies: bluebottles, greenbottles) Mystacinobiidae (New Zealand batfly) Oestridae (botflies) Rhinophoridae Sarcophagidae (flesh flies) Tachinidae (tachina flies)


Glossinidae (tsetse flies) Hippoboscidae (louse flies) Mormotomyiidae (frightful hairy fly) Nycteribiidae (bat flies) Streblidae (bat flies)



Pantophthalmidae (timber flies) Stratiomyidae (soldier flies) Xylomyidae (wood soldier flies)



Austroleptidae Bolbomyiidae Rhagionidae (snipe flies)


Athericidae (water snipe flies) Oreoleptidae Pelecorhynchidae Tabanidae (horse and deer flies)






Xylophagidae (awl flies)

List of families of Diptera

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q1931024 BugGuide: 14937 EoL: 466 Fauna Europaea: 11634 Fossilworks: 139794 GBIF: 5580 NCBI: 4