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The LIGURES (singular LIGUS or LIGUR; English : LIGURIANS, Greek : Λίγυες) were an ancient Indo-European people who appear to have originated in, and gave their name to, Liguria
Liguria
, a region of north-western Italy. Elements of the Ligures
Ligures
appear to have migrated to other areas of western Europe, including the Iberian peninsula. The eastern hemisphere in the 3rd Century BC, prior to the Roman Republic's incorporation of Liguria
Liguria
(upper right).

Little is known of the Old Ligurian language . It is generally believed to have been an Indo-European language with particularly strong Celtic affinities, as well as similarities to Italic languages . Only some proper names have survived, such as the inflectional suffix -asca or -asco "village".

Because of the strong Celtic influences on their language and culture, they were known in antiquity as CELTO-LIGURIANS (in Greek Κελτολίγυες Keltolígues).

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Modern theories on origins * 3 Tribes * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Bibliography

HISTORY

According to Plutarch
Plutarch
, the Ligurians called themselves Ambrones, which could indicate a relationship with the Ambrones
Ambrones
of northern Europe.

Strabo tells that they were of a different race from the Celts (by which he means Gauls
Gauls
), who inhabited the rest of the Alps, though they resembled them in their mode of life.

Aeschylus represents Hercules as contending with the Ligures
Ligures
on the stony plains, near the mouths of the Rhone, and Herodotus
Herodotus
speaks of Ligures
Ligures
inhabiting the country above Massilia (modern Marseilles
Marseilles
, founded by the Greeks
Greeks
).

Thucydides also speaks of the Ligures
Ligures
having expelled the Sicanians , an Iberian tribe, from the banks of the river Sicanus , in Iberia.

The Periplus of Pseudo-Scylax
Periplus of Pseudo-Scylax
describes the Ligyes (Ligures) as living along the Mediterranean coast
Mediterranean coast
from Antion ( Antibes ) as far as the mouth of the Rhone
Rhone
; then intermingled with the Iberians
Iberians
from the Rhone
Rhone
to Emporion in Spain.

The Ligures
Ligures
seem to have been ready to engage as mercenary troops in the service of others. Ligurian auxiliaries are mentioned in the army of the Carthaginian general Hamilcar I in 480 BC. Greek leaders in Sicily continued to recruit their mercenary forces from the same quarter as late as the time of Agathocles.

The Ligures
Ligures
fought long and hard against the Romans , but as a result of these hostilities many were displaced from their homeland and eventually assimilated into Roman culture during the 2nd century BC. Roman sources describe the Ligurians as smaller framed than the Gauls, but physically stronger, more ferocious and fiercer as warriors, hence their reputation as mercenary troops.

Lucan
Lucan
in his Pharsalia (c. 61 AD) described Ligurian tribes as being long-haired, and their hair a shade of auburn (a reddish-brown):

...Ligurian tribes, now shorn, in ancient days

First of the long-haired nations, on whose necks Once flowed the auburn locks in pride supreme.

People with Ligurian names were living south of Placentia , in Italy, as late as 102 AD.

MODERN THEORIES ON ORIGINS

Traditional accounts suggested that the Ligures
Ligures
represented the northern branch of an ethno-linguistic layer older than, and very different to, the proto-Italic peoples. It was widely believed that that a "Ligurian-Sicanian" culture occupied a wide area of southern Europe, stretching from Liguria
Liguria
to Sicily and Iberia. However, while any such area would be broadly similar to that of the paleo-European "Tyrrhenian culture " hypothetised by later modern scholars, there are no known links between the Tyrrenians and Ligurians.

In the 19th century, the origins of the Ligures
Ligures
drew renewed attention from scholars. Amédée Thierry , a French historian, linked them to the Iberians
Iberians
, while Karl Müllenhoff , professor of Germanic antiquities at the Universities of Kiel and Berlin, studying the sources of the Ora maritima by Avienus (a Latin
Latin
poet who lived in the 4th century AD, but who used as a source for his own work a Phoenician Periplum of the 6th century BC), held that the name 'Ligurians' generically referred to various peoples who lived in Western Europe
Western Europe
, including the Celts, but thought the "real Ligurians" were a Pre-Indo-European population.

Italian geologist and paleontologist Arturo Issel considered Ligurians as being direct descendants of the Cro-Magnon
Cro-Magnon
men which lived throughout Gaul
Gaul
from the Mesolithic
Mesolithic
period.

Dominique-François-Louis Roget, Baron de Belloguet, claimed a "Gallic " origin of the Ligurians. During the Iron Age the spoken language, the main divinities and the workmanship of the artifacts unearthed in the area of Liguria
Liguria
(such as the numerous torcs found) were similar to those of Celtic culture in both style and type.

Those in favor of an Indo-European origin included Henri d\'Arbois de Jubainville , a 19th-century French historian, who argued the Ligurians were the earliest Indo-European speakers of the Western Europe. Jubainville's "Celto-Ligurian hypothesis", as it latter became known, was significantly expanded in the second edition of his initial study. It inspired a body of contemporary philological research, as well as some archaeological work. The Celto-Ligurian hypothesis became associated with the Funnelbeaker culture
Funnelbeaker culture
and "expanded to cover much of Central Europe".

Julius Pokorny adapted the Celto-Ligurian hypothesis into one linking the Ligures
Ligures
to the Illyrians
Illyrians
, citing an array of similar evidence from Eastern Europe. Under this theory the "Ligures-Illyrians" became associated with the prehistoric Urnfield peoples.

TRIBES

Numerous tribes of Ligures
Ligures
are mentioned by ancient historians, among them:

* Alpini (or Montani) (in the hinterland of Savona
Savona
) * Apuani (in Lunigiana ) * Bimbelli * Bagienni (or Vagienni) (in the area of Bene Vagienna
Bene Vagienna
) * Briniates (or Boactes) (in the area of Brugnato
Brugnato
) * Celelates * Cerdiciates * Commoni * Cosmonates (in the area of Castellazzo Bormida ) * Deciates (in modern Provence
Provence
, west of the river Var ) * Elisyces /Helisyces - a tribe that dwelt in the region of Narbo ( Narbonne
Narbonne
) and modern northern Roussillon
Roussillon
. May have been either Iberian or Ligurian or a Ligurian-Iberian tribe. * Epanterii * Euburiates * Friniates (in the area now called Frignano ) * Garuli * Genuates (or Genuenses) (in and around Genoa
Genoa
) * Hercates * Ilvates (or Iluates) (if different from the Iriates ) (on the island of Elba
Elba
) * Iriates (or Ilvates , Iluates?) (in the territory of Tortona , Voghera
Voghera
and Libarna ) * Ingauni * Intemelii * Langates (or Langenses) (north of the Genuates ) * Lapicini (or Lapicinii) * Laevi (along the Ticino River and in the area of Pavia
Pavia
) * Libici (or Libui) * Magelli (or Mucelli) (in the Mugello region ) * Marici (near the confluence of the rivers Orba , Bormida and Tanaro ) * Olivari * Oxybii (or Oxibii) (in modern Provence
Provence
) * Sabates (in the area of Vado Ligure
Vado Ligure
) * Salassi (Gallo -Ligurian people) (in and around Aosta Valley
Aosta Valley
) * Salluvii (or Saluvii) (if different from the Salyes ) (in modern Provence
Provence
) * Salyes (or Salii, or also Salluvii, Saluvii?) (in modern Provence ) * Statielli (or Statiellates) (in the valleys of the Orba , Bormida and Tanaro ) * Sueltri (or Suelteri) * Taurini
Taurini
(or Taurisci
Taurisci
) (Gallo-Ligurian people) (in Turin
Turin
region) * Tigulli (or Tigullii) * Tricastini
Tricastini
* Vediantii * Veiturii (west of the Genuates , in and around Voltri ) * Veleiates (or Veliates) (between Veleia and Libarna ) * Veneni

In the island of Corsica
Corsica
and far northeast Sardinia
Sardinia
dwelt a group of tribes called Corsi , although they are classified as nuragic tribes (that may have been related to the Iberians
Iberians
, the Aquitanians
Aquitanians
or to the Etruscans
Etruscans
) they also may have been a group of ligurian tribes, like the Ilvates in the neighboring Ilva ( Elba
Elba
) island (nuragic tribes, in Corsica
Corsica
and Sardinia
Sardinia
, were not necessarily from the same ethnic origin or spoke the same language):

* Corsi

* Belatones (Belatoni) * Cervini * Cilebenses (Cilibensi) * Corsi Proper, they dwelt at the extreme north-east of Sardinia
Sardinia
, near the Tibulati and immediately north of the Coracenses . * Cumanenses (Cumanesi) * Lestricones /Lestrigones (Lestriconi/Lestrigoni) * Licinini * Longonenses (Longonensi) * Macrini * Opini * Subasani * Sumbri * Tarabeni * Tibulati , they dwelt at the extreme north of Sardinia, about the ancient city of Tibula , near the Corsi (for whom Corsica
Corsica
is named) and immediately north of the Coracenses . * Titiani * Venacini

SEE ALSO

* Alpine race
Alpine race
* Ancient peoples of Italy * Torrean civilization

REFERENCES

* ^ "Liguria", in William Smith (ed.), Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) * ^ The suffixes -asca or -asco do not appear to be related to the Celtic -brac, possibly meaning "swamp". * ^ Baldi, Philip (2002). The Foundations of Latin. Walter de Gruyter. p. 112. * ^ A B Boardman, John (1988). The Cambridge ancient history: Persia, Greece and the Western Mediterranean c. 525–479 BC. p. 716. * ^ Strabo, Geography, book 2, chapter 5, section 28. * ^ A B William Smith, ed. (1854). "Liguria". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. * ^ Shipley, Graham (2008). "The Periplous of Pseudo-Scylax: An Interim Translation". * ^ Herodotus
Herodotus
7.165; Diodorus Siculus 11.1. * ^ Diodorus Siculus 21.3. * ^ Broadhead, William (2002). Internal migration and the transformation of Republican Italy (PDF) (Ph.D.). University College London. p. 15. * ^ Lucan, Pharsalia, I. 496, translated by Edward Ridley (1896). * ^ Sciarretta, Antonio (2010). Toponomastica d'Italia. Nomi di luoghi, storie di popoli antichi. Milano: Mursia. pp. 174–194. ISBN 978-88-425-4017-5 . * ^ Amédée Thierry, Histoire des Gaulois depuis les temps les plus reculés. * ^ Postumius Rufius Festus (qui et) Avienius , Ora maritima, 129–133 (nel quale in modo oscuro indica i Liguri come abitanti a nord delle "isole oestrymniche"; 205 (Liguri a nord della città di Ophiussa nella penisola iberica); 284–285 (il fiume Tartesso nascerebbe dalle "paludi ligustine"). * ^ Karl Viktor Müllenhoff, Deutsche Alterthurnskunde, I volume. * ^ Arturo Issel Liguria
Liguria
geologica e preistorica, Genoa
Genoa
1892, II volume, pp. 356–357. * ^ Dominique François Louis Roget de Belloguet, Ethnogénie gauloise, ou Mémoires critiques sur l'origine et la parenté des Cimmériens, des Cimbres, des Ombres, des Belges, des Ligures
Ligures
et des anciens Celtes. Troisiéme partie. Preuves intellectuelles. Le génie gaulois, Paris 1868. * ^ Gilberto Oneto Paesaggio e architettura delle regioni padano-alpine dalle origini alla fine del primo millennio, Priuli e Verlucc, editori 2002, pp. 34–36, 49. * ^ See, in particular McEvedy 1967:29ff. * ^ Henning, Andersen (2003). Language Contacts in Prehistory: Studies in Stratigraphy. John Benjamins Publishing. pp. 16–17.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Wikimedia Commons has media related to LIGURES .

* ARSLAN E. A. 2004b, LVI.14 Garlasco, in I Liguri. Un antico popolo europeo tra Alpi e Mediterraneo, Catalogo della Mostra (Genova, 23.10.2004-23.1.2005), Milano-Ginevra, pp. 429–431. * ARSLAN E. A. 2004 c.s., Liguri e Galli in Lomellina, in I Liguri. Un antico popolo europeo tra Alpi e Mediterraneo, Saggi Mostra (Genova, 23.10.2004–23.1.2005). * Raffaele De Marinis , Giuseppina Spadea (a cura di), Ancora sui Liguri. Un antico popolo europeo tra Alpi e Mediterraneo, De Ferrari editore, Genova 2007 (scheda sul volume). * John Patterson, Sanniti,Liguri e Romani,Comune di Circello;Benevento * Giuseppina Spadea (a cura di), I Liguri. Un antico popolo europeo tra Alpi e Mediterraneo" (catalogo mostra, Genova 2004–2005), Skira editore, Genova 2004

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Ligures
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