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1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Lille
Lille
(French pronunciation: [lil] ( listen); Dutch: Rijsel pronounced [ˈrɛi̯səl]; West Flemish: Rysel) is a city at the northern tip of France, in French Flanders. On the Deûle
Deûle
River, near France's border with Belgium, it is the capital of the Hauts-de- France
France
region and the prefecture of the Nord department. As of 2009, Lille
Lille
had a population of 226,827 within its administrative limits,[3][4][5] and an urban population of 1,015,744, making it the fifth largest urban area in France
France
after Paris, Lyon, Marseille
Marseille
and Toulouse.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Origin of the city 1.2 Middle Ages 1.3 Early modern era 1.4 Post-French Revolution 1.5 First World War 1.6 Années Folles, Great Depression, the Popular Front 1.7 Second World War 1.8 Post-war to the present

2 Climate 3 Economy

3.1 Revenues and taxes 3.2 Employment 3.3 Enterprises

4 Main sights

4.1 La Braderie

5 Gallery 6 Transport

6.1 Public transport 6.2 Railways 6.3 Highways 6.4 Air traffic 6.5 Waterways

7 Education 8 Notable people from Lille

8.1 Writers 8.2 Scientists and mathematicians 8.3 Artists 8.4 Politicians, professionals and military 8.5 Sportspeople

9 Media and sports 10 International relations

10.1 Twin towns – sister cities

11 See also 12 Notes 13 References 14 Sources 15 External links

History[edit] See also: Timeline of Lille Origin of the city[edit] Archeological digs seem to show the area as inhabited by as early as 2000 BC,[citation needed] most notably in the modern-day quartiers of Fives, Wazemmes, and Vieux Lille. The original inhabitants of this region were the Gauls, such as the Menapians, the Morins, the Atrebates, and the Nervians, who were followed by Germanic peoples: the Saxons, the Frisians
Frisians
and the Franks. The legend of "Lydéric and Phinaert" puts the foundation of the city of Lille
Lille
at 640. In the 8th century, the language of Old Low Franconian was spoken here, as attested by toponymic research. Lille's Dutch name is Rijsel, which comes from ter ijsel (at the island). The French equivalent has the same meaning: Lille
Lille
comes from l'île (the island). From 830 until around 910, the Vikings invaded Flanders. After the destruction caused by Norman and Magyar invasion, the eastern part of the region was ruled by various local princes. The first mention of the town dates from 1066: apud Insulam (Latin for "at the island"). At the time, it was controlled by the County of Flanders, as were the regional cities (the Roman cities Boulogne, Arras, Cambrai
Cambrai
as well as the Carolingian cities Valenciennes, Saint-Omer, Ghent
Ghent
and Bruges). The County of Flanders
County of Flanders
thus extended to the left bank of the Scheldt, one of the richest and most prosperous regions of Europe. Middle Ages[edit] A notable local in this period was Évrard, who lived in the 9th century and participated in many of the day's political and military affairs. There was an important Battle of Lille
Lille
in 1054. From the 12th century, the fame of the Lille
Lille
cloth fair began to grow. In 1144 Saint-Sauveur parish was formed, which would give its name to the modern-day quartier Saint-Sauveur. The counts of Flanders, Boulogne, and Hainaut came together with England and East Frankia and tried to regain territory taken by Philip II of France
France
following Henry II of England's death, a war that ended with the French victory at Bouvines
Bouvines
in 1214. Infante Ferdinand, Count of Flanders was imprisoned and the county fell into dispute: it would be his wife, Jeanne, Countess of Flanders
Jeanne, Countess of Flanders
and Constantinople, who ruled the city. She was said to be well loved by the residents of Lille, who by that time numbered 10,000. In 1225, the street performer and juggler Bertrand Cordel, doubtlessly encouraged by local lords, tried to pass himself off as Baldwin I of Constantinople
Constantinople
(the father of Jeanne of Flanders), who had disappeared at the battle of Adrianople. He pushed the kingdoms of Flanders and Hainaut towards sedition against Jeanne in order to recover his land. She called her cousin, Louis VIII ("The Lion"). He unmasked the imposter, whom Countess Jeanne quickly had hanged. In 1226 the King agreed to free Infante Ferdinand, Count of Flanders. Count Ferrand died in 1233, and his daughter Marie soon after. In 1235, Jeanne granted a city charter by which city governors would be chosen each All Saint's Day by four commissioners chosen by the ruler. On 6 February 1236, she founded the Countess's Hospital (Hospice Comtesse), which remains one of the most beautiful buildings in Old Lille. It was in her honour that the hospital of the Regional Medical University of Lille
Lille
was named "Jeanne of Flanders Hospital" in the 20th century. The Countess died in 1244 in the Abbey
Abbey
of Marquette, leaving no heirs. The rule of Flanders and Hainaut thus fell to her sister, Margaret II, Countess of Flanders, then to Margaret's son, Guy of Dampierre. Lille fell under the rule of France
France
from 1304 to 1369, after the Franco-Flemish War (1297-1305). The county of Flanders fell to the Duchy of Burgundy
Duchy of Burgundy
next, after the 1369 marriage of Margaret III, Countess of Flanders, and Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy. Lille
Lille
thus became one of the three capitals of said Duchy, along with Brussels
Brussels
and Dijon. By 1445, Lille
Lille
counted some 25,000 residents. Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, was even more powerful than the King of France, and made Lille
Lille
an administrative and financial capital. On 17 February 1454, one year after the taking of Constantinople
Constantinople
by the Turks, Philip the Good
Philip the Good
organised a Pantagruelian banquet at his Lille
Lille
palace, the still-celebrated "Feast of the Pheasant". There the Duke and his court undertook an oath to Christianity. In 1477, at the death of the last duke of Burgundy, Charles the Bold, Mary of Burgundy
Mary of Burgundy
married Maximilian of Austria, who thus became Count of Flanders.

1641 map of Lille
Lille
in Flandria Illustrata
Flandria Illustrata
by Anton Sander

Early modern era[edit]

The 'Vieille Bourse' on the 'Grand Place'

The 16th and 17th centuries were marked by a boom in the regional textile industry, the Protestant revolts, and outbreaks of the Plague. Lille
Lille
came under the rule of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1519. The Low Countries
Low Countries
fell to his eldest son Philip II of Spain
Philip II of Spain
in 1555. The city remained under Spanish Habsburg
Spanish Habsburg
rule until 1668. Calvinism first appeared in the area in 1542; by 1555 the authorities were taking steps to suppress this form of Protestantism. In 1566 the countryside around Lille
Lille
was affected by the Iconoclastic Fury.[6] In 1578, the Hurlus, a group of Protestant rebels, stormed the castle of the Counts of Mouscron. They were removed four months later by a Catholic Wallon regiment, after which they tried several times between 1581 and 1582 to take the city of Lille, all in vain. The Hurlus were notably held back by the legendary Jeanne Maillotte. At the same time (1581), at the call of Elizabeth I of England, the north of the Seventeen Provinces, having gained a Protestant majority, successfully revolted and formed the United Provinces. The war brought or exacerbated periods of famine and plague (the last in 1667–69).[7] The first printer to set up shop in Lille
Lille
was Antoine Tack in 1594. The 17th century saw the building of new institutions: an Irish College in 1610, a Jesuit college in 1611, an Augustinian college in 1622, almshouses or hospitals such as the Maison des Vieux hommes in 1624 and the Bonne et Forte Maison des Pauvres in 1661, and of a Mont-de-piété in 1626.[8] Unsuccessful French attacks on the city were launched in 1641 and 1645.[7] In 1667, Louis XIV of France
France
(the Sun King) successfully laid siege to Lille, resulting in it becoming French in 1668 under the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, provoking discontent among the citizens of the prosperous city. A number of important public works undertaken between 1667 and 1670, such as the Citadel (erected by Vauban), or the creation of the quartiers of Saint-André and la Madeleine, enabled the King to gradually gain the confidence of his new subjects in Lille, some of whom continued to feel Flemish, though they had always spoken the Romance Picard language.

Entrance to the ' Vauban
Vauban
Citadel' (17th century)

For five years, from 1708 to 1713, the city was occupied by the Dutch, during the War of the Spanish Succession. Throughout the 18th century, Lille
Lille
remained profoundly Catholic. It took little part in the French Revolution, though there were riots and the destruction of churches. In 1790, the city held its first municipal elections. Post-French Revolution[edit] In 1792, in the aftermath of the French Revolution, the Austrians, then in the United Provinces, laid siege to Lille. The "Column of the Goddess", erected in 1842 in the "Grand-Place" (officially named Place du Général-de-Gaulle), is a tribute to the city's resistance, led by Mayor François André-Bonte. Although Austrian artillery destroyed many houses and the main church of the city, the city did not surrender and the Austrian army left after eight days.

The black dots around the windows (not the decorative cartouches) are Austrian cannonballs lodged in the façade.

The city continued to grow, and by 1800 held some 53,000 residents, leading to Lille
Lille
becoming the county seat of the Nord départment in 1804. In 1846, a rail line connecting Paris
Paris
and Lille
Lille
was built. At the beginning of the 19th century, Napoleon I's continental blockade against the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
led to Lille's textile industry developing even more fully. The city was known for its cotton while the nearby towns of Roubaix
Roubaix
and Tourcoing
Tourcoing
worked wool. Leisure activities were thoroughly organized in 1858 for the 80,000 inhabitants. Cabarets or taverns for the working class numbered 1300, or one for every three houses. At that time the city counted 63 drinking and singing clubs, 37 clubs for card players, 23 for bowling, 13 for skittles, and 18 for archery. The churches likewise have their social organizations. Each club had a long roster of officers, and a busy schedule of banquets festivals and competitions.[9] In 1853, Alexandre Desrousseaux composed his lullaby P'tit quinquin. In 1858, Lille
Lille
annexed the adjacent towns of Fives, Wazemmes, and Moulins. Lille's population was 158,000 in 1872, growing to over 200,000 by 1891. In 1896 Lille
Lille
became the first city in France
France
to be led by a socialist, Gustave Delory. By 1912, Lille's population stood at 217,000. The city profited from the Industrial Revolution, particularly via coal and the steam engine. The entire region grew wealthy thanks to its mines and textile industry. First World War[edit]

German military parade in Lille, 1915

Lille's occupation by the Germans began on 13 October 1914 after a ten-day siege and heavy shelling which destroyed 882 apartment and office blocks and 1,500 houses, mostly around the railway station and in the town centre. By the end of October the town was being run by German authorities. Because Lille
Lille
was only 20 km from the battlefield, German troops passed through the city regularly on their way to and from the front. As a result, occupied Lille
Lille
became a place both for the hospitalisation and treatment of wounded soldiers as well as a place for soldiers' relaxation and entertainment. Many buildings, homes, and businesses were requisitioned to those ends.[10] Lille
Lille
was liberated by the Allies on 17 October 1918, when General Sir William Birdwood and his troops were welcomed by joyous crowds. The general was made an honorary citizen of the city of Lille
Lille
on 28 October of that year. Lille
Lille
was also the hunting ground of World War I German flying Ace Max Immelmann who was nicknamed "the Eagle of Lille". Années Folles, Great Depression, the Popular Front[edit]

Lille's Art Deco city hall (1932)

In July 1921, at the Pasteur Institute
Pasteur Institute
in Lille, Albert Calmette
Albert Calmette
and Camille Guérin
Camille Guérin
discovered the first anti-tuberculosis vaccine, known as BCG ("Bacille de Calmette et Guérin"). The Opéra de Lille, designed by Lille
Lille
architect Louis M. Cordonnier, was dedicated in 1923. From 1931 Lille
Lille
felt the repercussions of the Great Depression, and by 1935 a third of the city's population lived in poverty. In 1936, the city's mayor, Roger Salengro, became Minister of the Interior of the Popular Front, eventually killing himself after right-wing groups led a slanderous campaign against him. Second World War[edit]

Wrecked vehicles near Lille, after the 1940 siege of the city.

Main article: Lille
Lille
during World War II During the Battle of France, Lille
Lille
was besieged by German forces for several days. When Belgium
Belgium
was invaded, the citizens of Lille, still haunted by the events of the First World War, began to flee the city in large numbers. Lille
Lille
was part of the zone under control of the German commander in Brussels, and was never controlled by the Vichy government in France. Lille
Lille
was instead controlled under the military administration in Northern France. The départments of Nord and Pas-de-Calais
Pas-de-Calais
(with the exception of the coast, notably Dunkirk) were, for the most part, liberated in five days, from 1–5 September 1944, by British, American, Canadian, and Polish troops. On 3 September, the German troops began to leave Lille, fearing the British, who were on their way from Brussels. The city was retaken with little resistance when the British tanks arrived. Rationing came to an end in 1947, and by 1948 normality had returned to Lille. Post-war to the present[edit]

Euralille
Euralille
quarter

In 1967, the Chambers of Commerce of Lille, Roubaix
Roubaix
and Tourcoing
Tourcoing
were joined, and in 1969 the Communauté urbaine de Lille
Lille
( Lille
Lille
urban community) was created, linking 87 communes with Lille. Throughout the 1960s and 70s, the region was faced with some problems after the decline of the coal, mining and textile industries. From the start of the 1980s, the city began to turn itself more towards the service sector. In 1983, the VAL, the world's first automated rapid transit underground network, was opened. In 1993, a high-speed TGV
TGV
train line was opened, connecting Paris
Paris
with Lille
Lille
in one hour. This, with the opening of the Channel Tunnel
Channel Tunnel
in 1994 and the arrival of the Eurostar train, put Lille
Lille
at the centre of a triangle connecting Paris, London and Brussels. Work on Euralille, an urban remodelling project, began in 1991. The Euralille
Euralille
Centre was opened in 1994, and the remodeled district is now full of parks and modern buildings containing offices, shops and apartments. In 1994 the "Grand Palais" was also opened. Lille
Lille
was elected European Capital of Culture
European Capital of Culture
in 2004,[11] along with the Italian city of Genoa. Lille
Lille
and Roubaix
Roubaix
were impacted by the 2005 Riots which affected all of France's urban centres. In 2007 and again in 2010, Lille
Lille
was awarded the label "Internet City @@@@". Climate[edit] Lille
Lille
can be described as having a temperate oceanic climate; summers normally do not reach high average temperatures, but winters can fall below freezing temperatures, but with averages quite a bit above the freezing mark. Precipitation
Precipitation
is plentiful year round. The table below gives average temperatures and precipitation levels for the 1981-2010 reference period.

Climate data for Lille
Lille
(1981–2010 averages)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 15.2 (59.4) 18.9 (66) 22.7 (72.9) 27.9 (82.2) 31.7 (89.1) 34.8 (94.6) 36.1 (97) 36.6 (97.9) 33.8 (92.8) 27.8 (82) 20.1 (68.2) 15.9 (60.6) 36.6 (97.9)

Average high °C (°F) 6.0 (42.8) 6.9 (44.4) 10.6 (51.1) 14.1 (57.4) 17.9 (64.2) 20.6 (69.1) 23.3 (73.9) 23.3 (73.9) 19.7 (67.5) 15.2 (59.4) 9.9 (49.8) 6.4 (43.5) 14.5 (58.1)

Daily mean °C (°F) 3.6 (38.5) 4.1 (39.4) 7.1 (44.8) 9.7 (49.5) 13.4 (56.1) 16.2 (61.2) 18.6 (65.5) 18.4 (65.1) 15.4 (59.7) 11.6 (52.9) 7.1 (44.8) 4.2 (39.6) 10.8 (51.4)

Average low °C (°F) 1.2 (34.2) 1.3 (34.3) 3.6 (38.5) 5.4 (41.7) 8.9 (48) 11.7 (53.1) 13.8 (56.8) 13.6 (56.5) 11.2 (52.2) 8.1 (46.6) 4.4 (39.9) 1.9 (35.4) 7.1 (44.8)

Record low °C (°F) −19.5 (−3.1) −17.8 (0) −10.5 (13.1) −4.7 (23.5) −2.3 (27.9) 0.0 (32) 3.4 (38.1) 3.9 (39) 1.2 (34.2) −4.4 (24.1) −7.8 (18) −17.3 (0.9) −19.5 (−3.1)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 60.5 (2.382) 47.4 (1.866) 58.3 (2.295) 50.7 (1.996) 64.0 (2.52) 64.6 (2.543) 68.5 (2.697) 62.8 (2.472) 61.6 (2.425) 66.2 (2.606) 70.1 (2.76) 67.8 (2.669) 742.5 (29.232)

Average precipitation days 11.7 9.6 11.4 10.1 10.6 10.0 9.8 9.2 10.1 11.0 12.6 11.3 127.4

Average snowy days 4.9 4.1 3.2 1.3 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.8 3.8 19.2

Average relative humidity (%) 88 85 82 79 78 79 78 78 83 87 89 90 83

Mean monthly sunshine hours 65.5 70.7 121.1 172.2 193.9 206.0 211.3 199.5 151.9 114.4 61.4 49.6 1,617.5

Source #1: Meteo France[12][13]

Source #2: Infoclimat.fr (humidity, snowy days 1961–1990)[14]

Economy[edit]

Lille
Lille
chamber of commerce, belfry

A former major mechanical, food industry and textile manufacturing centre as well as a retail and finance center, Lille
Lille
forms the heart of a larger conurbation, regrouping Lille, Roubaix, Tourcoing
Tourcoing
and Villeneuve d'Ascq, which is France's 4th-largest urban conglomeration with a 1999 population of over 1.1 million. Revenues and taxes[edit] For centuries, Lille, a city of merchants, has displayed a wide range of incomes: great wealth and poverty have lived side by side, especially until the end of the 1800s. This contrast was noted by Victor Hugo
Victor Hugo
in 1851 in his poem Les Châtiments: « Caves de Lille ! on meurt sous vos plafonds de pierre ! » ("Cellars of Lille! We die under your stone ceilings!") Employment[edit] Employment in Lille
Lille
has switched over half a century from a predominant industry to tertiary activities and services. Services account for 91% of employment in 2006.

Employment in Lille-Hellemmes- Lomme
Lomme
from 1968 to 2006

Business area 1968 1975 1982 1990 1999 2006

Agriculture 340 240 144 116 175 216

Industry and engineering 51,900 43,500 34,588 22,406 15,351 13,958

Tertiary activities 91,992 103,790 107,916 114,992 122,736 136,881

Total 144,232 147,530 142,648 137,514 138,262 151,055

Sources of data : [15]

Employment per categories in 1968 and in 2006

  Farmers Businesspersons, entrepreneurs Upper class Middle class Employees Blue-collar worker

1968 2006 1968 2006 1968 2006 1968 2006 1968 2006 1968 2006

Lille 0.1% 0.0% 7.8% 3.2% 7.5% 20.2% 16.7% 30.0% 33.1% 32.8% 34.9% 13.8%

Greater Lille 1.3% 0.3% 9.0% 3.8% 5.3% 17.5% 14.6% 27.7% 24.4% 29.6% 45.4% 21.1%

France 12.5% 2.2% 9.9% 6.0% 5.2% 15.4% 12.4% 24.6% 22.5% 28.7% 37.6% 23.2%

Sources of data : INSEE[16]

Unemployment in active population from 1968 to 2006

1968 1975 1982 1990 1999 2006

Lille 2.9% 4.6% 10.3% 14.6% 16.9% 15.2%

Greater Lille 2.4% 3.8% 8.8% 12.4% 14.3% 13.2%

France 2.1% 3.8% 7.4% 10.1% 11.7% 10.6%

Sources of data : INSEE[17]

Enterprises[edit] In 2007, Lille
Lille
hosts around 21,000 industry or service sites.

Enterprises as per 31 December 2007

  Number Size category Mean number of employees

Greater Lille Lille % Lille None 1 to 19 20 to 99 100 to 499 500+ Lille Greater

Industries 3,774 819 22% 404 361 40 12 2 17 22

Construction 4,030 758 19% 364 360 32 2 1 7 10

Commerce 13,578 4,265 31% 2,243 1,926 83 13 0 7 11

Transports 1,649 407 25% 196 182 23 5 1 32 26

Finance 2,144 692 32% 282 340 51 17 2 21 18

Real property 5,123 1,771 35% 1,159 587 23 2 0 5 4

Business services 12,519 4,087 33% 2,656 1,249 149 27 6 15 17

Services to consumers 8,916 3,075 34% 1,636 1,347 86 6 0 7 6

Education and health 11,311 3,217 28% 2,184 765 195 58 15 43 31

Administration 4,404 1,770 40% 1,187 456 80 34 13 59 48

Total 67,468 20,861 31% 12,311 7,573 762 176 39 18 17

Sources of data : INSEE[18]

Main sights[edit]

EuraTechnologies cluster

Lille
Lille
features an array of architectural styles with various amounts of Flemish influence, including the use of brown and red brick. In addition, many residential neighborhoods, especially in Greater Lille, consist of attached 2–3 story houses aligned in a row, with narrow gardens in the back. These architectural attributes, many uncommon in France, help make Lille
Lille
a transition in France
France
to neighboring Belgium, as well as nearby Netherlands
Netherlands
and England, where the presence of brick, as well as row houses or the terraced house is much more prominent. Points of interest include

Lille Cathedral
Lille Cathedral
(Basilique-cathédrale Notre-Dame-de-la-Treille) Citadel of Lille Palais des Beaux-Arts de Lille Jardin botanique de la Faculté de Pharmacie Jardin botanique Nicolas Boulay Jardin des Plantes de Lille

La Braderie[edit] Main article: Braderie
Braderie
de Lille Lille
Lille
hosts an annual braderie on the first weekend in September.[19] Its origins are thought to date back to the twelfth century and between two and three million visitors are drawn into the city. It is one of the largest gatherings of France
France
and the largest flea market in Europe. Many of the roads in the inner city (including much of the old town) are closed and local shops, residents and traders set up stalls in the street. Gallery[edit]

Column of the Goddess

Lille
Lille
Grand Place. La Voix du Nord (newspaper offices)

Lille
Lille
Grand Place

Lille
Lille
Cathedral

Théâtre Sébastopol

Lion d'or square

Porte de Roubaix

Rihour palace

Anglican Christ Church

Hôtels particuliers rue Négrier, Vieux-Lille

Transport[edit] Public transport[edit]

Lille
Lille
metro

Main article: Transpole The Métropole Européenne de Lille
Métropole Européenne de Lille
has a mixed mode public transport system, which is considered one of the most modern in the whole of France. It comprises buses, trams and a driverless metro system, all of which are operated under the Transpole
Transpole
name. The Lille Metro
Lille Metro
is a VAL system (véhicule automatique léger = light automated vehicle) that opened on 16 May 1983, becoming the first automatic metro line in the world. The metro system has two lines, with a total length of 45 kilometres (28 miles) and 60 stations.[20] The tram system consists of two interurban tram lines, connecting central Lille
Lille
to the nearby communities of Roubaix
Roubaix
and Tourcoing, and has 45 stops. 68 urban bus routes cover the metropolis, 8 of which reach into Belgium.[21] Railways[edit]

Lille
Lille
Flandres railway station

Lille
Lille
is an important crossroads in the European high-speed rail network. It lies on the Eurostar
Eurostar
line to London (1:20 hour journey). The French TGV
TGV
network also puts it only 1 hour from Paris, 38 minutes from Brussels,[22] and connects to other major centres in France
France
such as Marseille, Lyon, and Toulouse. Lille
Lille
has two railway stations, which stand next door to one another: Lille-Europe station (Gare de Lille-Europe), which primarily serves high-speed trains and international services (Eurostar), and Lille-Flandres station (Gare de Lille-Flandres), which primarily serves lower speed regional trains and regional Belgian trains. Highways[edit]

Lille: motorway network.

Five autoroutes pass by Lille, the densest confluence of highways in France
France
after Paris:

Autoroute A27 : Lille
Lille
Tournai
Tournai
Brussels
Brussels
/ Liège – Germany Autoroute A23 : Lille
Lille
– Valenciennes Autoroute A1  : Lille
Lille
Arras
Arras
Paris
Paris
/ Reims – Lyon
Lyon
/ Orléans
Orléans
/ Le Havre Autoroute A25 : Lille
Lille
Dunkirk
Dunkirk
Calais
Calais
– England / North Belgium Autoroute A22 : Lille
Lille
Antwerp
Antwerp
– Netherlands

A sixth one – the proposed A24 – will link Amiens
Amiens
to Lille
Lille
if built, but there is opposition to its route. Air traffic[edit] Lille Lesquin International Airport
Lille Lesquin International Airport
is 15 minutes from the city centre by car (11 km). In terms of shipping, it ranks fourth, with almost 38,000 tonnes of freight which pass through each year. [23] Its passenger traffic, around 1.2 million in 2010, is modest due to the proximity to Brussels, Charleroi, and Paris-CDG airports. The airport mostly connects other French and European cities (some with low cost companies) as well as Mediterranean destinations. Waterways[edit]

Port de Lille

Lille
Lille
is the third largest French river port after Paris
Paris
and Strasbourg. The river Deûle
Deûle
is connected to regional waterways with over 680 km (423 mi) of navigable waters. The Deûle connects to Northern Europe via the River Scarpe and the River Scheldt (towards Belgium
Belgium
and the Netherlands), and internationally via the Lys River (to Dunkerque and Calais). Shipping statistics

Year 1997 2000 2003

Millions of tonnes 5.56 6.68 7.30

By river or sea 8.00% 8.25% 13.33%

By rail 6.28% 4.13% 2.89%

By road 85.72% 87.62% 83.78%

Education[edit] With over 110,000 students, the metropolitan area of Lille
Lille
is one of France's top student cities.

With roots[24] back from 1562 to 1793 as University of Douai (Université de Douai), then as Université Impériale in 1808, the State Université of Lille
Lille
(Université Lille
Lille
Nord de France) was established in Lille
Lille
in 1854 with Louis Pasteur
Louis Pasteur
as the first dean of its Faculty of Sciences. A school of medicine and an engineering school were also established in Lille
Lille
in 1854. The Université de Lille
Lille
was united as the association of existing public Faculties in 1887 and was split into three independent university campuses in 1970, including:

Université de Lille
Lille
I, also referred-to as Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille
Lille
(USTL), Université de Lille
Lille
II with law, management, sports and medical faculties, Université Charles-de-Gaulle Lille
Lille
III with humanities and social sciences courses.

Arts et Métiers ParisTech

The Arts et Métiers ParisTech, an engineering graduate school of industrial and mechanical engineering, settled in Lille
Lille
in 1900. This campus is one of the eight Teaching and Research Center (CER) of the school. Its creation was decided by Pierre-Nicolas Legrand de Lérant. Ecole Centrale de Lille
Lille
is one of the five Centrale Graduate Schools of engineering in France; it was founded in Lille
Lille
city in 1854, its graduate engineering education and research center was established as Institut industriel du Nord
Institut industriel du Nord
(IDN) in 1872, in 1968 it moved in a modern campus in Lille
Lille
suburb. École nationale supérieure de chimie de Lille
École nationale supérieure de chimie de Lille
was established as Institut de chimie de Lille
Lille
in 1894 supporting chemistry research as followers of Kuhlmann's breakthrough works in Lille. École supérieure de journalisme de Lille, journalism school created in 1924. Skema Business School
Skema Business School
established in 1892 is ranked among the top business schools in France. École pour l'informatique et les nouvelles technologies
École pour l'informatique et les nouvelles technologies
settled in Lille
Lille
in 2009. ESME-Sudria and E-Artsup settled in Lille
Lille
in 2012. The ESA – École Supérieure des Affaires is a Business Management school established in Lille
Lille
in 1990. IEP Sciences-Po Lille
Lille
political studies institute was established in Lille
Lille
in 1992. The Institut supérieur européen de formation par l'action is also located in Lille. The Institut supérieur européen de gestion group
Institut supérieur européen de gestion group
(ISEG Group) established in Lille
Lille
in 1988. The European Doctoral College Lille
Lille
Nord de France
France
is headquartered in Lille
Lille
Metropolis and includes 3,000 PhD Doctorate students supported by university research laboratories. The EDHEC Business School - located in nearby Roubaix
Roubaix
- is one of the few Grandes École located outside the Paris
Paris
Metropolitan Area. It is one of Europe's fastest rising business schools. The Université Catholique de Lille
Université Catholique de Lille
was founded in 1875. Today it has law, economics, medicine, physics faculties and schools. Among the most famous is Institut catholique d'arts et métiers (ICAM) founded in 1898, ranked 20th among engineering schools, with the specificity of graduating polyvalent engineers, Ecole des Hautes études d'ingénieur (HEI) a school of engineering founded in 1885 and offering 10 fields of specialization, École des hautes études commerciales du nord (EDHEC) founded in 1906, IESEG School of Management founded in 1964 (17th place in the latest Financial Times global ranking of the 90 best masters in management, published on Monday 12 September 2016).[25] and Skema Business School[26] currently ranked within the top 5, the top 10 and top 15 business schools in France, respectively. In 1924 ESJ – a leading journalism school – was established.

Notable people from Lille[edit] Writers[edit]

Jacquemart Giélée
Jacquemart Giélée
(13th century), poet Yvonne Chauffin (1905–1995), writer, winner of the 1970 edition of the Prix Breizh Jean Prieur (fr) (1914–), writer and professor

Scientists and mathematicians[edit]

Charles Barrois
Charles Barrois
(1851–1939), geologist and palaeontologist Joseph Valentin Boussinesq
Joseph Valentin Boussinesq
(1842–1929), mathematician and physicist Albert Calmette
Albert Calmette
(1863–1933) and Camille Guérin
Camille Guérin
(1872–1961), scientists who discovered the antituberculosis vaccine Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat
Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat
(1923–), mathematician and physicist Jean Dieudonné
Jean Dieudonné
(1906–1992), mathematician Paul Hallez (1846–1938), biologist Joseph Kampé de Fériet
Joseph Kampé de Fériet
(1893–1982), researcher on fluid dynamics Charles Frédéric Kuhlmann, (1803–1881), chemist professor Gaspard Thémistocle Lestiboudois (1797–1876), naturalist Matthias de l'Obel
Matthias de l'Obel
(1538–1616), physician to King James I of England, scientist Henri Padé
Henri Padé
(1863–1953), mathematician Paul Painlevé
Paul Painlevé
(1863–1933), mathematician and politician Louis Pasteur, (1822–1895), micro-biologist Jean Baptiste Perrin
Jean Baptiste Perrin
(1870–1942), Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in physics

Artists[edit]

Renée Adorée
Renée Adorée
(1898–1933), actress Alfred-Pierre Agache (1843–1915), academic painter Alain de Lille
Alain de Lille
(or Alanus ab Insulis) (c. 1128–1202), theologian and poet Charles-Joseph Panckoucke, (1736–1788), intellectual and writer Ernest Joseph Bailly (1753–1823), painter Émile Bernard (1868–1941), neoimpressionist painter Édouard Chimot (d. 1959), artist and illustrator, editor of the Devambez
Devambez
illustrated art-editions Léon Danchin (1887–1938), animal artist and sculptor Alain Decaux
Alain Decaux
(1925–2016), television presenter, minister, writer, and member of the Académie française Désiré Dihau
Désiré Dihau
(1833–1909), bassoonist and composer Pierre Dubreuil
Pierre Dubreuil
(1872–1944), photographer Pierre De Geyter
Pierre De Geyter
(1848–1932), textile worker who composed the music of The Internationale
The Internationale
in Lille Raoul de Godewaersvelde
Raoul de Godewaersvelde
(1928–1977), singer Gabriel Grovlez (1879–1944), pianist, conductor and composer Alexandre Desrousseaux (1820–1892), songwriter Carolus-Duran
Carolus-Duran
(1837–1917), painter Julien Duvivier (1896–1967), director Yvonne Furneaux
Yvonne Furneaux
(1928–), actress Paul Gachet
Paul Gachet
(1828–1909), doctor most famous for treating the painter Vincent van Gogh Kamini (1980–), rap singer, hits success in 2006 in France
France
with the funny "rural-rap" Marly-Gomont Édouard Lalo
Édouard Lalo
(1823–1892), composer Adélaïde Leroux (born 1982), actress Serge Lutens (born 1942), photographer, make-up artist, interior and set designer, creator of perfumes and fashion designer Philippe Noiret
Philippe Noiret
(1930–2006), actor Benjamin Picard (1912–), artist Albert Samain
Albert Samain
(1858–1900), poet Ana Tijoux
Ana Tijoux
(1977–), rapper and singer whose family originally was from Chile Iris Mittenaere
Iris Mittenaere
(1993-), model, Miss Universe 2016 Constance Jablonski, model

Politicians, professionals and military[edit]

Charles De Gaulle
Charles De Gaulle
is very popular in Lille

Lydéric (620–?), legendary founder of the city Jeanne, Countess of Flanders
Jeanne, Countess of Flanders
(1188/1200?–1244), countess Jeanne Maillotte (circa 1580), resistance fighter during the Hurlu attacks Pierre Joseph Duhem (1758–1807), physician and Montagnard Louis Faidherbe
Louis Faidherbe
(1818–1889), general, founder of the city of Dakar and senator Achille Liénart
Achille Liénart
(1884–1973), « cardinal des ouvriers » Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
(1890–1970), general, resistance fighter, President of France Roger Salengro
Roger Salengro
(1890–1936), minister, deputy, and Mayor of Lille Augustin Laurent (1896–1990), minister, deputy, resistance fighter, and Mayor of Lille Madeleine Damerment
Madeleine Damerment
(1917–1944), French Resistance
French Resistance
fighter, Legion of Honor, Croix de Guerre, Médaille de la Résistance Pierre Mauroy
Pierre Mauroy
(1928–2013), deputy, senator, Prime Minister of France, and Mayor of Lille Martine Aubry
Martine Aubry
(1950–), deputy, minister, and Mayor of Lille

Sportspeople[edit]

Maxime Agueh, footballer Sanaa Altama, footballer Alain Baclet, footballer Mak Daniel, wheelchair basketball player Ismael Ehui, footballer Amandine Henry, footballer Gaël Kakuta, footballer Sarah Ousfar, basketball player Alassane Pléa, footballer Alain Raguel, footballer Antoine Sibierski, footballer Didier Six, footballer Jerry Vandam, footballer Raphaël Varane, footballer Nabil Bentaleb, footballer Clarck N'Sikulu, footballer Abdellah Zoubir, footballer Lucas Pouille, tennis player

Media and sports[edit] Local newspapers include Nord éclair and La Voix du Nord. France's national public television network has a channel that focuses on the local area: France
France
3 Nord-Pas-de-Calais The city's most major association football club, Lille
Lille
OSC, currently plays in Ligue 1, the highest level of football in France. The club has won eight major national trophies and regularly features in the UEFA Champions League
UEFA Champions League
and UEFA Europa League. In the 2010–11 season, Lille
Lille
won the league and cup double. Lille's Stade Pierre-Mauroy
Stade Pierre-Mauroy
was the playground for the final stages of the FIBA EuroBasket 2015. It was in Lille
Lille
that the 100th World Esperanto Congress
World Esperanto Congress
took place, in 2015. International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in France Twin towns – sister cities[edit] Lille
Lille
is partnered with:[27]

Cologne, Germany[27] Erfurt, Germany[27] Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg[27] Haifa, Israel[27] Kortrijk, Belgium[27] Kharkiv, Ukraine[27] Leeds, United Kingdom[27][28] Liège, Belgium[27] Nablus, Palestine[27] Oujda, Morocco[27] Rotterdam, Netherlands[27] Safed, Israel[27] (frozen)[29] Saint-Louis, Senegal[27] Tlemcen, Algeria[27] Tournai, Belgium[27] Turin, Italy[27][30] Valladolid, Spain[27] Wrocław, Poland[27] Buffalo, New York, United States[31][Notes 1]

See also[edit]

André Bizette-Lindet

Notes[edit]

^ But not according to the official website of Lille!

References[edit]

^ "Insee - Chiffres clés : Unité urbaine 2010 de Lille
Lille
(partie française) (59702)". Paris: Insee (Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques). Retrieved 14 March 2015.  ^ "Insee - Population - L'Aire métropolitaine de Lille, un espace démographiquement hétérogène aux enjeux multiples". Paris: Insee (Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques). Retrieved 14 March 2015.  ^ "Insee - Chiffres clés : Commune de Lille
Lille
(59350)". Paris: Insee (Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques). 27 February 2000. Retrieved 14 March 2015.  ^ "EUROMÉTROPOLE : Territoire" (in French). Courtrai, Belgium: Agence de l’Eurométropole. Retrieved 14 March 2015.  ^ Eric Bocquet. "EUROMETROPOLIS : Eurometropolis Lille-Kortrijk-Tournai, the 1st european cross-bordrer metropolis" (in French). Courtrai, Belgium: Agence de l’Eurométropole. Retrieved 14 March 2015.  ^ Trenard (1981), p. 456. ^ a b Trenard (1981), p. 457. ^ Trenard (1981), pp. 456-457. ^ Theodore Zeldin, France, 1848-1945, vol. 2, Intellect, Taste and Anxiety (1977) pp 2:270-71. ^ Wallart, Claudine. Lille
Lille
under German Rule. Remembrance Trails of the Great War. Retrieved 1 January 2016. ^ " Lille
Lille
2004 European Capital of Culture". mairie-lille.fr. Archived from the original on 15 June 2013.  ^ "Données climatiques de la station de Lille" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved 16 December 2014.  ^ "Climat Nord-Pas-de-Calais" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved 16 December 2014.  ^ "Normes et records 1961-1990: Lille- Lesquin
Lesquin
(59) - altitude 47m" (in French). Infoclimat. Retrieved 16 December 2014.  ^ "SecteurEmpLT-DonnéesHarmoniséesRP68-99" (in French). Paris: Insee (Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques). 2006. Retrieved 11 October 2009.  ^ "CS-EmploisLT-DonnéesHarmoniséesRP68-99" (in French). Paris: Insee (Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques). 2006. Retrieved 11 October 2009.  ^ "CS-ActivitéLR-DonnéesHarmoniséesRP68-99" (in French). Paris: Insee (Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques). 2006. Retrieved 11 October 2009.  ^ "Caractéristiques des entreprises et établissements" (in French). Paris: Insee (Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques). 2007. Retrieved 11 October 2009.  ^ "The September 'Braderie'". mairie-lille.fr. Archived from the original on 31 March 2015.  ^ "Public Transport". mairie-lille.fr. Archived from the original on 8 September 2014.  ^ "Travel & Transport". La mairie de Lille. Archived from the original on 31 January 2008. Retrieved 18 February 2008.  ^ "Coming by train". mairie-lille.fr. Archived from the original on 8 September 2014.  ^ " Lille
Lille
Lesquin
Lesquin
(LFQQ)". AVSIM. Retrieved 25 December 2017.  ^ Rapport Archived 8 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine. L'Optimisation du réseau de formation initiale d'enseignement supérieur en région, rapport de M. Alain Lottin Au Conseil Economique et Social Régional Présenté lors de la séance plénière du 7 novembre 2006. ^ Management, IESEG School of. "IÉSEG School of Management - Business School in France
France
( Paris
Paris
- Lille)". IÉSEG. Retrieved 2016-09-22.  ^ [1] Archived 8 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s "Nos villes partenaires" (in French). Hôtel de Ville de Lille. Retrieved 15 February 2015.  ^ "British towns twinned with French towns". Archant Community Media Ltd. Archived from the original on 5 July 2013. Retrieved 11 July 2013.  ^ "La ville de Lille
Lille
"met en veille" son jumelage avec Safed
Safed
en Israël" (in French). Saint Ouen Cedex, France: Le Parisien. 7 October 2014. Retrieved 14 March 2015.  ^ Pessotto, Lorenzo. "International Affairs - Twinnings and Agreements". International Affairs Service in cooperation with Servizio Telematico Pubblico. City of Torino. Archived from the original on 18 June 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2013.  ^ "Lille, Buffalo sister cities". Washington, USA: SisterCities International. Retrieved 1 March 2015. 

Sources[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of Lille

Codaccioni, Félix-Paul (1976). De l'inégalité sociale dans une grande ville industrielle, le drame de Lille
Lille
de 1850 à 1914. Lille: Éditions Universitaires, Université de Lille
Lille
3. ISBN 2-85939-041-3.  Collectif (1999). Lille, d'un millénaire à l'autre (Fayard ed.). ISBN 2-213-60456-8.  Despature, Perrine (2001). Le Patrimoine des Communes du Nord (Flohic ed.). ISBN 2-84234-119-8.  Duhamel, Jean-Marie (2004). Lille, Traces d'histoire. Les patrimoines. La Voix du Nord. ISBN 2-84393-079-0.  Gérard, Alain (1991). Les grandes heures de Lille. Perrin. ISBN 2-262-00743-8.  Legillon, Paulette; Dion, Jacqueline (1975). Lille : portrait d'une cité. Axial.  Lottin, Alain (2003). Lille
Lille
– D'Isla à Lille-Métropole. Histoire des villes du Nord. La Voix du Nord. ISBN 2-84393-072-3.  Maitrot, Eric; Cary, Sylvie (2007). Lille
Lille
secret et insolite. Les Beaux Jours. ISBN 2-35179-011-1.  Marchand, Philippe (2003). Histoire de Lille. Jean-Paul Gisserot. ISBN 2-87747-645-6.  Monnet, Catherine (2004). Lille : portrait d'une ville. Jacques Marseille. ISBN 2-914967-02-0.  Paris, Didier; Mons, Dominique (2009). Lille
Lille
Métropole, Laboratoire du renouveau urbain. Parenthèses. ISBN 978-2-86364-223-8.  Pierrard, Pierre (1979). Lille, dix siècles d'histoire. Stock. ISBN 2-234-01135-3.  Trenard, Louis (1981). Histoire de Lille
Lille
de Charles Quint à la conquête française (1500–1715). Toulouse: Privat. ISBN 978-2708923812.  Versmée, Gwenaelle (2009). Lille
Lille
méconnu. Jonglez. ISBN 2-915807-56-6. 

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Lille
Lille
The most Flemish of French cities - Official French website (in English) Official website (in French) European Capital of Culture
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Lille
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Lille
Expo 2017

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Prefectures of departments of France

Bourg-en-Bresse
Bourg-en-Bresse
(Ain) Laon
Laon
(Aisne) Moulins (Allier) Digne-les-Bains
Digne-les-Bains
(Alpes-de-Haute-Provence) Gap (Hautes-Alpes) Nice
Nice
(Alpes-Maritimes) Privas
Privas
(Ardèche) Charleville-Mézières
Charleville-Mézières
(Ardennes) Foix
Foix
(Ariège) Troyes
Troyes
(Aube) Carcassonne
Carcassonne
(Aude) Rodez
Rodez
(Aveyron) Marseille
Marseille
(Bouches-du-Rhône) Caen
Caen
(Calvados) Aurillac
Aurillac
(Cantal) Angoulême
Angoulême
(Charente) La Rochelle
La Rochelle
(Charente-Maritime) Bourges
Bourges
(Cher) Tulle
Tulle
(Corrèze) Ajaccio
Ajaccio
(Corse-du-Sud) Bastia
Bastia
(Haute-Corse) Dijon
Dijon
(Côte-d'Or) Saint-Brieuc
Saint-Brieuc
(Côtes-d'Armor) Guéret
Guéret
(Creuse) Périgueux
Périgueux
(Dordogne) Besançon
Besançon
(Doubs) Valence (Drôme) Évreux
Évreux
(Eure) Chartres
Chartres
(Eure-et-Loir) Quimper
Quimper
(Finistère) Nîmes
Nîmes
(Gard) Toulouse
Toulouse
(Haute-Garonne) Auch
Auch
(Gers) Bordeaux
Bordeaux
(Gironde) Montpellier
Montpellier
(Hérault) Rennes
Rennes
(Ille-et-Vilaine) Châteauroux
Châteauroux
(Indre) Tours
Tours
(Indre-et-Loire) Grenoble
Grenoble
(Isère) Lons-le-Saunier
Lons-le-Saunier
(Jura) Mont-de-Marsan
Mont-de-Marsan
(Landes) Blois
Blois
(Loir-et-Cher) Saint-Étienne
Saint-Étienne
(Loire) Le Puy-en-Velay
Le Puy-en-Velay
(Haute-Loire) Nantes
Nantes
(Loire-Atlantique) Orléans
Orléans
(Loiret) Cahors
Cahors
(Lot) Agen
Agen
(Lot-et-Garonne) Mende (Lozère) Angers
Angers
(Maine-et-Loire) Saint-Lô
Saint-Lô
(Manche) Châlons-en-Champagne
Châlons-en-Champagne
(Marne) Chaumont (Haute-Marne) Laval (Mayenne) Nancy (Meurthe-et-Moselle) Bar-le-Duc
Bar-le-Duc
(Meuse) Vannes
Vannes
(Morbihan) Metz
Metz
(Moselle) Nevers
Nevers
(Nièvre) Lille
Lille
(Nord) Beauvais
Beauvais
(Oise) Alençon
Alençon
(Orne) Arras
Arras
(Pas-de-Calais) Clermont-Ferrand
Clermont-Ferrand
(Puy-de-Dôme) Pau (Pyrénées-Atlantiques) Tarbes
Tarbes
(Hautes-Pyrénées) Perpignan
Perpignan
(Pyrénées-Orientales) Strasbourg
Strasbourg
(Bas-Rhin) Colmar
Colmar
(Haut-Rhin) Lyon
Lyon
(Rhône) Vesoul
Vesoul
(Haute-Saône) Mâcon
Mâcon
(Saône-et-Loire) Le Mans
Le Mans
(Sarthe) Chambéry
Chambéry
(Savoie) Annecy
Annecy
(Haute-Savoie) Paris
Paris
(Paris) Rouen
Rouen
(Seine-Maritime) Melun
Melun
(Seine-et-Marne) Versailles (Yvelines) Niort
Niort
(Deux-Sèvres) Amiens
Amiens
(Somme) Albi
Albi
(Tarn) Montauban
Montauban
(Tarn-et-Garonne) Toulon
Toulon
(Var) Avignon
Avignon
(Vaucluse) La Roche-sur-Yon
La Roche-sur-Yon
(Vendée) Poitiers
Poitiers
(Vienne) Limoges
Limoges
(Haute-Vienne) Épinal
Épinal
(Vosges) Auxerre
Auxerre
(Yonne) Belfort
Belfort
(Territoire de Belfort) Évry (Essonne) Nanterre
Nanterre
(Hauts-de-Seine) Bobigny
Bobigny
(Seine-Saint-Denis) Créteil
Créteil
(Val-de-Marne) Cergy, Pontoise
Pontoise
(Val-d'Oise)

Overseas departments

Basse-Terre
Basse-Terre
(Guadeloupe) Fort-de- France
France
(Martinique) Cayenne
Cayenne
(French Guiana) Saint-Denis (Réunion) Mamoudzou
Mamoudzou
(Mayotte)

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Prefectures of the regions of France

Metropolitan France

Lyon
Lyon
(Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes) Dijon
Dijon
(Bourgogne-Franche-Comté) Rennes
Rennes
(Brittany) Orléans
Orléans
(Centre-Val de Loire) Ajaccio
Ajaccio
(Corsica) Strasbourg
Strasbourg
(Grand Est) Lille
Lille
(Hauts-de-France) Paris
Paris
(Île-de-France) Rouen
Rouen
(Normandy) Bordeaux
Bordeaux
(Nouvelle-Aquitaine) Toulouse
Toulouse
(Occitanie) Nantes
Nantes
(Pays de la Loire) Marseille
Marseille
(Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur)

Overseas regions

Cayenne
Cayenne
(French Guiana) Basse-Terre
Basse-Terre
(Guadeloupe) Fort-de- France
France
(Martinique) Mamoudzou
Mamoudzou
(Mayotte) Saint-Denis (Réunion)

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European Capitals of Culture

1985 Athens 1986 Florence 1987 Amsterdam 1988 West Berlin 1989 Paris 1990 Glasgow 1991 Dublin 1992 Madrid 1993 Antwerp 1994 Lisbon 1995 Luxembourg
Luxembourg
City 1996 Copenhagen 1997 Thessaloniki 1998 Stockholm 1999 Weimar 2000 Reykjavík Bergen Helsinki Brussels Prague Kraków Santiago de Compostela Avignon Bologna 2001 Rotterdam Porto 2002 Bruges Salamanca 2003 Graz Plovdiv 2004 Genoa Lille 2005 Cork 2006 Patras 2007 Luxembourg
Luxembourg
City and Greater Region Sibiu 2008 Liverpool Stavanger 2009 Linz Vilnius 2010 Ruhr Istanbul Pécs 2011 Turku Tallinn 2012 Maribor Guimarães 2013 Košice Marseille 2014 Umeå Riga 2015 Mons Plzeň 2016 San Sebastián Wrocław 2017 Aarhus Paphos 2018 Valletta Leeuwarden 2019 Plovdiv Matera 2020 Rijeka Galway 2021 Timișoara Elefsina Novi Sad 2022 Kaunas Esch-sur-Alzette

v t e

Communes of the Métropole Européenne de Lille
Métropole Européenne de Lille

Anstaing Armentières Aubers Baisieux La Bassée Beaucamps-Ligny Bois-Grenier Bondues Bousbecque Bouvines Capinghem La Chapelle-d'Armentières Chéreng Comines Croix Deûlémont Don Emmerin Englos Ennetières-en-Weppes Erquinghem-le-Sec Erquinghem-Lys Escobecques Fâches-Thumesnil Forest-sur-Marque Fournes-en-Weppes Frelinghien Fretin Fromelles Gruson Hallennes-lez-Haubourdin Halluin Hantay Haubourdin Hem Herlies Houplin-Ancoisne Houplines Illies Lambersart Lannoy Le Maisnil Leers Lesquin Lezennes Lille
Lille
(includes the associate-communes of Hellemmes
Hellemmes
and Lomme) Linselles Lompret Loos Lys-lez-Lannoy La Madeleine Marcq-en-Barœul Marquette-lez-Lille Marquillies Mons-en-Barœul Mouvaux Neuville-en-Ferrain Noyelles-lès-Seclin Pérenchies Péronne-en-Mélantois Prémesques Quesnoy-sur-Deûle Radinghem-en-Weppes Ronchin Roncq Roubaix Sailly-lez-Lannoy Sainghin-en-Mélantois Sainghin-en-Weppes Saint-André-lez-Lille Salomé Santes Seclin Sequedin Templemars Toufflers Tourcoing Tressin Vendeville Verlinghem Villeneuve-d'Ascq Wambrechies Warneton Wasquehal Wattignies Wattrelos Wavrin Wervicq-Sud Wicres Willems

v t e

Communes of the Nord department

Abancourt Abscon Aibes Aix Allennes-les-Marais Amfroipret Anhiers Aniche Anneux Annœullin Anor Anstaing Anzin Arleux Armbouts-Cappel Armentières Arnèke Artres Assevent Attiches Aubencheul-au-Bac Auberchicourt Aubers Aubigny-au-Bac Aubry-du-Hainaut Auby Auchy-lez-Orchies Audignies Aulnoye-Aymeries Aulnoy-lez-Valenciennes Avelin Avesnelles Avesnes-les-Aubert Avesnes-le-Sec Avesnes-sur-Helpe Awoingt Bachant Bachy Bailleul Baisieux Baives Bambecque Banteux Bantigny Bantouzelle Bas-Lieu La Bassée Bauvin Bavay Bavinchove Bazuel Beaucamps-Ligny Beaudignies Beaufort Beaumont-en-Cambrésis Beaurain Beaurepaire-sur-Sambre Beaurieux Beauvois-en-Cambrésis Bellaing Bellignies Bérelles Bergues Berlaimont Bermerain Bermeries Bersée Bersillies Berthen Bertry Béthencourt Bettignies Bettrechies Beugnies Beuvrages Beuvry-la-Forêt Bévillers Bierne Bissezeele Blaringhem Blécourt Boeschepe Boëseghem Bois-Grenier Bollezeele Bondues Borre Bouchain Boulogne-sur-Helpe Bourbourg Bourghelles Boursies Bousbecque Bousies Bousignies Bousignies-sur-Roc Boussières-en-Cambrésis Boussières-sur-Sambre Boussois Bouvignies Bouvines Bray-Dunes Briastre Brillon Brouckerque Broxeele Bruay-sur-l'Escaut Bruille-lez-Marchiennes Bruille-Saint-Amand Brunémont Bry Bugnicourt Busigny Buysscheure Caëstre Cagnoncles Cambrai Camphin-en-Carembault Camphin-en-Pévèle Cantaing-sur-Escaut Cantin Capelle Capinghem Cappelle-Brouck Cappelle-en-Pévèle Cappelle-la-Grande Carnières Carnin Cartignies Cassel Le Cateau-Cambrésis Catillon-sur-Sambre Cattenières Caudry Caullery Cauroir Cerfontaine La Chapelle-d'Armentières Château-l'Abbaye Chemy Chéreng Choisies Clairfayts Clary Cobrieux Colleret Comines Condé-sur-l'Escaut Coudekerque-Branche Courchelettes Cousolre Coutiches Craywick Crespin Crèvecœur-sur-l'Escaut Crochte Croix Croix-Caluyau Cuincy Curgies Cuvillers Cysoing Damousies Dechy Dehéries Denain Deûlémont Dimechaux Dimont Doignies Dompierre-sur-Helpe Don Douai Douchy-les-Mines Le Doulieu Dourlers Drincham Dunkirk Ebblinghem Écaillon Eccles Éclaibes Écuélin Eecke Élesmes Élincourt Émerchicourt Emmerin Englefontaine Englos Ennetières-en-Weppes Ennevelin Eppe-Sauvage Erchin Eringhem Erquinghem-le-Sec Erquinghem-Lys Erre Escarmain Escaudain Escaudœuvres Escautpont Escobecques Esnes Esquelbecq Esquerchin Estaires Estourmel Estrées Estreux Estrun Eswars Eth Étrœungt Faches-Thumesnil Famars Faumont Le Favril Féchain Feignies Felleries Fenain Férin Féron Ferrière-la-Grande Ferrière-la-Petite La Flamengrie Flaumont-Waudrechies Flers-en-Escrebieux Flesquières Flêtre Flines-lès-Mortagne Flines-lez-Raches Floursies Floyon Fontaine-au-Bois Fontaine-au-Pire Fontaine-Notre-Dame Forest-en-Cambrésis Forest-sur-Marque Fourmies Fournes-en-Weppes Frasnoy Frelinghien Fresnes-sur-Escaut Fressain Fressies Fretin Fromelles Genech Ghissignies Ghyvelde Glageon Godewaersvelde Gœulzin Gognies-Chaussée Gommegnies Gondecourt Gonnelieu La Gorgue Gouzeaucourt Grande-Synthe Grand-Fayt Grand-Fort-Philippe Gravelines La Groise Gruson Guesnain Gussignies Hallennes-lez-Haubourdin Halluin Hamel Hantay Hardifort Hargnies Hasnon Haspres Haubourdin Haucourt-en-Cambrésis Haulchin Haussy Haut-Lieu Hautmont Haveluy Haverskerque Haynecourt Hazebrouck Hecq Hélesmes Hem Hem-Lenglet Hergnies Hérin Herlies Herrin Herzeele Hestrud Holque Hon-Hergies Hondeghem Hondschoote Honnechy Honnecourt-sur-Escaut Hordain Hornaing Houdain-lez-Bavay Houplin-Ancoisne Houplines Houtkerque Hoymille Illies Inchy Iwuy Jenlain Jeumont Jolimetz Killem Lallaing Lambersart Lambres-lez-Douai Landas Landrecies Lannoy Larouillies Lauwin-Planque Lecelles Lécluse Lederzeele Ledringhem Leers Leffrinckoucke Lesdain Lesquin Leval Lewarde Lez-Fontaine Lezennes Liessies Lieu-Saint-Amand Ligny-en-Cambrésis Lille Limont-Fontaine Linselles Locquignol Loffre Lompret La Longueville Looberghe Loon-Plage Loos Lourches Louvignies-Quesnoy Louvil Louvroil Lynde Lys-lez-Lannoy La Madeleine Maing Mairieux Le Maisnil Malincourt Marbaix Marchiennes Marcoing Marcq-en-Barœul Marcq-en-Ostrevent Maresches Maretz Marly Maroilles Marpent Marquette-en-Ostrevant Marquette-lez-Lille Marquillies Masnières Masny Mastaing Maubeuge Maulde Maurois Mazinghien Mecquignies Merckeghem Mérignies Merris Merville Méteren Millam Millonfosse Mœuvres Monceau-Saint-Waast Monchaux-sur-Écaillon Moncheaux Monchecourt Mons-en-Barœul Mons-en-Pévèle Montay Montigny-en-Cambrésis Montigny-en-Ostrevent Montrécourt Morbecque Mortagne-du-Nord Mouchin Moustier-en-Fagne Mouvaux Naves Neuf-Berquin Neuf-Mesnil La Neuville Neuville-en-Avesnois Neuville-en-Ferrain Neuville-Saint-Rémy Neuville-sur-Escaut Neuvilly Nieppe Niergnies Nieurlet Nivelle Nomain Noordpeene Noyelles-lès-Seclin Noyelles-sur-Escaut Noyelles-sur-Sambre Noyelles-sur-Selle Obies Obrechies Ochtezeele Odomez Ohain Oisy Onnaing Oost-Cappel Orchies Ors Orsinval Ostricourt Oudezeele Oxelaëre Paillencourt Pecquencourt Pérenchies Péronne-en-Mélantois Petit-Fayt Petite-Forêt Phalempin Pitgam Poix-du-Nord Pommereuil Pont-à-Marcq Pont-sur-Sambre Potelle Pradelles Prémesques Préseau Preux-au-Bois Preux-au-Sart Prisches Prouvy Proville Provin Quaëdypre Quarouble Quérénaing Le Quesnoy Quesnoy-sur-Deûle Quiévelon Quiévrechain Quiévy Râches Radinghem-en-Weppes Raillencourt-Sainte-Olle Raimbeaucourt Rainsars Raismes Ramillies Ramousies Raucourt-au-Bois Recquignies Rejet-de-Beaulieu Renescure Reumont Rexpoëde Ribécourt-la-Tour Rieulay Rieux-en-Cambrésis Robersart Rœulx Rombies-et-Marchipont Romeries Ronchin Roncq Roost-Warendin Rosult Roubaix Roucourt Rousies Rouvignies Rubrouck Les Rues-des-Vignes Ruesnes Rumegies Rumilly-en-Cambrésis Sailly-lez-Cambrai Sailly-lez-Lannoy Sainghin-en-Mélantois Sainghin-en-Weppes Sains-du-Nord Saint-Amand-les-Eaux Saint-André-lez-Lille Saint-Aubert Saint-Aubin Saint-Aybert Saint-Benin Sainte-Marie-Cappel Saint-Georges-sur-l'Aa Saint-Hilaire-lez-Cambrai Saint-Hilaire-sur-Helpe Saint-Jans-Cappel Saint-Martin-sur-Écaillon Saint-Momelin Saint-Pierre-Brouck Saint-Python Saint-Remy-Chaussée Saint-Remy-du-Nord Saint-Saulve Saint-Souplet Saint-Sylvestre-Cappel Saint-Vaast-en-Cambrésis Saint-Waast Salesches Salomé Saméon Sancourt Santes Sars-et-Rosières Sars-Poteries Sassegnies Saultain Saulzoir Sebourg Seclin Sémeries Semousies La Sentinelle Sepmeries Sequedin Séranvillers-Forenville Sercus Sin-le-Noble Socx Solesmes Solre-le-Château Solrinnes Somain Sommaing Spycker Staple Steenbecque Steene Steenvoorde Steenwerck Strazeele Taisnières-en-Thiérache Taisnières-sur-Hon Templemars Templeuve-en-Pévèle Terdeghem Téteghem-Coudekerque-Village Thiant Thiennes Thivencelle Thumeries Thun-l'Évêque Thun-Saint-Amand Thun-Saint-Martin Tilloy-lez-Cambrai Tilloy-lez-Marchiennes Toufflers Tourcoing Tourmignies Trélon Tressin Trith-Saint-Léger Troisvilles Uxem Valenciennes Vendegies-au-Bois Vendegies-sur-Écaillon Vendeville Verchain-Maugré Verlinghem Vertain Vicq Viesly Vieux-Berquin Vieux-Condé Vieux-Mesnil Vieux-Reng Villeneuve-d'Ascq Villereau Villers-au-Tertre Villers-en-Cauchies Villers-Guislain Villers-Outréaux Villers-Plouich Villers-Pol Villers-Sire-Nicole Volckerinckhove Vred Wahagnies Walincourt-Selvigny Wallers Wallers-en-Fagne Wallon-Cappel Wambaix Wambrechies Wandignies-Hamage Wannehain Wargnies-le-Grand Wargnies-le-Petit Warhem Warlaing Warneton Wasnes-au-Bac Wasquehal Watten Wattignies Wattignies-la-Victoire Wattrelos Wavrechain-sous-Denain Wavrechain-sous-Faulx Wavrin Waziers Wemaers-Cappel Wervicq-Sud West-Cappel Wicres Wignehies Willems Willies Winnezeele Wormhout Wulverdinghe Wylder Zegerscappel Zermezeele Zuydcoote Zuytpeene

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 125205761 LCCN: n80079461 GND: 4114418-1 BNF: cb15266924c (d

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