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The Info List - Liaoshen Campaign





Republic of China

Republic of China
China
Army

Communist Party

Northeast Field Army

Commanders and leaders

Chiang Kai-shek Wei Lihuang Du Yuming Fan Hanjie (POW) Liao Yaoxiang (POW) Liu Yuzhang

Lin Biao Luo Ronghuan Liu Yalou

Strength

580,000[1] 700,000

Casualties and losses

~472,000 (including non-combat losses)[2] 69,000

Liaoshen Campaign

Traditional Chinese 遼瀋戰役

Simplified Chinese 辽沈战役

Transcriptions

Standard Mandarin

Hanyu Pinyin Líaoshên Zhànyì

v t e

Chinese Civil War

Major engagements in bold

Shanghai massacre

Uprisings Autumn Harvest Baise Guangzhou Nanchang

Encirclement Campaigns First

Jiangxi Hubei-Henan-Anhui Honghu Hubei-Henan-Shaanxi Shaanxi-Gansu Soviet

Second

Jiangxi Hubei-Henan-Anhui Honghu Hubei-Henan-Shaanxi Shaanxi-Gansu Soviet

Third

Jiangxi Hubei-Henan-Anhui Honghu

Ningdu uprising

Hubei-Henan-Shaanxi Shaanxi-Gansu Soviet

Fourth

Jiangxi Hubei-Henan-Anhui Honghu Soviet

Fifth

v. Jiangxi Soviet Hubei-Henan-Anhui

Long March

Luding Bridge

Intermission

Wannan

Opening Campaign Yetaishan S. Jiangsu Baoying Yongjiazhen Tianmen Linyi Wuhe Yinji Huaiyin-Huai'an Xinghua Dazhongji Lingbi Zhucheng Lishi Pingdu Taixing Shangdang Wuli Xiangshuikou Rugao Weiguangnuan Shicun Operation Beleaguer Houmajia Handan Pacification of NE China Shaobo Gaoyou Tangguo Houma 1st Siping 2nd Siping North China
China
Plain S. Tongpu Railway Datong Jining Longhai Dapu Ruhuang Dingtao Linfu Zhengtai Datong-Puzhou Huaiyin–Huai'an Yan'an Kalgan Lüliang Linjiang Guanzhong Beitashan S. Baoding Niangziguan Tang'erli Menglianggu Summer 1947, NE China Heshui 3rd Siping N. Baoding Nanlin Meridian Ridge N. Daqing River Autumn 1947, NE China Mt. Funiu Winter 1947, NE China

Gongzhutun

Phoenix Peak W. Tai'an Jingzhong Linfen Zhouzhang Hebei-Rehe-Chahar Yanzhou Shangcai Liaoshen

Changchun Jinzhou Tashan

Jinan Taiyuan Huaihai

Shuangduiji

Jiulianshan Pingjin

Tianjin

Bandits Suppression N.China C.S.China E.China Dabieshan NW.China Wupin SW.China Longquan N.Canton NE.Guizhou Hunan-Hubei-Sichuan W.Hunan Shiwandashan Liuwandashan W.Guangxi

Shanghai Lanzhou Ningxia Nanchuan Guangxi

Bobai

Chengdu Bamianshan Tianquan Yiwu KMT insurgency 1950-58 Burma- China
China
border

Island campaigns Quemoy Denbu Nan'ao Hainan Island Dongshan Wanshan Nanpeng Nanri Nanpeng Dalushan Dongshan Yijiangshan Dachen Dong-Yin

The Liaoshen Campaign, abbreviation of Liaoning- Shenyang
Shenyang
Campaign, was the first of the three major campaigns (along with Huaihai Campaign and Pingjin Campaign) launched by the Communist People's Liberation Army (PLA) against the Nationalist Kuomintang
Kuomintang
government during the late stage of the Chinese Civil War. This engagement is known in the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
as the Battle of Liaohsi (Traditional Chinese: 遼西會戰). It took place between September and November 1948 and lasted a total of 52 days. The campaign ended after the Nationalist forces suffered sweeping defeats across Manchuria, losing major cities of Jinzhou, Changchun
Changchun
and eventually Shenyang
Shenyang
in the process, eventually leading to the capture of Manchuria
Manchuria
by the Communist forces.

Contents

1 Background

1.1 Race for Manchuria

2 Prelude 3 Communist advance (12 September – 20 October)

3.1 Jinzhou 3.2 Changchun

4 Nationalist counter-offensive (21 October – 28 October)

4.1 Heishan

5 Fall of Shenyang
Shenyang
(29 October – 2 November) 6 Aftermath 7 References

7.1 Citations 7.2 Bibliography

Background[edit] Race for Manchuria[edit] Manchuria, alternatively known as the Northeast China
China
in contemporary accounts, was the most industrialized region in China. In the immediate aftermath of the Second Sino-Japanese War, Manchuria
Manchuria
was placed under Soviet occupation. Both the Nationalists and the Communists began their expansion in the region after the Soviet withdrawal in March 1946.[3] After the Communist winter offensive of 1947, the PLA had expanded considerably in the Northeast, surpassing the Nationalists in total operational strength in Northeast China
China
for the first time since the beginning of the civil war. In response to the deteriorating situation for the Nationalists against the Communist offensives, Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
decided to replace Chen Cheng with Wei Lihuang as the commander of the Nationalist forces in the Northeast.[4] Prelude[edit] On January 1948, the Communist forces in the Northeast were renamed as Northeast Field Army with Lin Biao
Lin Biao
as the commander.[5] The Nationalist forces were indecisive in responding to Communist expansion, as Wei Lihuang
Wei Lihuang
directly clashed with Chiang over Nationalist strategies in the Northeast. Wei believed that it was better to "preserve the status quo" and concentrate on defending Shenyang
Shenyang
and Changchun, while Chiang insists Wei to withdraw from these two cities and concentrate Nationalist forces in the Jinzhou- Huludao
Huludao
area to prevent the PLA from entering the North China Plain through the Shanhai Pass.[6][7] By spring 1948, the Communist forces were in control of the countryside across Northeast China, isolating the Nationalist forces in Shenyang, Changchun
Changchun
and Jinzhou, and none of which were connected to each other.[8] In addition, the PLA had seized control of the Jingha Railway, cutting off the Nationalist land route supply lines to Shenyang
Shenyang
and Changchun. Consequently, supplies for the Nationalist forces in the Northeast had to be airlifted, which were largely ineffective and highly unsustainable.[9] Communist advance (12 September – 20 October)[edit] Jinzhou[edit] Main articles: Battle of Jinzhou
Battle of Jinzhou
and Battle of Tashan

Map showing the Liaoshen Campaign
Liaoshen Campaign
as one of the Three Campaigns during Chinese civil war

Jinzhou
Jinzhou
was a "key point" in the passage from Manchuria
Manchuria
to North China Plain. On 12 September 1948, the Northeast Field Army headed south and launched a series of attacks along the Beining Railway. Between 12 September to 28 September, the Communist forces maneuvered to cut off Nationalist supply line from Qinhuangdao
Qinhuangdao
to Jinzhou.[10] By 28 September, they had captured Suizhong, Changli, Tashan and Yixian, controlling the area between Jinzhou
Jinzhou
and Qinhuangdao, effectively isolating Jinzhou.[11] Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
arrived in Beiping on 30 September and held a military conference with Fu Zuoyi. The Nationalists assembled the 39th, 62nd and 92nd Army led by Hou Jingru to reinforce Jinzhou
Jinzhou
as part of the "East-Advancing Army Corps", with the objective to and fortify Nationalist positions in Huludao.[12] On 2 October, Chiang flew to Shenyang
Shenyang
to discuss the formation of the "West-Advancing Army Corps" with Wei Lihuang, and ordered Liao Yaoxiang
Liao Yaoxiang
to reinforce Jinzhou
Jinzhou
with the Ninth Army from the west to break the encirclement attempt of Jinzhou
Jinzhou
by the CCP.[13] With the new developments in Nationalist strategies, Lin Biao
Lin Biao
was initially hesitant to continue with Communist offensive against Jinzhou, but he was convinced to carry on with the assault by Mao Zedong.[14] By 8 October, the Northeast Field Army have amassed 250,000 troops and completed the encirclement of Jinzhou. Between 10 and 15 October, the Nationalist reinforcements for Jinzhou
Jinzhou
from both the west and the east were closing in on the Communists, but they were decisively stopped in Tashan. The final assault on Jinzhou
Jinzhou
began on 14 October. The city was captured in the next evening, along with the Nationalist commander Fan Hanjie and 80,000 Nationalist troops.[15][16] Changchun[edit] Main article: Siege of Changchun

Communist troops after the capture of Changchun.

Changchun
Changchun
had been encircled for more than five months prior to the campaign. Already weakened by starvation since February 1948, civilians were fleeing Changchun
Changchun
in large numbers on daily basis by June 1948. Many refugees were unable to pass through the Communist blockade, and unable to return as the Nationalist defenders blocks refugees from returning to the city.[17] The Nationalist garrison were unable to break out of the city despite of the order from Chiang Kai-shek. Following the fall of Jinzhou, the Nationalist 60th Army stationed in the east side of the city defected to the Communist side on 17 October.[18] Following their defection, the Nationalist New Seventh Army agreed to the terms of surrender on 19 October. The remaining Nationalist forces in Changchun
Changchun
surrendered the city to the PLA on 23 October, and Nationalist commander Zheng Dongguo
Zheng Dongguo
became a prisoner of war.[19] Nationalist counter-offensive (21 October – 28 October)[edit]

Battle of Heishan.

Heishan[edit] Main article: Battle of Heishan After the Nationalist forces suffered heavy losses in Jinzhou
Jinzhou
and Changchun, Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
intended to stage a counteroffensive and quickly recapture Jinzhou. He ordered Liao Yaoxiang
Liao Yaoxiang
and the Ninth Army Group which has been advancing from Shenyang
Shenyang
to continue marching west and attack Jinzhou. However, Liao and other senior Nationalist officers contested this decision. On 16 October, the Nationalist high command reached a consensus and decided to attack Heishan and Dahushan instead, covering their withdrawal to Yingkou
Yingkou
in the process. The decision was approved by Chiang, and on 21 October the Ninth Army Group launched an attack on Heishan.[20] The Communist forces successfully defended Heishan and Dahushan, and the Nationalist forces were unable to make any progress. The Ninth Army Group was subsequently encircled by the main forces of the PLA and decisively defeated. Over 25,000 Nationalist soldiers had been killed in action, and Liao Yaoxing was captured by the PLA.[21][22] Fall of Shenyang
Shenyang
(29 October – 2 November)[edit]

People's Liberation Army
People's Liberation Army
and Type 97 Chi-Ha
Type 97 Chi-Ha
tanks advance into Shenyang.

After the Ninth Army Group was destroyed, the Northeast Field Army began to encircle Shenyang
Shenyang
on 29 October. As the city fell into disarray, the Nationalist's Eighth Army Group collapsed as the commander Wei Lihuang
Wei Lihuang
fled from Shenyang
Shenyang
by plane on 30 October. The Communist forces launched the final assault on Shenyang
Shenyang
the next morning on 1 November against the Nationalist garrison of 140,000 men, which quickly surrendered soon after.[2] On 2 November, Yingkou
Yingkou
was also captured by the Communist forces, with the Nationalist 52nd Army narrowly retreating by ship. The remainder of the Nationalist forces, mostly from the West Army, managed to preserve some of their strength as they withdrew from Huludao
Huludao
to Tianjin. With the Northeast being completely clear of the Nationalist forces, the Liaoshen Campaign
Liaoshen Campaign
has effectively came to its conclusion.[2][22] Aftermath[edit] The Liaoshen Campaign
Liaoshen Campaign
was both a major "strategic and tactical defeat" for Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
and the Nationalist government, as the initial objective of containing the Communists in the Northeast failed after the fall of Jinzhou.[2] Between 1945 to 1948, Chiang committed some of his best troops from the Chinese Expeditionary Force
Chinese Expeditionary Force
in the Northeast against the CCP, and many of these troops were lost in the subsequent campaigns. The role of Mao Zedong in pushing Lin Biao
Lin Biao
to fully commit in the final attack of Jinzhou
Jinzhou
elevated the reputation of Mao in the CCP.[23] With the CCP fully in control of the Northeast, Nationalist garrisons in Beiping and Tianjin led by Fu Zuoyi
Fu Zuoyi
were now exposed to Communist attacks.[24] References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ Tanner 2015, p. 112. ^ a b c d Lew 2009, p. 113. ^ Westad 2003, p. 36. ^ Lew 2009, p. 95. ^ Tanner 2015, p. 5. ^ Tanner 2015, p. 115–120. ^ Westad 2003, p. 27. ^ Westad 2003, p. 175. ^ Tanner 2015, p. 163. ^ Tanner 2015, p. 186. ^ Tanner 2015, p. 189. ^ Tanner 2015, p. 193. ^ Tanner 2015, p. 194. ^ Tanner 2015, p. 197–98. ^ Tanner 2015, p. 201. ^ Lew 2009, p. 112. ^ Tanner 2015, p. 239. ^ Tanner 2015, p. 247. ^ Tanner 2015, p. 332. ^ Tanner 2015, p. 267. ^ Westad 2003, p. 196. ^ a b Tanner 2015, p. 268. ^ Tanner 2015, p. 288. ^ Lew 2009, p. 114.

Bibliography[edit]

Lary, Diana (2015). China's Civil War. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 1107054672.  Lew, Christopher R. (2009). The Third Chinese Revolutionary Civil War, 1945–49: An Analysis of Communist Strategy and Leadership. New York: Routledge. ISBN 1135969736.  Tanner, Harold M. (2015). Where Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
Lost China: The Liao-Shen Campaign, 1948. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0253016991.  Taylor, Jay (2009). The Generalissimo. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-03338-8.  Westad, Odd Arne (2003). Decisive encounters : the Chinese Civil War, 1946–1950. Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-4478-5. 

v t e

Chinese Civil War

Principal belligerents and campaigns

Nationalist Party /  Republic of China
China
( National Revolutionary Army → Republic of China
China
Armed Forces)

Communist Party /  People's Republic of China
China
( Red Army → 8th Route Army, N4A, etc. → People's Liberation Army)

Pre-1945 Post-1945 Current issues

1924 First United Front

1927 Shanghai massacre Nanchang uprising Autumn Harvest Uprising Guangzhou Uprising

1929 Sino-Soviet conflict

1930–1934 Encirclement Campaigns

1931–1934 Chinese Soviet Republic

1933–1934 Fujian People's Government

1934–1936 Long March

1936 Xi'an Incident

1937–1946 Second United Front

1945 Chongqing Negotiations

1945 Double Tenth Agreement

1946 Jiaochangkou Incident

1945–1949 Operation Beleaguer

1946–1949 Revolution

1948 SS Kiangya
SS Kiangya
Incident

1948 Liaoshen Campaign

1948–1949 Huaihai Campaign

1948–1949 Pingjin Campaign

1949 Taiping Steamer Incident

1949 Yangtze River Crossing Campaign

1950–1958 Kuomintang
Kuomintang
Islamic insurgency

1950 Hainan Island Campaign

1950 Wanshan Archipelago Campaign

1950 Battle of Chamdo

1951 Incorporation of Tibet

1955 First Taiwan
Taiwan
Strait Crisis

1958 Second Taiwan
Taiwan
Strait Crisis (Jinmen Crisis)

1960–1961 China–Burma border

1996 Third Taiwan
Taiwan
Strait Crisis

2005–present Pan-Blue visits

Political status of Taiwan Tibetan Government-in-Exile Chinese unification Hong Kong independence
Hong Kong independence
movement Inner Mongolian independence movement Manchurian independence movement Taiwan
Taiwan
independence movement Tibetan independence movement East Turkestan independence movement Cross-Stra

.