HOME
The Info List - Limón Province


--- Advertisement ---



Limón
Limón
(Spanish pronunciation: [liˈmon]) is one of seven provinces in Costa Rica. The province covers an area of 9,189 km², and has a population of 386,862.[1] The majority of its territory is situated in the country's Caribbean lowlands, though the southwestern portion houses part of an extensive mountain range known as the Cordillera de Talamanca. The province shares its northern border with Nicaragua
Nicaragua
via the Río San Juan, its western borders with the provinces of Heredia, Cartago, and Puntarenas, and its southern border with Panama
Panama
via the Río Sixaola. Within the province there are six cantons, or counties, which include Pococí, Guácimo, Siquirres, Matina, Limón, and Talamanca. Each cantón has several local districts. Limón
Limón
is one of the most culturally diverse of Costa Rica's provinces, housing a significant Afro- Caribbean
Caribbean
and indigenous population. Several languages (Spanish, Limón
Limón
Creole) are spoken, and due mainly to its cultural ties to the Caribbean
Caribbean
islands, dishes like rice and beans are ubiquitous throughout the province, along with reggae, calypso, and soca music (see "Demographics"). The capital is Puerto Limón, and other important cities include Siquirres, Puerto Viejo de Talamanca, and Guápiles. Locals refer to themselves as limonenses.

Contents

1 History 2 Geography 3 Climate 4 Demographics 5 Economy, education, health 6 Cultural Events 7 Political divisions 8 See also 9 References 10 External links

History[edit]

Translation: "Wherever I go, Limónense I am"

Columbus was the first European to visit Limón
Limón
during his fourth and final voyage to the Americas in 1502, setting anchor near Isla Uvita, just off the shore of present-day Puerto Limón.[2] Due mainly to the region's hot and inhospitable weather and fervent resistance from indigenous groups, the Spanish tried but eventually gave up the idea of colonizing the Caribbean
Caribbean
lowlands and instead opted to exploit the central valley and Pacific regions.[3] Starting in the early 19th century, Afro-Caribbeans from Bocas del Toro (Panama), San Andrés (Colombia), and Nicaragua
Nicaragua
visited what is now Tortuguero to hunt turtles from May through September.[4] As years passed, these populations eventually settled along the coast and founded the towns of Cahuita
Cahuita
(named after the sangrillo or cawa tree), Old Harbour (Puerto Viejo), Grape Point (Punta Uva), and Manzanillo (named after the manchineel tree).[4] The Afro- Caribbean
Caribbean
population established an amicable trading relationship with the region's indigenous populations, and this cohesive existence laid the foundation for these two groups to eventually become the most populous in the province.[4]

Re-enactment of indigenous resistance to the Spanish during the "Día del Indígena," which takes place in late April

Limón
Limón
became accessible to large-scale economic activity and settlement after the government decided to build a railroad from San José to present-day Puerto Limón
Limón
(or, as the locals call it, Limón). Tomás Guardia Gutiérrez
Tomás Guardia Gutiérrez
proposed the project in 1870, shortly after his successful coup, as a more efficient means to ship to Europe.[5] Although he secured two English bank loans in 1871 and got the American Henry Meiggs
Henry Meiggs
to take on the project, work stopped in 1873 due to financial, logistical, and labor issues.[3] The railroad sat unfinished until the presidency of Próspero Fernández. In 1884, thanks to the effort of the Minister of Public Works, Bernardo Soto, Costa Rica
Costa Rica
hired Meiggs' nephew, Minor Keith, to renegotiate Costa Rica's debt and complete the project. Native Costa-Ricans comprised the bulk of the labor force as the railroad began construction, though small proportions of Afro-Caribbeans and Chinese were also hired.[3] When the project entered the Caribbean
Caribbean
lowlands, however, many workers died from exhaustion and malaria, which prompted Keith to aggressively recruit outside the country, bringing in large numbers of Jamaicans, Chinese, and even Italians to finish the job.[3][4] Seeking to minimize fixed costs, Keith planted banana crops along the lines as a cheap source of food for his work force.[6] After finishing the project, but losing money due to low passenger numbers, Keith placed bananas in the empty cars and shipped them to the United States as a (subsequently successful) business experiment.[6] Combined with the 800,000 acres (3,200 km2) of Caribbean
Caribbean
land the Costa Rican government gave him and the success of the banana sales, Keith eventually founded and grew the enormously lucrative United Fruit Company.[3]

Calypso dancers from Puerto Limón
Limón
performing in Bribrí, Talamanca

Several town names in Limón
Limón
(mainly in Talamanca) trace their origin to Keith and his associates: Penhurst (just above Cahuita, and actually marked as Penshurt in street signs and local maps), Fields, Olivia, and Margarita (all three lying east of Bribrí, off of route 32).[4]

Demonstration against CAFTA-DR in Bribrí town

Ever since major development occurred in Limón, an undercurrent of political resentment has been felt between limonenses and the central government. This is especially true for the Afro- Caribbean
Caribbean
population, who, until 1948, had to obtain legal permission to leave Limón province, and were not recognized as citizens.[3] Roads and electricity were slow to come to most of the province (the latter did not arrive to Cahuita
Cahuita
until late 1976), and the traditional disparity of resources – along with racism – created resentment among some of the Limón
Limón
population.[4][6][7] Recent major investment initiatives are a break with the past, and may help to improve relations between the Caribbean
Caribbean
district and the central valley (see "Economy"). Geography[edit]

Caribbean
Caribbean
coast in Limón

The majority of Limón's land lies at sea level, though its western border sees an increase in altitude due largely to the Cordillera de Talamanca. The province's indigenous populations largely reside in reserves that occupy much of the cantón of Talamanca. Climate[edit] Unlike the rest of the country, Limón
Limón
does not adhere to the dry-wet season cycle. It rains throughout the year, though the driest months tend to occur in September and October.

Climate data for Limón
Limón
International Airport, Costa Rica

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 27 (80) 27 (80) 28 (82) 28 (83) 28 (83) 28 (83) 28 (82) 28 (82) 29 (84) 28 (83) 27 (81) 27 (80) 27.7 (81.9)

Average low °C (°F) 22 (71) 22 (71) 22 (72) 23 (73) 24 (75) 24 (75) 23 (74) 23 (74) 24 (75) 24 (75) 23 (73) 22 (72) 22.9 (73.3)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 319 (12.56) 200.7 (7.90) 193.3 (7.61) 287 (11.30) 281.4 (11.08) 276.1 (10.87) 407.9 (16.06) 288.8 (11.37) 163.1 (6.42) 198.1 (7.80) 367 (14.45) 401.6 (15.81) 3,384 (133.23)

Source: Weather Underground [8]

Demographics[edit] Limón
Limón
is home to the country's largest concentration of Chinese, Afro- Caribbean
Caribbean
and indigenous groups (mainly the Bribri, KéköLdi, and Babécar).[9] According to the 2000 census, 16% of Limón's population is Afro-Caribbean, 7% is indigenous, less than 1% is Chinese, and nearly 75% consider themselves a mix of Afro-Caribbean, indigenous, Chinese, and/or mestizo blood.[10] Spoken languages include Spanish, an English creole called Limonese Creole, Chinese, English, and the indigenous languages of the province's three main groups (the Bribri, KéköLdi, and Babécar). Due mainly to the surge in tourism starting around the 1970s, Limón is home to a host of foreign expatriates. Among the most common are Americans, Canadians, Nicaraguans, South Americans (mainly Colombian and Ecuadorian), and Europeans (Spanish, Dutch, German, Swiss, and Italian).[10] Economy, education, health[edit] The United Fruit Company
United Fruit Company
laid the foundation of what keeps the limonense economy going. Although the fruit conglomerate has long been dismantled, banana and plantain exports remain one of the region's top sources of income, as well as the ports of Limón
Limón
and Moín (administered by the government's Junta de Administración Portuaria y de Desarrollo Económico de la Vertiente Atlántica [Japdeva]), and tourism.[11][12][13] Although Limón
Limón
province ranks third in overall poverty statistics, Talamanca ranks as one of the poorest counties in the country, with a significant portion of its mainly indigenous population of nearly 26,000 residents having spotty access to potable water, electricity, and roads.[14][15] Two major tourist sites – Cahuita
Cahuita
and Puerto Viejo/Manzanillo – exist in Talamanca, and taxes collected from and investment due to tourism help keep the municipality afloat. However, local leaders hope to benefit from the government's recent major investment initiatives in the province.[16] Access to education – especially in Talamanca – is a problem that the government has tried to tackle. Whereas about 45% of limonenses possess a high-school degree (about the national average), only about 22% of talamanqueños (those from Talamanca) have achieved the same qualification.[10] Recognizing the tie between education and poverty, the government recently launched the avancemos education initiative, in which poor and at-risk high-school students are eligible for a national scholarship to help pay for school and therefore reduce the chances of dropping out. As of 2009, about 150,000 students receive a stipend (about 47% of the total public-high-school population).[17] Though not officially linked, the government has reported lower drop-out rates over the past few years.[18] Health care is provided for the province by Hospital Dr. Tony Facio Castro.[19] Cultural Events[edit] Every second week of October, Puerto Limón
Limón
hosts a festival called carnaval. The event's start is credited to local community leader and activist, Alfred Josiah Henry Smith (known as "Mister King"), who helped organize the first carnaval in October 1949.[20] The event coincides with Columbus Day (known locally as Día de la Raza) on October 12, and traditionally lasts for a little over a week (to include two weekends). Activities include parades, food, music, dancing, and, on the last night, a concert headed by a major Latino/ Caribbean
Caribbean
music act in the Parque Vargas. Previous headliners have included Eddy Herrera
Eddy Herrera
(2002), Damian Marley
Damian Marley
(2003), El Gran Combo de Puerto Rico (2005), and T.O.K.
T.O.K.
(2006). The festival goes on rain or shine, though at times it is susceptible to local emergencies: Event planners cancelled carnaval in 2007 due to a major dengue outbreak that afflicted all of Limón, and again in 2008 due to an epidemic trash-removal problem that has since been resolved.[21][22] Political divisions[edit]

# Cantón Area (km2) Population (2011)[23] Capital city

1 Limón 1,765.79 94,415 Limón

2 Pococí 2,403.49 125,962 Guápiles

3 Siquirres 860.19 56,786 Siquirres

4 Talamanca 2,809.93 30,712 Bribri

5 Matina 772.64 37,721 Matina

6 Guácimo 576.48 41,266 Guácimo

See also[edit]

Jaguar Rescue Center, in Puerto Viejo de Talamanca

References[edit]

^ Resultados Generales Censo 2011 Archived 2012-10-21 at the Wayback Machine. p. 22 ^ Historia de Costa Rica ^ a b c d e f Molina, Ivan; Palmer, Steven (14 October 2017). "The History of Costa Rica: Second Edition Revised". Editorial UCR – via Amazon.  ^ a b c d e f Palmer, Paula (1 August 2005). "What Happen: A Folk-History of Costa Rica's Talamanca Coast". Zona Tropical – via Amazon.  ^ cariari.ucr.ac.cr/~anuario/Botey.pdf El Ferrocarril al Pacífico ^ a b c Miranda, Carolina A.; Penland, Paige (1 November 2004). "Lonely Planet Costa Rica". Lonely Planet Publications – via Amazon.  ^ Sharman, Russell Leigh (1 January 2001). "The Caribbean
Caribbean
Carretera: Race, Space and Social Liminality in Costa Rica". Bulletin of Latin American Research. 20 (1): 46–62. doi:10.1111/1470-9856.00004 – via www3.interscience.wiley.com.  ^ "Weather for Limon International Airport". Weather Underground.  ^ Palmer, Paula (1 August 2005). "What Happen: A Folk-History of Costa Rica's Talamanca Coast". Zona Tropical – via Amazon.  ^ a b c inec. "Bienvenido a INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE ESTADISTICA Y CENSOS - INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE ESTADISTICA Y CENSOS". www.inec.go.cr.  ^ "Impuesto al banano financiará seguridad en zona del Caribe".  ^ "Atrasada negociación para concesionar muelles de Limón".  ^ "Inversión externa directa va a sector inmobiliario e industria".  ^ "Mejora desarrollo humano, pero la desigualdad persiste".  ^ inec. "Bienvenido a INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE ESTADISTICA Y CENSOS - INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE ESTADISTICA Y CENSOS". www.inec.go.cr.  ^ "Banco Mundial otorga préstamo para modernizar puerto en Limón".  ^ "Avancemos cubre al 47% de los colegiales".  ^ "Se redujo la deserción de medio año en escuelas y colegios".  ^ "Quienes Somos: Hospital Regional Dr. Tony Facio Castro" Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social. Retrieved: 2012-03-07. (in Spanish) ^ " Limón
Limón
despidió a su Mister King con respeto y carnaval".  ^ "Dengue obliga a cancelar los carnavales de Limón".  ^ "Crisis por basura obliga a suspender carnavales".  ^ "Resultados Generales Censo 2011" (PDF). CIPAC - Centro de investigación y Promoción para America Central de Derechos Humanos (in Spanish). May 2012. pp. 48–49. Retrieved 12 November 2016. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Limón
Limón
Province.

Ticotimes.net: Exploring Costa Rica
Costa Rica
information

v t e

Provinces and cantons of Costa Rica

Alajuela

Alajuela Alfaro Ruiz Atenas Grecia Guatuso Los Chiles Naranjo Orotina Palmares Poás San Carlos San Mateo San Ramón Upala Valverde Vega

Cartago

Alvarado Cartago El Guarco Jiménez La Unión Oreamuno Paraíso Turrialba

Guanacaste

Abangares Bagaces Cañas Carrillo Hojancha La Cruz Liberia Nandayure Nicoya Santa Cruz Tilarán

Heredia

Barva Belén Flores Heredia San Isidro San Pablo San Rafael Santa Bárbara Santo Domingo Sarapiquí

Limón

Guácimo Limón Matina Pococí Siquirres Talamanca

Puntarenas

Buenos Aires Corredores Coto Brus Esparza Garabito Golfito Montes de Oro Osa Parrita Puntarenas Quepos

San José

Acosta Alajuelita Aserrí Curridabat Desamparados Coronado Dota Escazú Goicoechea León Cortés Montes de Oca Mora Moravia Pérez Zeledón Puriscal San José Santa Ana Tarrazú

.