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Licinius
Licinius
I (/lɪˈsɪniəs/; Latin: Gaius Valerius Licinianus Licinius Augustus;[note 1][2][3] c. 263 – 325) was a Roman emperor
Roman emperor
from 308 to 324. For most of his reign he was the colleague and rival of Constantine I, with whom he co-authored the Edict of Milan
Edict of Milan
that granted official toleration to Christians in the Roman Empire. He was finally defeated at the Battle of Chrysopolis, and was later executed on the orders of Constantine I.

Contents

1 Early reign 2 Conflict with Constantine I 3 Character and legacy 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References and sources 7 External links

Early reign[edit] Born to a Dacian[4][5] peasant family in Moesia
Moesia
Superior, Licinius accompanied his close childhood friend, the future emperor Galerius, on the Persian expedition in 298.[4] He was trusted enough by Galerius that in 307 he was sent as an envoy to Maxentius
Maxentius
in Italy
Italy
to attempt to reach some agreement about the latter's illegitimate political position.[4] Galerius
Galerius
then trusted the eastern provinces to Licinius when he went to deal with Maxentius
Maxentius
personally after the death of Flavius Valerius Severus.[6] Upon his return to the east Galerius
Galerius
elevated Licinius
Licinius
to the rank of Augustus
Augustus
in the West on November 11, 308 his immediate command were the Balkan provinces of Illyricum, Thrace
Thrace
and Pannonia.[5] In 310 he took command of the war against the Sarmatians, inflicting a severe defeat on them and emerging victorious.[2] On the death of Galerius
Galerius
in May 311, Licinius
Licinius
entered into an agreement with Maximinus II (Daia) to share the eastern provinces between them. By this point, not only was Licinius
Licinius
the official Augustus
Augustus
of the west but he also possessed part of the eastern provinces as well, as the Hellespont
Hellespont
and the Bosporus
Bosporus
became the dividing line, with Licinius
Licinius
taking the European provinces and Maximinus taking the Asian.[5] An alliance between Maximinus and Maxentius
Maxentius
forced the two remaining emperors to enter into a formal agreement with each other.[6] So in March 313 Licinius
Licinius
married Flavia Julia Constantia, half-sister of Constantine I,[3] at Mediolanum (now Milan); they had a son, Licinius the Younger, in 315. Their marriage was the occasion for the jointly-issued "Edict of Milan" that reissued Galerius' previous edict allowing Christianity
Christianity
(and any religion one might choose) to be professed in the Empire,[5] with additional dispositions that restored confiscated properties to Christian congregations and exempted Christian clergy from municipal civic duties.[7] The redaction of the edict as reproduced by Lactantius
Lactantius
- who follows the text affixed by Licinius
Licinius
in Nicomedia
Nicomedia
on June 14 313, after Maximinus' defeat - uses a neutral language, expressing a will to propitiate "any Divinity whatsoever in the seat of the heavens".[8] Daia in the meantime decided to attack Licinius. Leaving Syria with 70,000 men, he reached Bithynia, although harsh weather he encountered along the way had gravely weakened his army. In April 313, he crossed the Bosporus
Bosporus
and went to Byzantium, which was held by Licinius' troops. Undeterred, he took the town after an eleven-day siege. He moved to Heraclea, which he captured after a short siege, before moving his forces to the first posting station. With a much smaller body of men, possibly around 30,000,[9] Licinius
Licinius
arrived at Adrianople while Daia was still besieging Heraclea. Before the decisive engagement, Licinius
Licinius
allegedly had a vision in which an angel recited him a generic prayer that could be adopted by all cults and which Licinius
Licinius
then repeated to his soldiers.[10] On 30 April 313, the two armies clashed at the Battle of Tzirallum, and in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were crushed. Ridding himself of the imperial purple and dressing like a slave, Daia fled to Nicomedia.[6] Believing he still had a chance to come out victorious, Daia attempted to stop the advance of Licinius
Licinius
at the Cilician Gates
Cilician Gates
by establishing fortifications there. Unfortunately for Daia, Licinius' army succeeded in breaking through, forcing Daia to retreat to Tarsus where Licinius continued to press him on land and sea. The war between them only ended with Daia’s death in August 313.[5] Given that Constantine had already crushed his rival Maxentius
Maxentius
in 312, the two men decided to divide the Roman world between them. As a result of this settlement, Licinius
Licinius
became sole Augustus
Augustus
in the East, while his brother-in-law, Constantine, was supreme in the West. Licinius
Licinius
immediately rushed to the east to deal with another threat, this time from the Persian Sassanids.[6] Conflict with Constantine I[edit]

Sculptural portraits of Licinius
Licinius
(left) and his rival Constantine I (right).

In 314, a civil war erupted between Licinius
Licinius
and Constantine, in which Constantine used the pretext that Licinius
Licinius
was harbouring Senecio, whom Constantine accused of plotting to overthrow him.[6] Constantine prevailed at the Battle of Cibalae
Battle of Cibalae
in Pannonia
Pannonia
(October 8, 314).[5] Although the situation was temporarily settled, with both men sharing the consulship in 315, it was but a lull in the storm. The next year a new war erupted, when Licinius
Licinius
named Valerius Valens
Valerius Valens
co-emperor,[3] only for Licinius
Licinius
to suffer a humiliating defeat on the plain of Mardia (also known as Campus Ardiensis) in Thrace. The emperors were reconciled after these two battles and Licinius
Licinius
had his co-emperor Valens
Valens
killed.[5] Over the next ten years, the two imperial colleagues maintained an uneasy truce.[6] Licinius
Licinius
kept himself busy with a campaign against the Sarmatians
Sarmatians
in 318,[5] but temperatures rose again in 321 when Constantine pursued some Sarmatians, who had been ravaging some territory in his realm, across the Danube into what was technically Licinius’s territory.[5] When he repeated this with another invasion, this time by the Goths
Goths
who were pillaging Thrace, Licinius complained that Constantine had broken the treaty between them. Constantine wasted no time going on the offensive. Licinius's fleet of 350 ships was defeated by Constantine's fleet in 323. Then in 324, Constantine, tempted by the "advanced age and unpopular vices"[6] of his colleague, again declared war against him and having defeated his army of 170,000 men[dubious – discuss] at the Battle of Adrianople (July 3, 324), succeeded in shutting him up within the walls of Byzantium.[5] The defeat of the superior fleet of Licinius
Licinius
in the Battle of the Hellespont
Hellespont
by Crispus, Constantine’s eldest son and Caesar, compelled his withdrawal to Bithynia, where a last stand was made; the Battle of Chrysopolis, near Chalcedon
Chalcedon
(September 18), resulted in Licinius' final submission.[6] While Licinius' co-emperor Sextus Martinianus
Sextus Martinianus
was killed, Licinius
Licinius
himself was spared due to the pleas of his wife, Constantine's sister and interned at Thessalonica.[3] The next year, Constantine had him hanged, accusing him of conspiring to raise troops among the barbarians.[6] Character and legacy[edit]

A Nummus of Licinius
Licinius
I

After defeating Daia, he had put to death Flavius Severianus, the son of the emperor Severus, as well as Candidianus, the son of Galerius.[6] He also ordered the execution of the wife and daughter of the Emperor Diocletian, who had fled from the court of Licinius
Licinius
before being discovered at Thessalonica.[6] As part of Constantine’s attempts to decrease Licinius’s popularity, he actively portrayed his brother-in-law as a pagan supporter. This was not the case; contemporary evidence tends to suggest that he was at least a committed supporter of Christians.[3] He co-authored the Edict of Milan
Edict of Milan
which ended the Great Persecution, and re-affirmed the rights of Christians in his half of the empire. He also added the Christian symbol to his armies, and attempted to regulate the affairs of the Church hierarchy just as Constantine and his successors were to do. His wife was a devout Christian.[11] It is even a possibility that he converted.[3] However, Eusebius of Caesarea, writing under the rule of Constantine, charges him with expelling Christians from the Palace and ordering military sacrifice, as well as interfering with the Church's internal procedures and organization.[12] According to Eusebius, this turned what appeared to be a committed Christian into a man who feigned sympathy for the sect but who eventually exposed his true bloodthirsty pagan nature, only to be stopped by the virtuous Constantine.[3] Finally, on Licinius’s death, his memory was branded with infamy; his statues were thrown down; and by edict, all his laws and judicial proceedings during his reign were abolished.[6] See also[edit]

Civil Wars of the Tetrarchy (306-324 AD) Licinia (gens)

Notes[edit]

^ In Classical Latin, Licinius' name would be inscribed as GAIVS VALERIVS LICINIANVS LICINIVS AVGVSTVS.

References and sources[edit]

References

^ Adkins, Lesley; Adkins, Roy (1998). Handbook to life in ancient Rome. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 31. ISBN 0-19-512332-8.  ^ a b Lendering, Jona. "Licinius". Livius.org.  ^ a b c d e f g Canduci, Alexander (2010). Triumph & Tragedy: The Rise and Fall of Rome's Immortal Emperors. Pier 9. p. 125. ISBN 978-1-74196-598-8.  ^ a b c Jones, A.H.M.; Martindale, J.R. (1971). The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, Vol. I: AD260-395. Cambridge University Press. p. 509.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j DiMaio, Michael, Jr. (February 23, 1997). " Licinius
Licinius
(308–324 A.D.)". De Imperatoribus Romanis.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Gibbon, Edward (1776). "Chapter XIV". The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Vol. II.  ^ Carrié, Jean-Michel; Rousselle, Aline (1999). L'Empire Romain en mutation: des Sévères à Constantin, 192-337. Paris: Éditions du Seuil. p. 228. ISBN 2-02-025819-6.  ^ Lactantius, De Mort. Pers., ch. 48, cf. Internet History Sourcebooks Project, Fordham University, [1]. Accessed July 31, 2012 ^ Kohn, George Childs, Dictionary Of Wars, Revised Edition, pg 398. ^ Carrié & Rousselle, L'Empire Romain en Mutation, 229 ^ Peter J. Leithart, Defending Constantine: The Twilight of an Empire and the Dawn of Christendom. Intervarsity Press, Downers Grove, IL: 2010, ISBN 978-0-8308-2722-0, page 101 ^ James Richard Gearey, "The Persecution of Licinius". MA thesis, University of Calgary, 1999, Chapter 4. Available at [2]. Accessed July 31, 2012.

Sources

Pears, Edwin. “The Campaign against Paganism A.D. 324.” The English Historical Review, Vol. 24, No. 93 (January 1909): 1–17.  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Licinius". Encyclopædia Britannica. 16 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 587. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Licinius.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: Licinius Socrates Scholasticus account of Licinius' end Roman and Greek Coins

Licinius Constantinian dynasty Born: 250 Died: 325

Regnal titles

Preceded by Flavius Valerius Severus Roman Emperor 308–324 Served alongside: Galerius, Constantine I, Maximinus Daia, Valerius Valens
Valens
and Martinianus Succeeded by Constantine I

Political offices

Preceded by Diocletian, Galerius, Maxentius, Valerius Romulus Consul of the Roman Empire 309 with Constantine I, Maxentius, Valerius Romulus Succeeded by Tatius Andronicus, Pompeius Probus, Maxentius

Preceded by Galerius, Maximinus Daia, Gaius Caeionius Rufius Volusianus, Aradius Rufinus Consul of the Roman Empire 312–313 with Constantine I, Maxentius, Maximinus Daia Succeeded by Gaius Caeionius Rufius Volusianus, Petronius Annianus

Preceded by Gaius Caeionius Rufius Volusianus, Petronius Annianus Consul of the Roman Empire 315 with Constantine I Succeeded by Antonius Caecinius Sabinus, Vettius Rufinus

Preceded by Ovinius Gallicanus, Caesonius Bassus Consul of the Roman Empire 318 with Crispus Succeeded by Constantine I, Licinius
Licinius
II

Preceded by Constantine I, Constantine II Consul of the Roman Empire 321 with Licinius
Licinius
II, Crispus, Constantine II Succeeded by Petronius Probianus, Amnius Anicius Julianus

v t e

Roman and Byzantine emperors

Principate 27 BC – 235 AD

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and Gordian II Pupienus
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Gallic Emperors: Postumus (Laelianus) Marius Victorinus (Domitianus II) Tetricus I
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with Tetricus II
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Dominate 284–395

Diocletian
Diocletian
(whole empire) Diocletian
Diocletian
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(West) Diocletian
Diocletian
(East) and Maximian
Maximian
(West) with Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Constantius Chlorus
Constantius Chlorus
(West) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Constantius Chlorus
Constantius Chlorus
(West) with Severus (West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Severus (West) with Constantine the Great
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Galerius
(East) and Maxentius
Maxentius
(West) with Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Licinius
Licinius
I (West) with Constantine the Great (West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Maxentius
Maxentius
(alone) Licinius
Licinius
I (West) and Maximinus II (East) with Constantine the Great (Self-proclaimed Augustus) and Valerius Valens Licinius
Licinius
I (East) and Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) with Licinius
Licinius
II, Constantine II, and Crispus
Crispus
as Caesares (Martinian) Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
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Crispus
as Caesar Constantine II Constans
Constans
I Magnentius
Magnentius
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Constantius II
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with Victor Theodosius the Great (Eugenius)

Western Empire 395–480

Honorius Constantine III with son Constans
Constans
II) Constantius III Joannes Valentinian III Petronius Maximus
Petronius Maximus
with Palladius Avitus Majorian Libius Severus Anthemius Olybrius Glycerius Julius Nepos Romulus Augustulus

Eastern/ Byzantine Empire 395–1204

Arcadius Theodosius II Pulcheria Marcian Leo I the Thracian Leo II Zeno (first reign) Basiliscus
Basiliscus
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Tiberius
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Constans
II Constantine IV
Constantine IV
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Heraclius
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Tiberius
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Justinian II
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Justinian II
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Tiberius
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Michael II
the Amorian Theophilos Michael III Basil I
Basil I
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Constantine VII
Porphyrogennetos Romanos I Lekapenos
Romanos I Lekapenos
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Constantine IX Monomachos
(sole emperor) Theodora Michael VI Bringas Isaac I Komnenos Constantine X Doukas Romanos IV Diogenes Michael VII Doukas
Michael VII Doukas
with brothers Andronikos and Konstantios and son Constantine Nikephoros III Botaneiates Alexios I Komnenos John II Komnenos
John II Komnenos
with Alexios Komnenos as co-emperor Manuel I Komnenos Alexios II Komnenos Andronikos I Komnenos Isaac II Angelos Alexios III Angelos Alexios IV Angelos Nicholas Kanabos (chosen by the Senate) Alexios V Doukas

Empire of Nicaea 1204–1261

Constantine Laskaris Theodore I Laskaris John III Doukas Vatatzes Theodore II Laskaris John IV Laskaris

Eastern/ Byzantine Empire 1261–1453

Michael VIII Palaiologos Andronikos II Palaiologos
Andronikos II Palaiologos
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as co-emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos John V Palaiologos John VI Kantakouzenos
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John V Palaiologos
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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 305416903 LCCN: no2007122

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