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Lillian Diana Gish[1] (October 14, 1893 – February 27, 1993) was an American actress of the screen and stage,[2] as well as a director and writer. Her film acting career spanned 75 years, from 1912, in silent film shorts, to 1987. Gish was called the First Lady of American Cinema, and she is credited with pioneering fundamental film performing techniques.[3] Gish was a prominent film star from 1912 into the 1920s, particularly associated with the films of director D. W. Griffith, including her leading role in the highest-grossing film of the silent era, Griffith's seminal The Birth of a Nation
The Birth of a Nation
(1915). At the dawn of the sound era, she returned to the stage and appeared in film infrequently, including well-known roles in the controversial western Duel in the Sun (1946) and the offbeat thriller The Night of the Hunter (1955). She also did considerable television work from the early 1950s into the 1980s and closed her career playing opposite Bette Davis
Bette Davis
in the 1987 film The Whales of August. In her later years Gish became a dedicated advocate for the appreciation and preservation of silent film. Gish is widely considered to be the greatest actress of the silent era, and one of the greatest actresses in cinema history. Despite being better known for her film work, Gish was also an accomplished stage actress, and she was inducted into the American Theatre Hall of Fame in 1972.[4]

Contents

1 Early life 2 Career

2.1 Early career 2.2 Film stardom at Biograph Studios (1912–1925) 2.3 Work with MGM (1925–1928) 2.4 Sound debut, return to the stage, and television and radio 2.5 Radio

3 Honors 4 Personal life 5 Death 6 Legacy 7 In popular culture 8 Filmography 9 Books 10 Documentaries about Gish 11 See also 12 References 13 External links

Early life[edit]

Dorothy and Lillian Gish
Lillian Gish
with actress Helen Ray,[5] their leading lady in Her First False Step (1903)

Gish was born in Springfield, Ohio, to Mary Robinson McConnell (1875–1948) (an Episcopalian) and James Leigh Gish (1872–1912) (who was of German Lutheran descent).[6] She had a younger sister, Dorothy, who also became a popular movie star. The first several generations of Gishes were Dunkard ministers. Gish's father was an alcoholic. When he left the family, her mother took up acting to support them. The family moved to East St. Louis, Illinois, where they lived for several years with Lillian's aunt and uncle, Henry and Rose McConnell. Their mother opened the Majestic Candy Kitchen, and the girls helped sell popcorn and candy to patrons of the old Majestic Theater, located next door. The girls attended St. Henry's School, where they acted in school plays. In 1910 the girls were living with their aunt Emily in Massillon, Ohio, when they were notified that their father, James, was gravely ill in Oklahoma. Seventeen year old Lillian traveled to Shawnee, Oklahoma, where James's brother Alfred Grant Gish and his wife, Maude, lived. Her father, who by then was institutionalized in the Oklahoma Hospital for the Insane in Norman, was able to travel the 35 miles to Shawnee and the two got reacquainted. She stayed with her aunt and uncle and attended Shawnee High School there. Her father died in Norman, Oklahoma, January 9, 1912, but she had returned to Ohio a few months before. When the theater next to the candy store burned down, the family moved to New York, where the girls became good friends with a next-door neighbor, Gladys Smith. Gladys was a child actress who did some work for director D. W. Griffith
D. W. Griffith
and later took the stage name Mary Pickford.[7] When Lillian and Dorothy were old enough, they joined the theatre, often traveling separately in different productions. They also took modeling jobs, with Lillian posing for artist Victor Maurel in exchange for voice lessons.[8] In 1912, their friend Mary Pickford
Mary Pickford
introduced the sisters to Griffith and helped get them contracts with Biograph Studios. Lillian Gish would soon become one of America's best-loved actresses. Although she was already 19, she gave her age as 16 to the studio.[9] Career[edit] Early career[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (November 2015)

Gish made her stage debut in 1902, at The Little Red School House in Risingsun, Ohio. From 1903 to 1904, Lillian toured in Her First False Step, with her mother and Dorothy. The following year, she danced with a Sarah Bernhardt
Sarah Bernhardt
production in New York City. Film stardom at Biograph Studios (1912–1925)[edit]

Lillian Gish
Lillian Gish
in Broken Blossoms
Broken Blossoms
(1919)

Lillian Gish
Lillian Gish
as Anna Moore in D. W. Griffith's Way Down East
Way Down East
(1920)

Photoplay
Photoplay
magazine cover by Rolf Armstrong
Rolf Armstrong
(1921)

After 10 years of acting on the stage, she made her film debut opposite Dorothy in Griffith's short film An Unseen Enemy
An Unseen Enemy
(1912). At the time established thespians considered "the flickers" a rather base form of entertainment, but she was assured of its merits. Gish continued to perform on the stage, and in 1913, during a run of A Good Little Devil, she collapsed from anemia. Lillian would take suffering for her art to the extreme in a film career which became her obsession. One of the enduring images of Gish's silent film years is the climax of the melodramatic Way Down East, in which Gish's character floats unconscious on an ice floe towards a raging waterfall, her long hair and hand trailing in the water. Her performance in these frigid conditions gave her lasting nerve damage in several fingers. Similarly, when preparing for her death scene in La Bohème over a decade later, Gish reportedly did not eat and drink for three days beforehand, causing the director to fear he would be filming the death of his star as well as of the character. Lillian starred in many of Griffith's most acclaimed films, including The Birth of a Nation
The Birth of a Nation
(1915), Intolerance (1916), Broken Blossoms (1919), Way Down East
Way Down East
(1920), and Orphans of the Storm
Orphans of the Storm
(1921). Griffith utilized Lillian's expressive talents to the fullest, developing her into a suffering yet strong heroine. Having appeared in over 25 short films and features in her first two years as a movie actress, Lillian became a major star, becoming known as "The First Lady of American Cinema" and appearing in lavish productions, frequently of literary works such as Way Down East. She became the most esteemed actress of budding Hollywood cinema. She directed her sister Dorothy in one film, Remodeling Her Husband (1920), when D. W. Griffith
D. W. Griffith
took his unit on location. He told Gish that he thought the crew would work harder for a girl. Gish never directed again, telling reporters at the time that directing was a man's job.[10] Unfortunately the film is now thought to be lost. Work with MGM (1925–1928)[edit] In 1925 Gish reluctantly ended her work with Griffith to take an offer from the recently formed MGM which gave her more creative control. MGM offered her a contract in 1926 for six films, for which she was offered 1 million dollars ($13.4 million in 2015 dollars). She turned down the money, requesting a more modest wage and a percentage so that the studio could use the funds to increase the quality of her films — hiring the best actors, screenwriters, etc. By the late silent era, Greta Garbo
Greta Garbo
had usurped Gish as MGM's leading lady. Her contract with MGM ended in 1928. Three films with MGM gave her near-total creative control, La Bohème (1926), The Scarlet Letter (1926), and The Wind (1928). The Wind, Gish's favorite film of her MGM career, was a commercial failure with the rise of talkies, but is now recognized as one of the most distinguished works of the silent period. Though not a box-office hit as before, her work was respected artistically more than ever, and MGM pressed her with offers to appear in the new medium of sound pictures. Sound debut, return to the stage, and television and radio[edit]

Lillian Gish
Lillian Gish
in Jed Harris' Broadway production of Uncle Vanya
Uncle Vanya
(1930)

Her debut in talkies was only moderately successful, largely due to the public's changing attitudes. Many of the silent era's leading ladies, such as Gish and Pickford, had been wholesome and innocent, but by the early 1930s (after the full adoption of sound and before the Motion Picture Production Code
Motion Picture Production Code
was enforced) these roles were perceived as outdated. The ingenue's diametric opposite, the vamp, was at the height of its popularity. Gish was increasingly seen as a "silly, sexless antique" (to quote Louise Brooks's sarcastic summary of Gish's criticism). Louis Mayer wanted to stage a scandal ("knock her off her pedestal") to garner public sympathy for Gish, but Lillian didn't want to act both on screen and off, and returned to her first love, the theater. She acted on the stage for the most part in the 1930s and early 1940s, appearing in roles as varied as Ophelia in Guthrie McClintic's landmark 1936 production of Hamlet
Hamlet
(with John Gielgud and Judith Anderson) and Marguerite in a limited run of La Dame aux Camélias. Of the former, she said, with pride, "I played a lewd Ophelia!" Returning to movies, Gish was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress in 1946 for Duel in the Sun. The scenes of her character's illness and death late in that film seemed intended to evoke the memory of some of her silent film performances. She appeared in films from time to time for the rest of her life, notably in Night of the Hunter (1955) as a rural guardian angel protecting her charges from a murderous preacher played by Robert Mitchum. She was considered for various roles in Gone with the Wind ranging from Ellen O'Hara, Scarlett's mother, which went to Barbara O'Neil,[11] to prostitute Belle Watling, which went to Ona Munson. Gish made numerous television appearances from the early 1950s into the late 1980s. Her most acclaimed television work was starring in the original production of The Trip to Bountiful in 1953. She appeared as Dowager Empress Maria Feodorovna in the short-lived 1965 Broadway musical Anya. In addition to her later acting appearances, Gish became one of the leading advocates of the lost art of the silent film, often giving speeches and touring to screenings of classic works. In 1975, she hosted The Silent Years, a PBS
PBS
film program of silent films. She was interviewed in the television documentary series Hollywood: A Celebration of the American Silent Film (1980).[12]

Lillian Gish
Lillian Gish
in 1973 (age 80)

Gish received a Special
Special
Academy Award in 1971 "For superlative artistry and for distinguished contribution to the progress of motion pictures." In 1979, she was awarded the Women in film Crystal Award in Los Angeles[13] In 1984, she received an American Film Institute Lifetime Achievement Award, becoming only the second female recipient (preceded by Bette Davis
Bette Davis
in 1977) and the only recipient who was a major figure in the silent era. She has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 1720 Vine Street. Her last film role was appearing in The Whales of August
The Whales of August
in 1987 at the age of 93, with Vincent Price, Bette Davis, and Ann Sothern, in which Davis and she starred as elderly sisters in Maine. Gish's performance was received glowingly, winning her the National Board of Review Award for Best Actress. At the Cannes festival Lillian won a 10-minute standing ovation from the audience. Some in the entertainment industry were angry that Gish did not receive an Oscar nomination for her role in The Whales of August. Gish herself was more complacent, remarking that it saved her the trouble of "losing to Cher."[citation needed] Her final professional appearance was a cameo on the 1988 studio recording of Jerome Kern's Show Boat, starring Frederica von Stade and Jerry Hadley, in which she affectingly spoke the few lines of The Old Lady on the Levee in the final scene. The last words of her long career were, "Good night." Radio[edit] Gish starred in an episode of the popular CBS
CBS
radio series "Suspense". The episode "Marry for Murder" was broadcast on September 9, 1943. [14]In 1944 Gish starred in an episode of I Was There, broadcast on CBS. The episode dramatized the making of the film The Birth of a Nation.[15] On May 31, 1951, she starred in an adaptation of Black Chiffon on Playhouse on Broadway.[16] Honors[edit] The American Film Institute
American Film Institute
named Gish 17th among the greatest female stars of Classic American cinema.[17] In 1955, she was awarded the George Eastman Award, for distinguished contribution to the art of film, at the George Eastman Museum's (then George Eastman House's) inaugural Festival of Film Artists.[18] She was awarded an Honorary Academy Award in 1971, and in 1984 she received an AFI Life Achievement Award.[19] Gish, an American icon, was also awarded in the Kennedy Center Honors. In 1979 she introduced The Wind at a screening at the Wiltern Theatre in Los Angeles. She was a special guest at the Telluride Film Festival in 1983. Personal life[edit]

Lillian and her sister Dorothy, 1921

Gish never married or had children. The association between Gish and D. W. Griffith
D. W. Griffith
was so close that some suspected a romantic connection, an issue never acknowledged by Gish, although several of their associates were certain they were at least briefly involved. For the remainder of her life, she always referred to him as "Mr. Griffith". She was also involved with producer Charles Duell and drama critic and editor George Jean Nathan. In the 1920s, Gish's association with Duell was something of a tabloid scandal because he had sued her and made the details of their relationship public.[7] Lillian Gish
Lillian Gish
was the sister of actress Dorothy Gish. She was a survivor of the 1918 flu pandemic, having contracted flu during the filming of Broken Blossoms.[20] Gish learned French, German, and Italian during 15 years in Europe, which she first visited in 1917. George Jean Nathan
George Jean Nathan
praised Gish's acting glowingly—comparing her to Eleonora Duse.

External audio

Lillian Gish
Lillian Gish
talks with Studs Terkel on WFMT; 1963/01/16, Studs Terkel Radio Archive[21]

During the period of political turmoil in the US that lasted from the outbreak of World War II in Europe until the attack on Pearl Harbor, she maintained an outspoken noninterventionist stance. She was an active member of the America First Committee, an anti-intervention organization founded by retired General Robert E. Wood
Robert E. Wood
with aviation pioneer Charles Lindbergh
Charles Lindbergh
as its leading spokesman. She said she was blacklisted by the film and theater industries until she signed a contract in which she promised to cease her anti-interventionist activities and never disclose the fact that she had agreed to do so.[22] She maintained a close relationship with her sister Dorothy and with Mary Pickford
Mary Pickford
for her entire life. Another of her closest friends was actress Helen Hayes, the "First Lady of the American Theatre". Gish was the godmother of Hayes's son James MacArthur. Gish designated Hayes as a beneficiary of her estate, with Hayes surviving her by less than a month. Gish was a devout Episcopalian.[23] Death[edit] Lillian Gish
Lillian Gish
died peacefully in her sleep of heart failure on February 27, 1993, age 99. Her body was interred beside that of her sister Dorothy at Saint Bartholomew's Episcopal Church in New York City. Her estate was valued at several million dollars, the bulk of which went toward the creation of the Dorothy and Lillian Gish
Lillian Gish
Prize Trust. Legacy[edit]

Gish posed as Elaine of Astolat
Elaine of Astolat
in Way Down East

A retrospective of Gish's life and achievements was showcased in an episode of the Emmy award-winning PBS
PBS
series, American Masters. The All Movie Guide wrote of her legacy:[24]

Lillian Gish
Lillian Gish
is considered the movie industry's first true actress. A pioneer of fundamental film performing techniques, she was the first star to recognize the many crucial differences between acting for the stage and acting for the screen, and while her contemporaries painted their performances in broad, dramatic strokes, Gish delivered finely etched, nuanced turns carrying a stunning emotional impact. While by no means the biggest or most popular actress of the silent era, she was the most gifted, her seeming waiflike frailty masking unparalleled reserves of physical and spiritual strength. More than any other early star, she fought to earn film recognition as a true art form, and her achievements remain the standard against which those of all other actors are measured.[25]

Turner Classic Movies
Turner Classic Movies
writes:[26]

Having pioneered screen acting from vaudeville entertainment into a form of artistic expression, actress Lillian Gish
Lillian Gish
forged a new creative path at a time when more serious thespians regarded motion pictures as a rather base form of employment. Gish brought to her roles a sense of craft substantially different from that practiced by her theatrical colleagues. In time, her sensitive performances elevated not only her stature as an actress, but also the reputation of movies themselves.

The Dorothy and Lillian Gish
Lillian Gish
Prize A street in Massillon, Ohio, is named after Gish, who had lived there during an early period of her life and fondly referred to it as her hometown throughout her career.[27] François Truffaut's movie, Day for Night from 1973, is dedicated to Dorothy and Lilian Gish.[28] Gish's photo is mentioned as an inspiration for a troubled soldier in the 1933 novel Company K.[29] The luxury boutique hotel, Maison 140, in Beverly Hills, began its historic life as the home of Hollywood actresses Lillian and Dorothy Gish. In fact it was the Gish sisters who converted the mansion into a home for young actresses coming out to find their way in Hollywood. As they had hailed from Ohio they understood the comforts that would be missed from home while exploring one's dreams.[30]

In popular culture[edit] The debut album of The Smashing Pumpkins, released on May 28, 1991, is entitled Gish in reference to her. Singer Billy Corgan
Billy Corgan
explained in an interview, "My grandmother used to tell me that one of the biggest things that ever happened was when Lillian Gish
Lillian Gish
rode through town on a train, my grandmother lived in the middle of nowhere, so that was a big deal..."[31] Filmography[edit] Main article: Lillian Gish
Lillian Gish
filmography Books[edit]

Autobiographical

The Movies, Mr. Griffith, and Me (with Ann Pinchot) (Prentice-Hall, 1969) Dorothy and Lillian Gish
Lillian Gish
(Charles Scribner's Sons, 1973) An Actor's Life For Me (with Selma G. Lanes) (Viking Penguin, 1987) Lillian Gish: the Movies, Mr. Griffith and Me, by Gish co-authored with Ann Pinchot; ISBN 0-491-00103-7, W.H. Allen 1969, and ISBN 0-916515-40-0 Mercury House, 1988.

Biographical and topical

Abel, Richard, et al. Flickers of desire: movie stars of the 1910s (Rutgers University Press, 2011). Affron, Charles. Star Acting: Gish, Garbo, Davis (E.P. Dutton, 1977) Affron, Charles. Lillian Gish
Lillian Gish
Her Legend, Her Life (University of California Press, 2002) revised paperback edition Berke, Annie, "'Never Let the Camera Catch Me Acting': Lillian Gish
Lillian Gish
as Actress, Star, and Theorist", Historical Journal of Film, Radio, and Television 36 (June 2016), 175–89. Bogdanovich, Peter. A Moment with Miss Gish (Santa Teresa Press, 1995). Oderman, Stuart. Lillian Gish: A Life on Stage and Screen (McFarland, 2000).

Documentaries about Gish[edit]

Jeanne Moreau's 1983 television documentary Lillian Gish Terry Sanders' 1988 documentary Lillian Gish: An Actor's Life for Me

See also[edit]

Biography portal Silent film
Silent film
portal Film portal

List of actors with Academy Award nominations Women's cinema

References[edit]

^ Although there are unsupported claims that the Gish sisters were born with the surname "de Guiche", in fact their surname at birth was "Gish". According to Lillian Gish: Her Legend, Her Life (2001), a biography by Charles Affron: "The Gish name was initially the source of some mystification. In 1922, at the time of the opening of Orphans of the Storm, Lillian reported that the Gish family was of French origin, descending from the Duke de Guiche ... [S]uch press-agentry falsification was common." ^ Lillian Gish
Lillian Gish
- North American Theatre Online ^ "American Film Institute". www.afi.com.  ^ Annie Berke, “‘Never Let the Camera Catch Me Acting’: Lillian Gish as Actress, Star, and Theorist,” Historical Journal of Film, Radio, and Television 36 (June 2016), 175–89. ^ Dorothy and Lillian Gish
Lillian Gish
(1973) p12 ^ " Lillian Gish
Lillian Gish
Biography". Bioandlyrics.com. February 27, 1993. Archived from the original on February 3, 2009. Retrieved October 4, 2010.  ^ a b Charles Affron (March 12, 2002). Lillian Gish: her legend, her life. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-23434-5.  ^ Oderman, Stuart (2000). Lillian Gish: A Life on Stage and Screen. McFarland & Co. ISBN 9780786406449.  ^ Charles Affron (March 12, 2002). Lillian Gish: her legend, her life. University of California Press. pp. 19–20. ISBN 978-0-520-23434-5.  ^ Charles Affron (March 12, 2002). Lillian Gish: her legend, her life. University of California Press. p. 138. ISBN 978-0-520-23434-5.  ^ Lambert, Gavin (1976) [1973]. GWTW: The Making of Gone With the Wind (mass market paperback ed.). New York: Bantam Books. p. 53.  ^ Brownlow, Kevin; Gill, David (1980). Hollywood: A Celebration of the American Silent Film (video). Thames Video Production.  ^ "Past Recipients: Crystal Award". Women In Film. Archived from the original on June 30, 2011. Retrieved May 10, 2011.  ^ programme note from Blackstone Audio 'Suspense' vol.2 issued 2015 ^ "She Was There (caption)" (PDF). Radio Life. January 16, 1944. p. 32. Retrieved April 18, 2015.  ^ "Your Radio Today". Tucson Daily Citizen. May 31, 1951. p. 24. Retrieved May 10, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.  ^ "AFI's 100 Years... 100 Stars".  ^ "George Eastman Award".  ^ "The AFI Life Achievement Award".  ^ Lillian Gish: The Movies, Mr. Griffith, and Me, ISBN 0-13-536649-6. ^ " Lillian Gish
Lillian Gish
talks with Studs Terkel on WFMT". Studs Terkel Radio Archive. January 16, 1963. Retrieved September 29, 2016.  ^ Sarles, Ruth and Bill Kauffman. A Story of America First: The Men and Women Who Opposed U.S. Intervention in World War II. Praeger, Westport, Conn., 2003, p. xxxvii. ^ [1] ^ "Movies".  ^ "Lillian Gish". www.rottentomatoes.com.  ^ "Overview for Lillian Gish". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved November 12, 2015.  ^ Royster, Jacqueline Jones (2003). Profiles of Ohio Women, 1803–2003. Ohio University Press. p. 224. ISBN 9780821415085.  ^ Dixon, Wheeler Winston (1993). Early Film Criticism of Francois Truffaut. Indiana University Press. p. 46. ISBN 9780253113436.  ^ March, William (1989). Company K. University of Alabama Press. p. 54.  ^ "Luxury Beverly Hills Hotel - About Maison 140". www.maison140.com.  ^ Caro, Mark (December 28, 1990). "Smashing Pumpkins Finds a New Home at Caroline Records". Chicago Tribune.

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Lillian Gish

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lillian Gish.

Official website Lillian Gish
Lillian Gish
at the Internet Broadway Database
Internet Broadway Database
Lillian Gish
Lillian Gish
on IMDb Lillian Gish
Lillian Gish
at the TCM Movie Database Lillian Gish
Lillian Gish
at Women Film Pioneers Project Lillian Gish
Lillian Gish
papers, 1909–1992, held by the Billy Rose Theatre Division, New York Public Library for the Performing Arts Lillian Gish, Helen Hayes, & Mary Martin
Mary Martin
Interview with Bill Boggs on YouTube Lillian Gish
Lillian Gish
Film Festival in Springfield, Ohio The Dorothy and Lillian Gish
Lillian Gish
Film Theater Extensive Lillian Gish
Lillian Gish
gallery Photographs and bibliography Lillian Gish
Lillian Gish
Biography at The New York Times Lillian Gish: First Lady of the Silent Screen

Awards for Lillian Gish

v t e

Academy Honorary Award

1928–1950

Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
/ Charlie Chaplin
Charlie Chaplin
(1928) Walt Disney
Walt Disney
(1932) Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
(1934) D. W. Griffith
D. W. Griffith
(1935) The March of Time
The March of Time
/ W. Howard Greene and Harold Rosson (1936) Edgar Bergen
Edgar Bergen
/ W. Howard Greene / Museum of Modern Art
Museum of Modern Art
Film Library / Mack Sennett
Mack Sennett
(1937) J. Arthur Ball / Walt Disney
Walt Disney
/ Deanna Durbin
Deanna Durbin
and Mickey Rooney
Mickey Rooney
/ Gordon Jennings, Jan Domela, Devereaux Jennings, Irmin Roberts, Art Smith, Farciot Edouart, Loyal Griggs, Loren L. Ryder, Harry D. Mills, Louis Mesenkop, Walter Oberst / Oliver T. Marsh and Allen Davey / Harry Warner
Harry Warner
(1938) Douglas Fairbanks
Douglas Fairbanks
/ Judy Garland
Judy Garland
/ William Cameron Menzies / Motion Picture Relief Fund (Jean Hersholt, Ralph Morgan, Ralph Block, Conrad Nagel)/ Technicolor Company (1939) Bob Hope
Bob Hope
/ Nathan Levinson (1940) Walt Disney, William Garity, John N. A. Hawkins, and the RCA Manufacturing Company / Leopold Stokowski
Leopold Stokowski
and his associates / Rey Scott / British Ministry of Information (1941) Charles Boyer
Charles Boyer
/ Noël Coward
Noël Coward
/ Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
(1942) George Pal
George Pal
(1943) Bob Hope
Bob Hope
/ Margaret O'Brien
Margaret O'Brien
(1944) Republic Studio, Daniel J. Bloomberg, and the Republic Studio Sound Department / Walter Wanger
Walter Wanger
/ The House I Live In / Peggy Ann Garner (1945) Harold Russell
Harold Russell
/ Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
/ Ernst Lubitsch
Ernst Lubitsch
/ Claude Jarman Jr. (1946) James Baskett
James Baskett
/ Thomas Armat, William Nicholas Selig, Albert E. Smith, and George Kirke Spoor
George Kirke Spoor
/ Bill and Coo / Shoeshine (1947) Walter Wanger
Walter Wanger
/ Monsieur Vincent
Monsieur Vincent
/ Sid Grauman
Sid Grauman
/ Adolph Zukor
Adolph Zukor
(1948) Jean Hersholt
Jean Hersholt
/ Fred Astaire
Fred Astaire
/ Cecil B. DeMille
Cecil B. DeMille
/ The Bicycle Thief (1949) Louis B. Mayer
Louis B. Mayer
/ George Murphy
George Murphy
/ The Walls of Malapaga (1950)

1951–1975

Gene Kelly
Gene Kelly
/ Rashomon
Rashomon
(1951) Merian C. Cooper
Merian C. Cooper
/ Bob Hope
Bob Hope
/ Harold Lloyd
Harold Lloyd
/ George Mitchell / Joseph M. Schenck / Forbidden Games
Forbidden Games
(1952) 20th Century-Fox Film Corporation / Bell & Howell Company / Joseph Breen / Pete Smith (1953) Bausch & Lomb Optical Company / Danny Kaye
Danny Kaye
/ Kemp Niver / Greta Garbo / Jon Whiteley
Jon Whiteley
/ Vincent Winter / Gate of Hell (1954) Samurai I: Musashi Miyamoto (1955) Eddie Cantor
Eddie Cantor
(1956) Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers
Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers
/ Gilbert M. "Broncho Billy" Anderson / Charles Brackett / B. B. Kahane (1957) Maurice Chevalier
Maurice Chevalier
(1958) Buster Keaton
Buster Keaton
/ Lee de Forest
Lee de Forest
(1959) Gary Cooper
Gary Cooper
/ Stan Laurel
Stan Laurel
/ Hayley Mills
Hayley Mills
(1960) William L. Hendricks / Fred L. Metzler / Jerome Robbins
Jerome Robbins
(1961) William J. Tuttle
William J. Tuttle
(1964) Bob Hope
Bob Hope
(1965) Yakima Canutt
Yakima Canutt
/ Y. Frank Freeman
Y. Frank Freeman
(1966) Arthur Freed (1967) John Chambers / Onna White (1968) Cary Grant
Cary Grant
(1969) Lillian Gish
Lillian Gish
/ Orson Welles
Orson Welles
(1970) Charlie Chaplin
Charlie Chaplin
(1971) Charles S. Boren / Edward G. Robinson
Edward G. Robinson
(1972) Henri Langlois
Henri Langlois
/ Groucho Marx
Groucho Marx
(1973) Howard Hawks
Howard Hawks
/ Jean Renoir
Jean Renoir
(1974) Mary Pickford
Mary Pickford
(1975)

1976–2000

Margaret Booth (1977) Walter Lantz
Walter Lantz
/ Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
/ King Vidor
King Vidor
/ Museum of Modern Art Department of Film (1978) Hal Elias / Alec Guinness
Alec Guinness
(1979) Henry Fonda
Henry Fonda
(1980) Barbara Stanwyck
Barbara Stanwyck
(1981) Mickey Rooney
Mickey Rooney
(1982) Hal Roach
Hal Roach
(1983) James Stewart
James Stewart
/ National Endowment for the Arts
National Endowment for the Arts
(1984) Paul Newman
Paul Newman
/ Alex North (1985) Ralph Bellamy
Ralph Bellamy
(1986) Eastman Kodak
Kodak
Company / National Film Board of Canada
National Film Board of Canada
(1988) Akira Kurosawa
Akira Kurosawa
(1989) Sophia Loren
Sophia Loren
/ Myrna Loy
Myrna Loy
(1990) Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
(1991) Federico Fellini
Federico Fellini
(1992) Deborah Kerr
Deborah Kerr
(1993) Michelangelo Antonioni
Michelangelo Antonioni
(1994) Kirk Douglas
Kirk Douglas
/ Chuck Jones
Chuck Jones
(1995) Michael Kidd
Michael Kidd
(1996) Stanley Donen
Stanley Donen
(1997) Elia Kazan
Elia Kazan
(1998) Andrzej Wajda
Andrzej Wajda
(1999) Jack Cardiff
Jack Cardiff
/ Ernest Lehman (2000)

2001–present

Sidney Poitier
Sidney Poitier
/ Robert Redford
Robert Redford
(2001) Peter O'Toole
Peter O'Toole
(2002) Blake Edwards
Blake Edwards
(2003) Sidney Lumet
Sidney Lumet
(2004) Robert Altman
Robert Altman
(2005) Ennio Morricone
Ennio Morricone
(2006) Robert F. Boyle (2007) Lauren Bacall
Lauren Bacall
/ Roger Corman
Roger Corman
/ Gordon Willis
Gordon Willis
(2009) Kevin Brownlow / Jean-Luc Godard
Jean-Luc Godard
/ Eli Wallach
Eli Wallach
(2010) James Earl Jones
James Earl Jones
/ Dick Smith (2011) D. A. Pennebaker
D. A. Pennebaker
/ Hal Needham
Hal Needham
/ George Stevens Jr.
George Stevens Jr.
(2012) Angela Lansbury
Angela Lansbury
/ Steve Martin
Steve Martin
/ Piero Tosi (2013) Jean-Claude Carrière
Jean-Claude Carrière
/ Hayao Miyazaki
Hayao Miyazaki
/ Maureen O'Hara
Maureen O'Hara
(2014) Spike Lee
Spike Lee
/ Gena Rowlands
Gena Rowlands
(2015) Jackie Chan
Jackie Chan
/ Lynn Stalmaster / Anne V. Coates / Frederick Wiseman (2016) Charles Burnett / Owen Roizman / Donald Sutherland
Donald Sutherland
/ Agnès Varda (2017)

v t e

AFI Life Achievement Award

John Ford
John Ford
(1973) James Cagney
James Cagney
(1974) Orson Welles
Orson Welles
(1975) William Wyler
William Wyler
(1976) Bette Davis
Bette Davis
(1977) Henry Fonda
Henry Fonda
(1978) Alfred Hitchcock
Alfred Hitchcock
(1979) James Stewart
James Stewart
(1980) Fred Astaire
Fred Astaire
(1981) Frank Capra
Frank Capra
(1982) John Huston
John Huston
(1983) Lillian Gish
Lillian Gish
(1984) Gene Kelly
Gene Kelly
(1985) Billy Wilder
Billy Wilder
(1986) Barbara Stanwyck
Barbara Stanwyck
(1987) Jack Lemmon
Jack Lemmon
(1988) Gregory Peck
Gregory Peck
(1989) David Lean
David Lean
(1990) Kirk Douglas
Kirk Douglas
(1991) Sidney Poitier
Sidney Poitier
(1992) Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
(1993) Jack Nicholson
Jack Nicholson
(1994) Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
(1995) Clint Eastwood
Clint Eastwood
(1996) Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
(1997) Robert Wise
Robert Wise
(1998) Dustin Hoffman
Dustin Hoffman
(1999) Harrison Ford
Harrison Ford
(2000) Barbra Streisand
Barbra Streisand
(2001) Tom Hanks
Tom Hanks
(2002) Robert De Niro
Robert De Niro
(2003) Meryl Streep
Meryl Streep
(2004) George Lucas
George Lucas
(2005) Sean Connery
Sean Connery
(2006) Al Pacino
Al Pacino
(2007) Warren Beatty
Warren Beatty
(2008) Michael Douglas
Michael Douglas
(2009) Mike Nichols
Mike Nichols
(2010) Morgan Freeman
Morgan Freeman
(2011) Shirley MacLaine
Shirley MacLaine
(2012) Mel Brooks
Mel Brooks
(2013) Jane Fonda
Jane Fonda
(2014) Steve Martin
Steve Martin
(2015) John Williams
John Williams
(2016) Diane Keaton
Diane Keaton
(2017) George Clooney
George Clooney
(2018)

v t e

Kennedy Center Honorees (1980s)

1980

Leonard Bernstein James Cagney Agnes de Mille Lynn Fontanne Leontyne Price

1981

Count Basie Cary Grant Helen Hayes Jerome Robbins Rudolf Serkin

1982

George Abbott Lillian Gish Benny Goodman Gene Kelly Eugene Ormandy

1983

Katherine Dunham Elia Kazan Frank Sinatra James Stewart Virgil Thomson

1984

Lena Horne Danny Kaye Gian Carlo Menotti Arthur Miller Isaac Stern

1985

Merce Cunningham Irene Dunne Bob Hope Alan Jay Lerner
Alan Jay Lerner
& Frederick Loewe Beverly Sills

1986

Lucille Ball Hume Cronyn
Hume Cronyn
& Jessica Tandy Yehudi Menuhin Antony Tudor Ray Charles

1987

Perry Como Bette Davis Sammy Davis Jr. Nathan Milstein Alwin Nikolais

1988

Alvin Ailey George Burns Myrna Loy Alexander Schneider Roger L. Stevens

1989

Harry Belafonte Claudette Colbert Alexandra Danilova Mary Martin William Schuman

Complete list 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s

v t e

National Board of Review Award for Best Actress

Joan Crawford
Joan Crawford
(1945) Anna Magnani
Anna Magnani
(1946) Celia Johnson
Celia Johnson
(1947) Olivia de Havilland
Olivia de Havilland
(1948) Gloria Swanson
Gloria Swanson
(1950) Jan Sterling
Jan Sterling
(1951) Shirley Booth
Shirley Booth
(1952) Jean Simmons
Jean Simmons
(1953) Grace Kelly
Grace Kelly
(1954) Anna Magnani
Anna Magnani
(1955) Dorothy McGuire
Dorothy McGuire
(1956) Joanne Woodward
Joanne Woodward
(1957) Ingrid Bergman
Ingrid Bergman
(1958) Simone Signoret
Simone Signoret
(1959) Greer Garson
Greer Garson
(1960) Geraldine Page
Geraldine Page
(1961) Anne Bancroft
Anne Bancroft
(1962) Patricia Neal
Patricia Neal
(1963) Kim Stanley
Kim Stanley
(1964) Julie Christie
Julie Christie
(1965) Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
(1966) Edith Evans
Edith Evans
(1967) Liv Ullmann
Liv Ullmann
(1968) Geraldine Page
Geraldine Page
(1969) Glenda Jackson
Glenda Jackson
(1970) Irene Papas
Irene Papas
(1971) Cicely Tyson
Cicely Tyson
(1972) Liv Ullmann
Liv Ullmann
(1973) Gena Rowlands
Gena Rowlands
(1974) Isabelle Adjani
Isabelle Adjani
(1975) Liv Ullmann
Liv Ullmann
(1976) Anne Bancroft
Anne Bancroft
(1977) Ingrid Bergman
Ingrid Bergman
(1978) Sally Field
Sally Field
(1979) Sissy Spacek
Sissy Spacek
(1980) Glenda Jackson
Glenda Jackson
(1981) Meryl Streep
Meryl Streep
(1982) Shirley MacLaine
Shirley MacLaine
(1983) Peggy Ashcroft
Peggy Ashcroft
(1984) Whoopi Goldberg
Whoopi Goldberg
(1985) Kathleen Turner
Kathleen Turner
(1986) Lillian Gish
Lillian Gish
/ Holly Hunter
Holly Hunter
(1987) Jodie Foster
Jodie Foster
(1988) Michelle Pfeiffer
Michelle Pfeiffer
(1989) Mia Farrow
Mia Farrow
(1990) Geena Davis
Geena Davis
/ Susan Sarandon
Susan Sarandon
(1991) Emma Thompson
Emma Thompson
(1992) Holly Hunter
Holly Hunter
(1993) Miranda Richardson
Miranda Richardson
(1994) Emma Thompson
Emma Thompson
(1995) Frances McDormand
Frances McDormand
(1996) Helena Bonham Carter
Helena Bonham Carter
(1997) Fernanda Montenegro
Fernanda Montenegro
(1998) Janet McTeer
Janet McTeer
(1999) Julia Roberts
Julia Roberts
(2000) Halle Berry
Halle Berry
(2001) Julianne Moore
Julianne Moore
(2002) Diane Keaton
Diane Keaton
(2003) Annette Bening
Annette Bening
(2004) Felicity Huffman
Felicity Huffman
(2005) Helen Mirren
Helen Mirren
(2006) Julie Christie
Julie Christie
(2007) Anne Hathaway
Anne Hathaway
(2008) Carey Mulligan
Carey Mulligan
(2009) Lesley Manville
Lesley Manville
(2010) Tilda Swinton
Tilda Swinton
(2011) Jessica Chastain
Jessica Chastain
(2012) Emma Thompson
Emma Thompson
(2013) Julianne Moore
Julianne Moore
(2014) Brie Larson
Brie Larson
(2015) Amy Adams
Amy Adams
(2016) Meryl Streep
Meryl Streep
(2017)

v t e

Ohio Women's Hall of Fame

1970–1979

1978

Allen, FlorenceFlorence Allen Black, Helen ChatfieldHelen Chatfield Black Bolton, FrancesFrances Bolton Boyer, ElizabethElizabeth Boyer Bracken, HarrietHarriet Bracken Cooper, Martha KinneyMartha Kinney Cooper Donahey, GertrudeGertrude Donahey Hunter, Jane EdnaJane Edna Hunter Kline, ConsolataConsolata Kline Kunkle, VirginiaVirginia Kunkle Mahoney, MargaretMargaret Mahoney McClelland, Helen GraceHelen Grace McClelland Merritt, AgnesAgnes Merritt Papier, RoseRose Papier Randolph, LottieLottie Randolph Stewart, Ella P.Ella P. Stewart Valiquette, MarigeneMarigene Valiquette Walker, Ann B.Ann B. Walker Walsh, StellaStella Walsh Wells, MarionMarion Wells

1979

Akeley, Mary JobeMary Jobe Akeley Bickerdyke, Mary AnnMary Ann Bickerdyke Cleveland, BeatriceBeatrice Cleveland Earley, Charity EdnaCharity Edna Earley Jammal, EleanorEleanor Jammal Kochan, BerniceBernice Kochan Leedy, EmilyEmily Leedy Lyons, RuthRuth Lyons Mock, JerrieJerrie Mock Phaler, EmmaEmma Phaler Redinger, RachelRachel Redinger Sterne, BobbieBobbie Sterne Swanbeck, EthelEthel Swanbeck Weisenborn, ClaraClara Weisenborn Whiteman, MarjorieMarjorie Whiteman

1980–1989

1980

Berlin, GraceGrace Berlin Bombeck, ErmaErma Bombeck Byrne, Patricia M.Patricia M. Byrne Crawford, RuthRuth Crawford Fast, LouisaLouisa Fast Fuldheim, DorothyDorothy Fuldheim Gish, LillianLillian Gish Greisheimer, EstherEsther Greisheimer Keller, EdithEdith Keller Kitchen, TellaTella Kitchen Krupansky, BlancheBlanche Krupansky Larlham, HattieHattie Larlham Nemeth, Mary LouiseMary Louise Nemeth Oakley, AnnieAnnie Oakley Weber, DorisDoris Weber

1981

Bayer, MildredMildred Bayer Bischoff Lovin, TinaTina Bischoff Lovin Cornelius, DorothyDorothy Cornelius Day, DorisDoris Day Diller, PhyllisPhyllis Diller Hunkins, EusebiaEusebia Hunkins Norton, AndreAndre Norton Untermeyer, Jean StarrJean Starr Untermeyer Upton, Harriet TaylorHarriet Taylor Upton Wilson, NancyNancy Wilson

1982

Boyd, A. MargaretA. Margaret Boyd Eriksson, AnnAnn Eriksson Foley, BerniceBernice Foley George, Zelma WatsonZelma Watson George Izant, Grace GoulderGrace Goulder Izant Morrison, ToniToni Morrison Sewell, PhyllisPhyllis Sewell Spain, JayneJayne Spain Zelkowitz, HelenHelen Zelkowitz

1983

Anderson, Harriet J.Harriet J. Anderson Biggs, IoneIone Biggs Bingham, EulaEula Bingham Boyle, Mary O.Mary O. Boyle Heath, MariwynMariwyn Heath Irwin, JosephineJosephine Irwin Janis, BarbaraBarbara Janis Player, MinnieMinnie Player Steinem, GloriaGloria Steinem Winning, FredaFreda Winning Young, Mary E. MillerMary E. Miller Young

1984

Cooper, SallySally Cooper Harris, Sarah E.Sarah E. Harris Hauserman, Cindy NobleCindy Noble Hauserman Kaptur, MarcyMarcy Kaptur Nussbaum, KarenKaren Nussbaum Oakar, Mary RoseMary Rose Oakar Pinkerton, CatherineCatherine Pinkerton Player, WillaWilla Player Resnik, JudithJudith Resnik Santmyer, Helen HoovenHelen Hooven Santmyer Trimble, MarianMarian Trimble Wollenberg, JoyceJoyce Wollenberg

1985

Cook, Lois Anna BarrLois Anna Barr Cook Cotner, MercedesMercedes Cotner Draz, ZellZell Draz Easterling, BarbaraBarbara Easterling Giovanni, NikkiNikki Giovanni Gonzalez, AuroraAurora Gonzalez Lazarus, MaryMary Lazarus Mandel, BarbaraBarbara Mandel Marcere, NormaNorma Marcere Mulholland, HelenHelen Mulholland Schimmoler, LaurettaLauretta Schimmoler Schott, MargeMarge Schott Steinbrenner, Mary JenMary Jen Steinbrenner

1986

Andrew, MargaretMargaret Andrew Barber, KathleenKathleen Barber Biles, FayFay Biles Blackwell, ElizabethElizabeth Blackwell Clarke, MarieMarie Clarke Crosby, Eva MaeEva Mae Crosby Dee, RubyRuby Dee Drennan, CynthiaCynthia Drennan Glendinning, HookerHooker Glendinning Herring, LouiseLouise Herring LeVeque, KatherineKatherine LeVeque Miller, Ruth RatnerRuth Ratner Miller Nava, AmeliaAmelia Nava Pratt, Arline WebbArline Webb Pratt Przelomski, Anastasia AnnAnastasia Ann Przelomski Purdy, VirginiaVirginia Purdy Walker, Selma LoisSelma Lois Walker Walsh, JuliaJulia Walsh Wattleton, FayeFaye Wattleton Withrow, Mary EllenMary Ellen Withrow

1988

Biggins, AnnaAnna Biggins Clonch, PatriciaPatricia Clonch Craden, NormaNorma Craden Graham, Jewel FreemanJewel Freeman Graham Guisewite, CathyCathy Guisewite Jackson, Rebecca D.Rebecca D. Jackson Jenkins, Carol HeissCarol Heiss Jenkins Kane, CarolCarol Kane Larsen, BeaBea Larsen Lev, Alice RafulAlice Raful Lev Rocker Sogg, LindaLinda Rocker Sogg Smeal, EleanorEleanor Smeal Utz, CarolynCarolyn Utz Ward, Anita SmithAnita Smith Ward

1989

Brown, Jeanette GrasselliJeanette Grasselli Brown Carnahan, MaxineMaxine Carnahan Chapman, TracyTracy Chapman Cowles, Betsy MixBetsy Mix Cowles Gazelle, AnnAnn Gazelle Graves, MichelleMichelle Graves Harshman, FlorenceFlorence Harshman Hutt, JuneJune Hutt Jensen, GeraldineGeraldine Jensen Mahoney, CarolynCarolyn Mahoney Myers, LindaLinda Myers Porter, JennieJennie Porter Poulton, DianeDiane Poulton Powell, ReneeRenee Powell Spretnak, CharleneCharlene Spretnak Ventura, CharleneCharlene Ventura

1990–1999

1990

Gaston, MarilynMarilyn Gaston Jackson, DorothyDorothy Jackson Jackson, Luella TalmadgeLuella Talmadge Jackson Kalven, JanetJanet Kalven Kanter, RosabethRosabeth Kanter Kuhn, MaggieMaggie Kuhn Lamson, JoanJoan Lamson Lin, MayaMaya Lin Macko, Anne VarianoAnne Variano Macko Mott, AliciaAlicia Mott Sauvageot, LudelLudel Sauvageot Shur, Fanchon bat-LillianFanchon bat-Lillian Shur Sutliff, Phebe TemperancePhebe Temperance Sutliff Williams, GrayceGrayce Williams

1991

Abbott, BereniceBerenice Abbott Badger, EarladeenEarladeen Badger Brown, HallieHallie Brown Davidson, JoAnnJoAnn Davidson Diaz-Sprague, RaquelRaquel Diaz-Sprague Dove, RitaRita Dove Gavin, Mary IgnatiaMary Ignatia Gavin Harper, SaraSara Harper Hawk, DonnaDonna Hawk Holley, JuneJune Holley Moore, Martha C.Martha C. Moore Owens, DarleneDarlene Owens Peterson, Helen H.Helen H. Peterson Pituch, MarthaMartha Pituch Pointer, YvonneYvonne Pointer Ruehlmann, VirginiaVirginia Ruehlmann Schwarz, JosephineJosephine Schwarz Timken, SuzanneSuzanne Timken Bieniek, Nancy VertroneNancy Vertrone Bieniek Zannoni, Stella MarieStella Marie Zannoni

1992

Beaumont, Mary of the AnnunciationMary of the Annunciation Beaumont Eaton, AntoinetteAntoinette Eaton McCullough, RubieRubie McCullough Oakley, NancyNancy Oakley Parker, HarrietHarriet Parker Porter, SusanSusan Porter Rice, Helen SteinerHelen Steiner Rice Schille, AliceAlice Schille Thompson, LouellaLouella Thompson

1993

Benson, MildredMildred Benson Bingham, AmeliaAmelia Bingham Coffey, VirginiaVirginia Coffey Colombi, Viola FamianoViola Famiano Colombi Gunter, IvyIvy Gunter Hamilton, VirginiaVirginia Hamilton Hayes, Lucy WebbLucy Webb Hayes Hintz, Joy AliceJoy Alice Hintz Macelwane, GeraldineGeraldine Macelwane McCormick, Anne O'HareAnne O'Hare McCormick Olshansky, RenaRena Olshansky Pincham, EdnaEdna Pincham Plummer, MaxineMaxine Plummer Reilly, JeanJean Reilly Riel, PaulinePauline Riel

1994

Cook, Christine M.Christine M. Cook Coulton, ClaudiaClaudia Coulton Craig-Jones, Ellen WalkerEllen Walker Craig-Jones Ferrall, NanetteNanette Ferrall Griesse, Jill HarmsJill Harms Griesse Griffith, GeorgiaGeorgia Griffith Melton, FlorenceFlorence Melton Nussdorfer, LucilleLucille Nussdorfer Reece, JaneJane Reece Reynolds, Emma AnnEmma Ann Reynolds Scott, CarolCarol Scott Spence, PaulaPaula Spence Tribe, DeannaDeanna Tribe Wald, LillianLillian Wald

1995

Beckwith, SandraSandra Beckwith Beveridge, Daeida Hartell WilcoxDaeida Hartell Wilcox Beveridge Blackmon, Patricia AnnPatricia Ann Blackmon Bowermaster, MaryMary Bowermaster Brennan, ChristineChristine Brennan Cauffman, Joy GarrisonJoy Garrison Cauffman Clark, BunnyBunny Clark Drake, GraceGrace Drake Evans, NaomiNaomi Evans Gage, Frances DanaFrances Dana Gage Kirkham, JaneJane Kirkham Lewis, SylviaSylvia Lewis Longaberger, TamiTami Longaberger Moon, DonnaDonna Moon Murphy, GratiaGratia Murphy Resnick, Alice RobieAlice Robie Resnick Siebert, MurielMuriel Siebert

1996

Cartwright, CarolCarol Cartwright Evans, ElizabethElizabeth Evans Goodall, Rae NatalieRae Natalie Goodall Hauser, ElizabethElizabeth Hauser Healy, BernadineBernadine Healy Kelly, CarolCarol Kelly Lewis, FannieFannie Lewis Montgomery, BettyBetty Montgomery Taft, HopeHope Taft

1997

Ball, CarolCarol Ball Byers, MarilynMarilyn Byers Capers, Jean MurrellJean Murrell Capers Dorsey, MarthaMartha Dorsey Heidelberg, JoanJoan Heidelberg Herbert, ClariceClarice Herbert Lampkin, BeatriceBeatrice Lampkin Mayer Townsend, JacquelynJacquelyn Mayer Townsend O'Rourke, AnnAnn O'Rourke Rothschild, BerylBeryl Rothschild Shackelford, TheklaThekla Shackelford

1998

Campbell, Marianne BoggsMarianne Boggs Campbell Garrison, CaroleCarole Garrison Hollister, NancyNancy Hollister Jones, Stephanie J.Stephanie J. Jones Kay, Bettye RuthBettye Ruth Kay Ross-Lee, BarbaraBarbara Ross-Lee Mackiewicz, AudreyAudrey Mackiewicz Palasics, KathyKathy Palasics Quinn, Margaret DianeMargaret Diane Quinn Seiberling, HenriettaHenrietta Seiberling Taylor, Mary EmilyMary Emily Taylor Varga, VirginiaVirginia Varga Woods, JacquelineJacqueline Woods Zimpher, Nancy LuskNancy Lusk Zimpher

1999

Behrensmeyer, MaryJoMaryJo Behrensmeyer Costilla, AlvinaAlvina Costilla Deal, SarahSarah Deal Doren, ElectraElectra Doren Flowers, DaisyDaisy Flowers Glenn, AnnieAnnie Glenn Hamilton, AnnAnn Hamilton Hoover, CaroleCarole Hoover Horn, Cheryl HanCheryl Han Horn Latham, CarolCarol Latham Linenkugel, NancyNancy Linenkugel Marsh, Marie BarrettMarie Barrett Marsh Parham, MarjorieMarjorie Parham Regula, MaryMary Regula Rubin, Lee LenoreLee Lenore Rubin Stowe, Harriet BeecherHarriet Beecher Stowe Thornton, Jerry SueJerry Sue Thornton Voinovich, JanetJanet Voinovich

2000–2009

2000

Ashbaugh, PaigePaige Ashbaugh Collins, Maude CharlesMaude Charles Collins Dambrot, FayeFaye Dambrot de Leon, MargaritaMargarita de Leon Fletcher, Patricia LouisePatricia Louise Fletcher Harrington, Jean PatriceJean Patrice Harrington Hoffman, ShirleyShirley Hoffman Kazel, DorothyDorothy Kazel Majidzadeh, FarahFarah Majidzadeh Martin, AdaAda Martin Porter, LorleLorle Porter Samaniego, LannaLanna Samaniego Taylor, YvonneYvonne Taylor Wong, MargaretMargaret Wong Zane, BettyBetty Zane

2001

Boreczky, RebeccaRebecca Boreczky Casement, Frances JenningsFrances Jennings Casement Davis, Ruth L.Ruth L. Davis Ford, LucilleLucille Ford Gray, Susan F.Susan F. Gray Harrison, KathleenKathleen Harrison Hughes, Adella PrentissAdella Prentiss Hughes Jackson, Janet E.Janet E. Jackson Kamenshek, Dottie KammieDottie Kammie Kamenshek Levin, MaxineMaxine Levin Long, IreneIrene Long MacDonell, MarthaMartha MacDonell Matesich, Mary AndrewMary Andrew Matesich Powell, ElizabethElizabeth Powell Pryce, DeborahDeborah Pryce Sexton, MariaMaria Sexton Walters, FarahFarah Walters Washington, Georgeta BlebeaGeorgeta Blebea Washington

2002

Barker, JudyJudy Barker Buchholzer, Frances SeiberlingFrances Seiberling Buchholzer Campbell, Joan BrownJoan Brown Campbell Frankenberg, NancyNancy Frankenberg Hart-Deming, ZellZell Hart-Deming Helsel, ElsieElsie Helsel Horstman, Katie T.Katie T. Horstman Hwang, JennieJennie Hwang Lewis, Cathy MonroeCathy Monroe Lewis Robertson, Viola StartzmanViola Startzman Robertson Spielman, StefanieStefanie Spielman Sullivan, KathrynKathryn Sullivan

2003

Bailey, SheilaSheila Bailey Blunden, Jeraldyne KilbornJeraldyne Kilborn Blunden Carter, ShannonShannon Carter Fleming, LuceilleLuceille Fleming Gonzalez-Sanabria, OlgaOlga Gonzalez-Sanabria Janis, ElsieElsie Janis Lenski, LoisLois Lenski Mosley-Thompson, EllenEllen Mosley-Thompson Nelson, CathyCathy Nelson Scott, Evlyn GrayEvlyn Gray Scott Williams, YvonneYvonne Williams

2007

Brugler, Rogers MargaretRogers Margaret Brugler Chatfield, JuliaJulia Chatfield Hastings, LucilleLucille Hastings Howard, LillieLillie Howard Jorgenson, Mary AnnMary Ann Jorgenson Mahaney, JoyceJoyce Mahaney Schlotfeldt, RozellaRozella Schlotfeldt Smith, Katherine MayKatherine May Smith Wang, FlorenceFlorence Wang

2008

Baunach, DorothyDorothy Baunach Black, CarrieCarrie Black Bosca, CaroCaro Bosca Brown, Yvette McGeeYvette McGee Brown Crane, LoannLoann Crane Durgin, JoanJoan Durgin Gibbs, CarolCarol Gibbs Johnson, BillieBillie Johnson Lei, JihJih Lei Magee, ElizabethElizabeth Magee Rajadhyaksha, KasturiKasturi Rajadhyaksha Salamon, JulieJulie Salamon Wheatly, MicheleMichele Wheatly

2009

Collins, GailGail Collins Davis, Pamela B.Pamela B. Davis de Groh, KimKim de Groh Gray, Beverly J.Beverly J. Gray Howard, SharonSharon Howard Kuhre, CarolCarol Kuhre Manning, VirginiaVirginia Manning Moss, HelenHelen Moss Rycus, JudithJudith Rycus Sandusky, Mary AdelaideMary Adelaide Sandusky Watson, GlennaGlenna Watson Williams, BernettBernett Williams Williamson, CeliaCelia Williamson

2010–2019

2010

Alvarene, OwensOwens Alvarene Channing, Tenenbaum GayleTenenbaum Gayle Channing Chapman, Dorothy McAlpin MaguireDorothy McAlpin Maguire Chapman Fergus, BarbaraBarbara Fergus Kearns, Merle GraceMerle Grace Kearns Lee, Rebecca J.Rebecca J. Lee McClelland, NinaNina McClelland Moresky, LanaLana Moresky Otto, Martha PotterMartha Potter Otto Ruppert, ElizabethElizabeth Ruppert Singh, RitaRita Singh

2011

Boyce, Cheryl A.Cheryl A. Boyce Flick, Elizabeth H.Elizabeth H. Flick Harper, FrancesFrances Harper Hollis, Brenda J.Brenda J. Hollis Juhas, Mary C.Mary C. Juhas Luckner, Kleia R.Kleia R. Luckner Lyons, Valerie J.Valerie J. Lyons Noelker, Linda S.Linda S. Noelker Vonderhaar, CarrieCarrie Vonderhaar

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 25403542 LCCN: n50033290 ISNI: 0000 0001 2124 8898 GND: 119019876 SUDOC: 029299063 BNF: cb12167620t (data) ULAN: 500335885 NLA: 40457594 NDL: 00467206 NKC: xx0172850 BNE: XX1424

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