A hatchback is a car body configuration with a rear
door that swings upward to provide access to a cargo
area. Hatchbacks may feature fold-down second-row seating, where the
interior can be flexibly reconfigured to prioritize passenger vs.
cargo volume. Hatchbacks may feature two- or three-box design.
While early examples of the body configuration can be traced to the
dictionary dates the term itself to
1970. The hatchback body style has been marketed worldwide on cars
ranging in size from superminis to small family cars, as well as
executive cars and sports cars.
Hatchback vs. station wagon
2 Early examples
3.2 North America
3.6 Other regions
4 See also
6 External links
Volkswagen Polo Mk 1 hatchback
Hatchbacks may be described as three-door (two entry doors and the
hatch) or five-door (four entry doors and the hatch) cars. A model
range may include multiple configurations, as with the 2001–2007
Ford Focus which offered sedan (ZX4), wagon (ZXW), and three or
five-door hatchback (ZX3 and ZX5) models. The models typically share a
platform, drivetrain and bodywork forward of the A-pillar. Hatchbacks
may have a removable rigid parcel shelf, liftable with the
tailgate, or flexible roll-up tonneau cover to cover the cargo space
behind the rear seats.
Hatchback vs. station wagon
Diagram of a five-door hatchback (two-box) superimposed over the
station wagon (two-box) from the same model range—in this case, both
with a D-pillar
Both station wagons and hatchbacks typically feature a two-box design
configuration, with one shared, flexible, interior volume for
passengers and cargo—and a rear door for cargo access.
Further distinctions are highly variable:
Pillars: Both configurations typically feature A, B & C pillars;
station wagons more likely also feature a D pillar.
Cargo volume: Station wagons prioritize passenger and cargo volume,
with windows alongside the cargo volume. Of the two body styles, a
station wagon's roof (viewed in profile) more likely extends to the
very rearmost of the vehicle, enclosing a full-height cargo volume,
whereas a hatchback roof (especially a liftback roof) typically rakes
down steeply behind the C-Pillar, prioritizing style over interior
volume, and resulting in shorter rear overhang and smaller, or absent,
windows either side of the cargo volume.
Cargo floor contour: Favoring cargo capacity, a station wagon may
prioritize a fold-flat floor, where a hatchback would more likely
allow a cargo floor with pronounced contour (e.g. the new Mini or the
sixth generation Ford Fiesta).
Seating: Station wagons have two or three rows of seats (e.g., the
Ford Taurus wagons) while hatchbacks have one (e.g. the MGB GT) or
two rows of seats.
Rear suspension: A station wagon may include reconfigured rear
suspension for additional load capacity and to minimize intrusion
into the cargo volume (e.g., worldwide versions of the first
generation Ford Focus).
Rear door: Hatchbacks typically feature a top-hinged liftgate for
cargo access, with variations from a single liftgate to a complex
tailgate that can function either as a full tailgate or as a trunk lid
(e.g., the 2008 Škoda Superb's TwinDoor). Station wagons also have
numerous tailgate configurations. Typically, a hatchback's hatch or
liftgate does not extend down to the bumper, as on wagons. Another
appearance variation that seems to blur the lines between a commonly
defined hatchback versus a station wagon is called a kammback, which
generally features a sloping roof towards the end of the vehicle, with
an almost vertical rear section to the bumper.
Automotive journalist Dan Neil, in a 2002
New York Times
New York Times report
described verticality of the rear cargo door as the prime distinction
between a hatchback and a station wagon: "Where you break the
roofline, at what angle, defines the spirit of the vehicle," he said.
"You could have a 90-degree break in the back and have a station
Liftback – The 4th generation Toyota Celica, 2.0 SX (ST162)
A liftback is a broad marketing term for a hatchback where the rear
cargo door is more horizontal than vertical, with a sharply raked or
fastback profile. In comparison with the hatchback the back opening
area is more sloped and longer and is lifted up to open, offering more
luggage space. Very similar is the "fastback". A fastback is not
necessarily a hatchback at all, often featuring a fixed rear window.
Citroën Traction Avant
Citroën Traction Avant hatchback c. 1954
Citroën introduced the
Citroën Traction Avant
Citroën Traction Avant in a
"Commerciale" version with a tailgate, initially with a two-piece
tailgate, of which the upper piece hinged upwards, cutting well into
the roof, and after
World War 2
World War 2 with a one-piece top-hinged
In 1946, DeSoto marketed the Suburban as a station wagon, but it was
an extended sedan with a trunk lid that was hinged below the rear
window. The model was promoted as offering station wagon utility with
the passenger and luggage compartments in one large section with an
8-foot (2,438 mm) reasonably flat floor and equipped with folding
rear seats to provide flexibility similar to hatchbacks.
Kaiser-Frazer introduced the Vagabond and Traveler
hatchbacks. Although these were styled much like the typical 1940s
sedan, they incorporated an innovative split rear tailgate, folding
rear seats, and no separate trunk. The design was neither fully a
sedan nor a station wagon, but the folding rear seat provided for a
large, 8-foot (2.4 m) long interior cargo area. These
Kaiser-Frazer models have been described as "America’s First
Aston Martin marketed the DB2 with a top-hinged rear
tailgate, manufacturing 700 examples. Its successor, the 1958 DB Mark
III, also offered a folding rear seat. The 1954
AC Aceca and later
AC Cars had a similar hatch tailgate, though only
320 were built.
British Motor Corporation
British Motor Corporation launched a 'Countryman' version of the
Austin A40 Farina
Austin A40 Farina compact car in 1959, which incorporated a
horizontal-split two-piece tailgate and a more vertical rear panel in
comparison to the standard saloon version. This was close to the
enduring concept of the hatchback: A small car with a large rear door
aperture providing a versatile combination of rear passenger space and
easy loading for cargo, although with a two-piece rear door it was not
quite a true hatch.
Renault 4, the world's first million selling hatchback
1964: With the
Renault 16, hatchbacks became an example for compact
Peugeot 306 hatchback, with the hatch lifted
Renault introduced the
Renault 4, a small car with a
top-hinged tailgate incorporating the rear window, and only short side
windows between C & D-pillars aside the luggage space and a steep
angle from roof to rear bumper. Although during its production run the
R4 was called a small station wagon -even after the term hatchback
appeared around 1970 - with over eight million cars built, this was
the first mass-produced hatchback. Despite the success of subsequent
smaller hatchback models including the
Renault 5, the R4 continued in
Europe until 1986 and through 1992 in Argentina.
Autobianchi marketed the Primula hatchback,
Autobianchi A112 in 1969. In Poland, a FSO Syrena
prototype "110" small hatchback was developed in 1964.
Renault marketed the
Renault 16, a mid-market hatchback
design with a folding rear seat. It was designed to compete across
Europe with traditional family saloons including Britain's Ford
Vauxhall Victor and Morris Oxford. However,
to produce saloon alternatives to the R16, which remained in
production until 1980 without any direct successor, although its place
Renault range was effectively filled by the recently launched
R18 saloons and estates, as well as the larger R20/R30 hatchbacks.
Also in 1965, the MGB-GT was launched with a hatchback designed by
Pininfarina, the first volume-production sports car so equipped. In
Peugeot offered a shortened three-door coupe version of their
204, essentially a hatchback. The same year saw Innocenti, which built
the Austin A40 under license in Italy, introduced the A40 Combinata
with a top-hinged one-piece tailgate, making the car into a true
In 1967, the
Simca 1100 used a transverse engine and gearbox layout,
and incorporated a hatchback without side windows at the C-pillar. In
the same year, there appeared more conventional
British Leyland launched Austin Maxi, a five-speed,
transverse front-wheel drive hatchback. This was similar in size to
Renault 16, although saloons remained the most popular choice of
bodystyle in this sector across
Europe for more than a decade
British Leyland initially decided that a hatchback would
be the Maxi's unique selling point, contributing towards its decision
to the launch the 1973
Austin Allegro as a saloon, despite its shape
being ideally suited to a hatchback. It was the same story two years
later with the launch of the Princess range, although this car was
eventually updated and fitted with a hatchback, being renamed the
Austin Ambassador. However, the growing popularity of the hatchback
British Leyland decide to replace the Allegro and Maxi with a
single hatchback model, the end result being the
Austin Maestro which
was launched in early 1983. The growing demand for small hatchbacks
Europe during the 1970s saw BL decide to develop a modern
supermini with a hatchback, which evolved into the Austin Metro,
launched in 1980.
Fiat 127 was launched as a hatchback in 1971, as was the
a year later, with these models popularising the hatchback bodystyle
on Europe's smaller cars. In Yugoslavia, in 1971 there started
production of Zastava 101.
Volkswagen marketed the Passat/Dasher hatchback (similar in
size and concept to the
Renault 16 and Austin Maxi), followed by the
Golf/Rabbit designed by Giorgetto Giugiaro, as well as the Audi
Volkswagen Polo in 1974. The Golf became a classic compact
hatchback, and more than 40 years on
Volkswagen has continued to use
these model names on a succession of different model generations.
General Motors followed in 1975, when it made use of the hatchback
bodystyle for the first time on its Chevette (
Opel Kadett City in
Backed by the great success of the
Renault 16, in 1975, Renault
decides to launch the 20 and 30 as its two first executive cars
produced until 1984, making them the first French luxury cars with
Sports cars like the
Jaguar E-Type with its side-hinged opening,
Toyota 2000GT, and
Datsun 240Z carried rear tailgates, with one row of
seats, and Ford relaunched the Capri with a hatchback in 1974. In the
1970s, the Rover SD1,
Renault 30, and
Saab 900 introduced the
hatchback style into the executive car market.
By the late 1970s and early 1980s, the majority of superminins and
compact cars had been updated or replaced with hatchback variations,
such as the 1978
Fiat Ritmo/Strada and FSO Polonez, the 1979
Citroën GSA (a revamped version of the GS saloon launched in 1970),
Lancia Delta and
Opel Kadett (
Vauxhall Astra in Britain) and the 1980
Ford Escort and Austin Metro.
Fiat Uno designed by Giorgetto Giugiaro, its tall, square
body utilising a
Kamm tail achieved a low drag coefficient of 0.34 won
much praise for airy interior space and fuel economy. It incorporated
many packaging lessons learnt from Giugiaro's 1978 Lancia Megagamma
concept car (the first modern people carrier / MPV / mini-van) but
miniaturised. Its tall car / high seating packaging is imitated by
every small car today. It reversed the trend for lower and lower built
cars. It showed that not just low sleek cars could be aerodynamic, but
small, roomy, boxy well packaged cars could be too. In 1984 it was
Car of the Year, ahead of another iconic new supermini,
Peugeot 205. Both cars remained in production in
Europe for over a
decade and were extremely popular.
At the end of 1983, the
Renault 25 replaced the R20/R30 as Renault's
flagship model, once again featuring a hatchback. The R25 sold very
well in Europe, particularly on the domestic market.
General Motors launched its new "J Car" range in 1981, produced under
various marques across the world, to compete in the larger family car
sector. The Continental version was sold as the Opel Ascona, while the
British version was the Vauxhall Cavalier. A saloon version was
produced alongside the hatchback, a bodystyle not seen previously on
any Opel or Vauxhall of this size, apart from the MK1 Cavalier
Sporthatch. A year later, Ford called time on production of the
conventional Cortina saloon after 20 years and five incarnations to
switch to a hatchback bodystyle for the Sierra.
In early 1983,
Austin Rover moved into the medium-sized hatchback
market popularised by the
Volkswagen Golf with its new Austin/MG
Maestro. A saloon version, the Montego, was launched a year later to
compete with the likes of the
Ford Sierra and Vauxhall Cavalier.
Following the executive trend, in 1984, Saab launched the 9000 as part
of the Type Four platform in conjunction with the Italian automaker
Fiat Automobiles. Along with the
Fiat Croma, Saab's model was
featuring the hatchback, the
Fiat model being aimed further
downmarket. The other two cars which were based on the same platform,
Lancia Thema and Alfa Romeo 164, were saloon models.
Traditional saloons and estates also remained popular throughout the
1980s, and some manufacturers sold their hatchback-based saloons under
Renault had launched the R9 saloon in 1981; this
spawned a hatchback, the R11, in 1983. Ford had marketed the MK3
Escort as a hatchback and estate from 1980, but the saloon version
launched in 1983 was badged as the Orion. Since 1980,
produced a Golf-based saloon called the Jetta. The MK2 Vauxhall Astra
launched in 1984 was soon followed by a saloon version called the
Belmont. When Ford updated its Sierra in early 1987, a saloon version
was made available for the first time and marketed as the Sierra
The hatchback offered practicality for consumers in Europe. From the
1960s it was gradually adopted as a standard feature on many European
cars, with saloons declining in popularity apart from at the top of
the market where a saloon is seen as a sign of status. The Ford
Granada Mk3 /
Ford Scorpio executive car, that was launched in 1985
only as a hatchback, was joined by a saloon in 1990 and an estate in
1992. When the final Scorpio was launched in 1995, it was sold as only
a saloon or estate.
General Motors never produced a hatchback version
of any of its top of the range Vauxhall or Opel models, while Rover
had discontinued the hatchback bodystyle in this sector by 1999, while
Renault continued the bodystyle as late as 2009 with the VelSatis,
which was not a strong seller.
BMW added a hatchback to its range in 1968 with the
Touring and again in 1994 with the E36 3 Series hatchback, and
Mercedes-Benz in 1997 with the A-Class and the Sportcoupé in 2000.
Audi returned to the hatchback market with the
Audi A3 in 1996.
In the 2010s, executive hatchbacks found a resurgence after Renault
Vel Satis was dropped in 2009, with the
BMW 5 GT and Porsche Panamera
launched later the same year, followed by the
Audi A7 in 2010.
In more recent years, 3-door hatchbacks have seen a fall in popularity
as more are buying 5-door models for improved practicality and better
resale values and as a result, 3-door models are being dropped from
makers line-ups, the
Audi A3 for example which has offered a 3-door
version since its launch in 1996 will no longer feature that bodystyle
when the next generation arrives in 2019. Some superminis have ceased
to become available with three doors, namely the
Renault Clio, which
was not available with three doors after 2012.
American Motors Corporation (AMC) marketed the subcompact Gremlin from
1970, in a single hatchback
Kammback body design. The Gremlin used
AMC Hornet automobile platform, but its abrupt hatchback rear end
cut the car's overall length from 179 to 161 inches (4,500 to
American Motors added a semi-fastback hatchback
version to its larger compact-sized Hornet line for the 1973 model
year. The design and fold-down rear seat more than doubled cargo
space and the Hornet was claimed to be the "first compact hatchback"
manufactured by U.S. automaker. Additional utility from the car's
hatchback, space, and long load floor was that it could be turned into
a "mini-camper" with the optional factory "Hornet Hutch" tent
AMC Hornet hatchback with mini-camper accessory
Introduced by AMC in 1975, "like recent European variations of the
theme, the Pacer had a rear door or hatchback, which further increased
its utility". For 1977, AMC added a longer Pacer model with a
wagon-type configuration describing its large rear "hatch" as one of
the car's three doors, all having different sizes. The Hornet's
hatchback body design was continued in the redesigned "luxury" Concord
line for 1978 and 1979, in a "sporty model designed for
performance-oriented buyers". The
AMC Spirit replaced the Gremlin
starting with the 1979 models and was available in two designs, both
featuring rear doors: a hatchback "sedan" and a semi-fastback
Built in AMC's
Kenosha, Wisconsin factories, the 1984–1987 Encore
was a two and four-door hatchback based on the European Renault
Chrysler Corporation introduced the
Dodge Omni and Plymouth Horizon
5-door hatchbacks in 1978 which were models that were designed as the
Simca Horizon in France. These were followed by the 3-door
Dodge Omni 024 and
Plymouth Horizon TC3 which were later
Dodge Charger and Plymouth Turismo. They released the liftback
Chrysler Laser in 1984, and then the Dodge
Shadow/Plymouth Sundance—as well as the LeBaron GTS and Dodge Lancer
Captive import subcompact models included the Dodge Colt
and the almost identical Plymouth Champ.
Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company introduced the
Ford Pinto Runabout hatchback in
1971 followed by a rebadged version for 1974 initially sold in Canada
as the Mercury Bobcat. The 1974-1978 Ford Mustang II offered a
hatchback Mustang for the first time. The German-built Mercury Capri
II hatchbacks were imported to U.S. Lincoln-Mercury dealers for the
1976–1977 model years, and the 1978-1980
Ford Fiesta hatchback was
imported for U.S. Ford dealers.
The redesigned Fox platform-based 1979 Ford Mustang and Mercury Capri
continued to offer hatchback models until the end of that generation.
For 1981, Ford offered hatchback versions of its Escort which was a
front wheel drive vehicle new to the U.S. market to replace the Pinto
along with a badge engineered version called
Mercury Lynx which
replaced the Bobcat. They were followed with two seat sporty
hatchbacks called the
Ford EXP and Mercury LN-7 for 1982. From
1988-1989 Mercury imported the Tracer which was offered in 3-door and
Originally scheduled to be a front wheel drive fourth generation
Mustang, the 1989
Ford Probe was offered as a hatchback. Between 1986
and 1993 Ford marketed the imported Festiva subcompact hatchback which
was later restyled and renamed as Aspire for the North American market
for the 1994 through 1997 model years. For the 1999 model year the
Mercury Cougar was re-introduced as a compact front wheel drive
hatchback. The all new 2000
Ford Focus featured 3-door and 5-door
hatchbacks as part of its model lineup.
Chevrolet Vega Hatchback
The Chevrolet Vega, introduced in September 1970, was the first
hatchback model from General Motors. Over a million Vega hatchbacks
were produced for the 1971–1977 model years accounting for about
half of the Vega's total production. GM introduced rebadged Vega
hatchback variants, the 1973–1977 Pontiac Astre and the 1978
Chevrolet Monza S.
The Vega-derived Chevrolet Monza, Buick Skyhawk, and Oldsmobile
Starfire introduced for the 1975 model year, were produced as
hatchbacks with the
Pontiac Sunbird hatchback introduced for the 1977
model year. All were produced through 1980.
Chevrolet Nova hatchback was introduced for the 1973 model year, and
was offered through 1979. The Nova hatchback was also offered as badge
engineered variants named Chevrolet Concours, Pontiac Ventura, Pontiac
Phoenix, Oldsmobile Omega,
Buick Apollo and Buick Skylark. Another
hatchback Nova was reintroduced in the 80's based on the Toyota
Chevrolet Chevette was introduced in 1975 as a two-door
hatchback, engineered in cooperation with Isuzu. A four-door hatchback
on a longer wheelbase was introduced with the 1978 models. The
Chevette was also sold as the
Pontiac Acadian in Canada and as the
Pontiac T1000 in the U.S.
In early 1979, the front wheel drive X-Body platform yeided hatchback
models of the 1980
Chevrolet Citation and Pontiac Phoenix. In 1981,
General Motors included a hatchback model as part of its J-Body
platform that included the Chevrolet Cavalier, Pontiac
Oldsmobile Firenza and Buick Skyhawk. Chevrolet
offered captive import hatchbacks under the Geo brand built by Suzuki
Isuzu which included the Chevrolet/Geo Metro, Chevrolet/Geo
Spectrum and Geo Storm. The
Chevrolet Nova was also
offered in a hatchback model in 1987 and 1988. Its replacement, the
Geo Prizm, was also available in a hatchback model and the domestic
Chevrolet Corsica was briefly available in a hatchback
version. As a replacement for the Pontiac T1000, the Daewoo Motors
Pontiac Lemans was imported as a 3-door hatchback for
Chevrolet Camaro and
Pontiac Firebird produced for the 1982–2002
model years, featured a curved glass hatchback liftgate. GM marketed a
series of hatchbacks in North America as a joint venture with Suzuki,
the Swift/Metro/Firefly. Chevrolet offered a longer wheelbase,
hatchback version of the Malibu, the Malibu Maxx from 2004 to 2007. In
2008, GM introduced the 3-door and 5-door Belgian-assembled Saturn
Astra. Chevrolet added a hatchback version of its Korean-built Aveo in
Chevrolet Corvette was first offered with an opening rear glass
hatch for the 1982 Collector Edition model. It was adopted on all
Corvette Coupes beginning in 1984, with the fourth generation models.
Nissan Fairlady Z
Nissan Fairlady Z (S30)
One of the first hatchbacks offered was the 1970 Nissan Fairlady Z,
1972 Honda Civic, the Nissan Sunny, and the Nissan Cherry, with the
Civic and Cherry offering front wheel drive powertrains. In addition
to specific models of captive imports mentioned above, a number of
Japanese brands have been available in the hatchback body style as a
primary model: Nissan Pulsar, Toyota Allex, Toyota Prius, Honda CR-X,
and the Honda Insight. Almost all Japanese "city cars", called "kei
jidosha" use a hatchback bodystyle for cargo carrying ability in a
regulated vehicle size, such as the Mitsubishi Minica, Honda Life,
Suzuki Fronte, Subaru Vivio, and Daihatsu Mira. Other large-sized
hatchback body style vehicles include Lexus CT, Nissan Murano, and the
Nissan Skyline Crossover. The
Nissan Fairlady Z
Nissan Fairlady Z is often classified as
hatchbacks because of its styling, including the Z33 and the Z34.
Other sports cars with hatchback (liftback) body style in Japan are
Toyota Celica and Nissan 180SX.
Lada Samara 1500
The first Soviet hatchback was the rear-wheel drive IZh 2125 Kombi,
which entered production in 1973. This was followed only in the 1980s
by the front-wheel drive
Lada Samara in 1984, the Moskvitch 2141/Aleko
in 1986 and
ZAZ Tavria in 1987.
Maruti 800 hatchback in India
Hatchbacks are popular in India. The
Maruti 800 sold over 2.5
million units since its launch in 1983. Since 2004,
Maruti 800 has
been overtaken by
Maruti Alto as the car with highest annual sales. In
Tata Motors launched the Nano hatchback, the least
expensive road car in the world.
Hatchbacks have proved to be less popular in South America, Africa,
and some parts of
Asia than in Europe, and as a result, manufacturers
have had to develop sedan versions of their small cars.[citation
needed] In Brazil, for example, the
Fiat Premio was developed from the
Fiat Uno in the 1980s, with Ford and GM subsequently offering sedan
versions of the
Opel Corsa and
Ford Fiesta in the 1990s. (The first
Opel Corsa was sold in
Europe as a sedan as well as a
hatchback, but proved unpopular, and the three-box sedan was not
replaced in 1993). These models were also sold in South
List of car body styles
^ "hatchback - definition by the Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and
Encyclopedia". Thefreedictionary.com. n.d. Retrieved 3 March
^ a b "
Hatchback - Definition from the Free Merriam-Webster
Dictionary". Merriam-webster.com. 31 August 2012. Retrieved 3 March
Hatchback definition at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.reference.com.
n.d. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
^ "hatchback - Definition from Longman English Dictionary Online".
Ldoceonline.com. n.d. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
^ "hatchback: definition of hatchback in Oxford dictionary (British
& World English)". Oxforddictionaries.com. n.d. Retrieved 3 March
^ a b c Hillier, Victor; Coombes, Peter (2004). Hillier's Fundamentals
of Motor Vehicle Technology: Volume 1 (Fifth ed.). Nelson Thornes.
p. 11. ISBN 978-0-7487-8082-2. Retrieved 3 March 2014. The
estate body, also known as station wagons in some countries, has the
roofline extended to the rear of the body to enlarge its internal
capacity. Folding the rear seats down gives a large floor area for the
carriage of luggage or goods. Stronger suspension springs are fitted
at the rear to support the extra load. Hatchback: The hatchback is
generally based on a saloon body but with the boot or trunk area
blended into the centre section of the body. The hatchback is
therefore halfway between a saloon and estate car. This type of body
is very popular due to its versatility and style. Although some
hatchbacks are in fact saloon bodies with the boot or trunk
effectively removed (usually the smaller cars), many hatchbacks retain
the full length of the saloon but the roofline extends down to the
rear of the vehicle. As with the saloon bodies, a hatchback can have
two or four passenger doors, however there is a tendency to refer to
hatchbacks as three or five doors because the rear compartment lid (or
tailgate) is also referred to as a door on the hatchback bodies. As
with the estate, the rear seats fold down to give a flat floor for the
transportation of luggage or other objects. When the tailgate is
closed, the luggage compartment is usually covered with a parcel
^ a b c Jaza, Reza N. (2008). Vehicle dynamics: theory and
applications. Springer-Verlag. pp. 30–31.
ISBN 978-0-387-74243-4. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
^ a b Erjavec, Jack (2005). Automotive Technology: a Systems Approach
Volume 2. Thomposon Delmar Learning. p. 55.
ISBN 978-1-4018-4831-6. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
Hatchback: The distinguishing feature of this vehicle is its luggage
compartment, which is an extension of the passenger compartment.
Access to the luggage compartment is gained through an upward opening
hatch-type door. A car of this design can be a three or five door
model, the third or fifth door is the rear hatch. Station Wagon: A
station wagon is characterized by its roof which extends straight
back, allowing a spacious interior luggage compartment in the rear.
The rear door, which can be opened numerous ways depending on the
model, provides access to the luggage compartment. Station wagons come
in two and four-door models and have space for up to nine
Car Design Glossary – Part 2: One-Box (Monospace or Monovolume)".
Car Design News. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013.
Retrieved 3 March 2014. A three or five-door hatchback (no separate
trunk compartment) is a 'two-box' car.
^ Mueller, Mike (2003). American Cars of the '50s. MBI Publishing.
^ Neil, Dan (28 April 2002). "The
Hatchback Is Back (but Nobody Uses
the H-Word)". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
Car Club. "Traction Avant". Citroen
Car Club. Retrieved 20
^ Carter Johnson (9 February 2017). "
Citroën Traction Avant
Citroën Traction Avant 11CV
Commerciale – The World's First Hatchback". The Truth about Cars.
Retrieved 10 June 2017.
^ Olsen, Byron (2000). Station Wagons. MBI Publishing. pp. 31 and
41. ISBN 978-0-7603-0632-1. Retrieved 20 August 2014.
^ Vance, Bill (27 March 2001). "Motoring Memories: Motoring Memories:
Kaiser Traveler – the first hatchback". Autos.ca. Retrieved 20
^ the Auto Editors of Consumer Guide (17 October 2007). "1949-1953
Kaiser Traveler and Vagabond". HowStuffWorks.com. Retrieved 20 August
^ Strohl, Daniel (23 January 2011). "SIA Flashback – 1949 Kaiser
Traveler: America's First Hatchback". Hemmings. Retrieved 20 August
Renault historic vehicles -
Renault 16". Renault. 2012. Retrieved 3
March 2014. Half-way between a station wagon and a sedan, the R16
introduced new cues in automotive design... To the extent that its
unusual profile was quickly copied by its competitors.
^ "Historia FSO - Syrena 110" (in Polish). auto_pol.republika.pl/.
Retrieved 3 March 2014.
^ Lamm, Michael (May 1979). "Driving the
Fiat Strada". Popular
Mechanics. 151 (5): 56. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
^ "Previous winners - 1984". caroftheyear.org. Archived from the
original on 21 June 2012. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
^ Wilson, Greg (10 January 2002). "Test Drive: 2002 Mercedes-Benz C230
Kompressor Sport Coupe". CanadianDriver. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
^ Hinckley, James (2005). The Big Book of
Car Culture: The Armchair
Guide to Automotive Americana. MotorBooks/MBI. pp. 120–121.
ISBN 978-0-7603-1965-9. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
^ Lamm, Michae (October 1972). "AMC: Hornet hatchback leads the
lineup". Popular Mechanics. 138 (4): 118–202. Retrieved 2 March
^ "1973 AMC Hornet". amchornet.com. Archived from the original on 31
July 2012. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
^ Strohl, Daniel (26 July 2012). "From the Hemmings Nation Flickr pool
– the Hornet hutchback". Hemmings Motor News. Retrieved 2 March
^ Wilson, Paul Carroll (1976). Chrome dreams: automobile styling since
1893. Chilton Book. p. 303. ISBN 9780801963520. Retrieved 2
AMC Pacer Wagon ad". Popular Science. 209 (5): 1–2. November
1976. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
^ Ceppos, Rich (October 1977). "AMC for '78 – a V-8 for the Pacer,
and now there's Concord". Popular Science. 211 (4): 98. Retrieved 2
^ "American Motors". Michigan manufacturer and financial record: 40.
1977. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
^ Witzenburg, Gary (October 1978). "Driving the '79 American Motors
models". Popular Mechanics. 150 (4): 114, 115, 164, 166, 168.
Retrieved 2 March 2014.
^ Ross, Daniel Charles; Hill, Ray (October 1983). "AMC's Double
Thrust: all new Jeep and
Renault Encore". Popular Mechanics. 160 (4):
106, 107, 158, 159. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
^ Lund, Robert (January 1978). "Driving the
Dodge Omni and Plymouth
Horizon". Popular Mechanics. 149 (1): 64–65, 136. Retrieved 2 March
^ "Canada: CAMI ends
Suzuki Swift production". Just-auto.com. 5 June
2001. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
^ Blackett, Thom. "2009 Chevrolet Aveo5 Preview Chevy's imported
import fighter grows a hatchback". myride com. Archived from the
original on 14 June 2013. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
^ Prince, Richard (2004). Corvette C3 Buyer's Guide 1968–1982. BMI
Publishing. p. 134. ISBN 978-0-7603-1655-9. Retrieved 2
^ "The best hatchbacks in India". rediff.com. Retrieved
Maruti 800 is launched: Driving the India story". India Today.
24 December 2009. Archived from the original on 9 July 2012. Retrieved
11 November 2012.
Tata Nano set to drive into Taiwan". The Economic Times.
2010-06-03. Archived from the original on 24 July 2010.
Look up hatchback in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Media related to Hatchbacks at Wikimedia Commons
Media related to Liftbacks at Wikimedia Commons
Personal luxury car
Leisure activity vehicle
Cabriolet / Convertible
Coupé de Ville
Drophead coupe (Convertible)
Saloon / Sedan
Sedanca de Ville (
Coupé de Ville)
Spider / Spyder (Roadster)
Town car (
Coupé de Ville)
Gasoline / petrol (direct injection)
Homogeneous charge compression ignition
Layout (engine / drive)
Front / front
Front mid / front
Rear / front
Front / rear
Rear mid / rear
Rear / rear
Front / four-wheel
Mid / four-wheel
Rear / four-wheel