HOME
TheInfoList



Liaoning (), is a coastal
province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territorial and administrative unit of the Roman Empire's territorial possessions outs ...
in
Northeast China
Northeast China
that is the smallest, southernmost, and most populous province in the region. With its capital at Shenyang, it is located on the northern shore of the
Yellow Sea
Yellow Sea
, and is the northernmost coastal province of the
People's Republic of China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.4 billion. Covering approximately 9.6& ...
. Historically a gateway between
China proper
China proper
and
Manchuria
Manchuria
, the modern Liaoning province was established in 1907 as Fengtian or Fengtien province and was renamed Liaoning in 1929. It was also known at that time as Mukden Province for the Manchu name of ''Shengjing'', the former name of Shenyang. Under the Japanese-puppet
Manchukuo Manchukuo, officially the State of Manchuria prior to 1934 and the Empire of Manchuria after 1934, was a puppet state of the Empire of Japan The was a historical nation-state that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 until th ...
regime, the province reverted to its 1907 name, but the name Liaoning was restored for a brief time in 1945 and then again in 1954. Liaoning is also known in Chinese as "the Golden Triangle" from its shape and strategic location, with the
Yellow Sea
Yellow Sea
( Korea Bay and Bohai Sea) in the south,
North Korea North Korea (Korean language, Korean: /, McCune–Reischauer, MR: ''Chosŏn''; literally /, McCune–Reischauer, MR: ''Pukchosŏn'', or /, Revised Romanization of Korean, RR: ''Bukhan'' in South Korean usage), officially the Democrati ...
's North Pyongan and Chagang provinces in the southeast, Jilin to the northeast,
Hebei Hebei (; Postal romanization, alternately Hopeh) is a coastal Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China, and is part of the North China region. The modern province was established in 1911 as Zhili, Chihli Province ...
to the southwest, and
Inner Mongolia Inner Mongolia or Nei Mongol (; ''Öbür Monggol'', /ɵwɵr mɔŋɢɔɮ/, Mongolian Cyrillic: Өвөр Монгол), officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, is a landlocked and Mongolic autonomous region An autonomous adminis ...

Inner Mongolia
to the northwest. The Yalu River marks the province's border with North Korea, emptying into the Korea Bay between Dandong in Liaoning and Sinuiju in North Korea.


History

Prior to 3rd century BC, Donghu people, Donghu, Gojoseon and Yemaek peoples inhabited Liaoning. The state of Yan conquered the area around 300 BC. Two commanderies, Liaodong Commandery, Liaodong ("east of the Liao River") and Liaoxi Commandery, Liaoxi ("west of the Liao River"), were established within the Liaoning region. The Yan city of Xiangping, the center of Liaodong, was located on the site of the present Liaoyang city. After the End of the Han dynasty, fall of the Han dynasty, warlord Gongsun Du and his family established and maintained a semi-independent state based in Liaodong, until it was defeated by Cao Wei in 238. The state, also known as Yan (Three Kingdoms), Yan, conducted numerous maritime diplomatic and trade expeditions, and had a lasting influence on Northeast Asian culture despite being short-lived. From 4th to 5th century AD, Liaoning was ruled by Xianbei dynasties of the Murong tribe – Former Yan, Later Yan, and Northern Yan. In 436, as Northern Wei seized the Yan capital, Liaodong Peninsula was taken over by Goguryeo. Tang dynasty annexed the region during the Goguryeo–Tang War. However, when the An Lushan Rebellion drained Tang's resources away from its frontiers, Balhae gradually expanded into Liaodong. Eventually, Liaoning was conquered by the Khitans, Khitan Liao dynasty, followed by the Jurchens, Jurchen Jin dynasty (1115–1234), Jin dynasty and the Mongol Empire. The Ming Dynasty, Ming Empire took control of Liaoning in 1371, just three years after the expulsion of the Mongols from Beijing. Around 1442, a defense wall was constructed to defend the agricultural heartland of the province from a potential threat from the Jurchen-Mongol Oriyanghan (who were Ming's tributaries) from the northwest. Between 1467 and 1468, the wall was expanded to protect the region from the northeast as well, against attacks from Jianzhou Jurchens (who were later to become known as the Manchu people). Although similar in purpose to the Great Wall of China, this "Liaodong Wall" was of a lower-cost design. While stones and tiles were used in some parts, most of the wall was in fact simply an earth dike with moats on both sides. Despite the Liaodong Wall, the Manchu people, Manchus conquered Liaodong, or eastern Liaoning, in the early 17th century, decades before the rest of China fell to them. The Manchu dynasty, styled "Later Jin", established its capital in 1616–1621 in Hetu Ala, Xingjing (), which was located outside of the Liaodong Wall in the eastern part of the modern Liaoning Province (today's ruins of Hetu Ala at Xilaocheng Village in Xinbin Manchu Autonomous County (), part of Fushun City). It was moved to Dongjing (east of today's Liaoyang, Liaoning),Edmonds (1985), p. 113 and finally in 1625 to Shengjing (now, Shenyang, Liaoning). Although the main Qing capital was moved from Shengjing to Beijing after it fell to the Qing in 1644, Shengjing retained its importance as a regional capital throughout most of the Qing era. The Qing conquest of Liaoning resulted in a significant population loss in the area, as many local Chinese residents were either killed during fighting, or fled south of the Great Wall, many cities being destroyed by the retreating Ming forces themselves. As late as 1661, the Civil Governor (''Fuyin'') of Fengtian Province, Zhang Shangxian reported that, outside of Fengtian City (Shenyang), Liaoyang, and Haicheng, Liaoning, Haicheng, all other cities east of the Liaohe were either abandoned, or hardly had a few hundred residents left. In the Governor's words, "Tieling and Fushun only have a few vagrants". West of the Liaohe, only Ningyuan, Anshan, Ningyuan, Jinzhou, and Beizhen, Guangning had any significant populations remaining. In the latter half of the seventeenth century (starting with laws issued in 1651 and 1653), the imperial Qing government recruited migrants from south of the Great Wall (notably, from Shandong) to settle the relatively sparsely populated area of Fengtian Province (roughly corresponding to today's Liaoning). Many of the current residents of Liaoning trace their ancestry to these seventeenth century settlers. The rest of China's Northeast, however, remained officially off-limits to Han Chinese for most of the Manchu era. To prevent the migration of Chinese to those regions (today's Jilin and Heilongjiang, as well as the adjacent parts of
Inner Mongolia Inner Mongolia or Nei Mongol (; ''Öbür Monggol'', /ɵwɵr mɔŋɢɔɮ/, Mongolian Cyrillic: Өвөр Монгол), officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, is a landlocked and Mongolic autonomous region An autonomous adminis ...

Inner Mongolia
), the so-called Willow Palisade was constructed (ca. 1638 – ca. 1672). The Palisade encircled the agricultural heartlands of Fengtian, running in most areas either somewhat outside the old Ming Liaodong Wall, or reusing it, and separating it from the Manchu forests to the northeast and the Mongol grazing lands to the northwest.Edmonds (1985), pp. 58–61 Later on, the Qing government tried to stop the migrants flow to Fengtian or even to make some settlers return to their original places of residence – or, failing that, to legalize them. For example, an edict issued in 1704 commented on the recent Han Chinese settlers in Fengtian having failed to comply with earlier orders requiring them to leave, and asked them either to properly register and join a local defense group (), or to leave the province for their original places within the next ten years. Ten years later, naturally, another edict appeared, reminding of the necessity to do something with illegal migrants ...Edmonds (1985), p. 76 In any event, the restrictive policy was not as effective as desired by the officials in Beijing, and Fengtian's population doubled between 1683 and 1734. During the Qing Dynasty, Manchuria was ruled by three generals, one of whom, the General of Shengjing (Mukden i Jiyanggiyūn) ruled much of modern Liaoning. In 1860, the Manchu government began to reopen the region to migration, which quickly resulted in Han Chinese becoming the dominant ethnic group in the region. In the 20th century, the province of Fengtian province, Fengtian was set up in what is Liaoning today. When Japan and Russia fought the Russo-Japanese War in 1904–1905, many key battles took place in Liaoning, including the Battle of Port Arthur and the Battle of Mukden, which was, to that point, the largest land battle ever fought. During the Warlord Era in the early twentieth century, Liaoning was under the Fengtian clique, Fengtian Clique, including Zhang Zuolin and his son Zhang Xueliang. The province first received its present name on January 29, 1929; the Zhongdong Railway Incident took place later that year. In 1931, Japan invaded and the area came under the rule of the Japanese-controlled puppet state of
Manchukuo Manchukuo, officially the State of Manchuria prior to 1934 and the Empire of Manchuria after 1934, was a puppet state of the Empire of Japan The was a historical nation-state that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 until th ...
. The Chinese Civil War that took place following Japanese defeat in 1945 had its first major battles (the Liaoshen Campaign) in and around Liaoning. At the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, Liaoning did not exist; instead there were two provinces, Liaodong and Liaoxi, as well as five municipality of China, municipalities, Shenyang, Lüda (present-day Dalian), Anshan, Fushun, and Benxi. These were all merged into "Liaoning" in 1954, and parts of former Rehe (province), Rehe province were merged into Liaoning in 1955. During the Cultural Revolution Liaoning also took in a part of
Inner Mongolia Inner Mongolia or Nei Mongol (; ''Öbür Monggol'', /ɵwɵr mɔŋɢɔɮ/, Mongolian Cyrillic: Өвөр Монгол), officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, is a landlocked and Mongolic autonomous region An autonomous adminis ...

Inner Mongolia
, though this was reversed later. Liaoning was one of the first provinces in China to industrialize, first under Japanese occupation, and then even more in the 1950s and 1960s. The city of Anshan, for example, is home to one of the largest iron and steel complexes in China. In recent years, this early focus on heavy industry has become a liability, as many of the large state-run enterprises have experienced economic difficulties. Recognizing the special difficulties faced by Liaoning and other provinces in Northeast China because of their heritage of heavy industry, the Chinese central government recently launched a "Revitalize the Northeast" Campaign.


Geography

image of western Liaoning It is possible to think of Liaoning as three approximate geographical regions: the highlands in the west, plains in the middle, and hills in the east. The highlands in the west are dominated by the Nulu'erhu Mountains, which roughly follow the border between Liaoning and
Inner Mongolia Inner Mongolia or Nei Mongol (; ''Öbür Monggol'', /ɵwɵr mɔŋɢɔɮ/, Mongolian Cyrillic: Өвөр Монгол), officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, is a landlocked and Mongolic autonomous region An autonomous adminis ...

Inner Mongolia
. The entire region is dominated by low hills. The central part of Liaoning consists of a basin drained by rivers such as the Liao River, Liao, Daliao River, Daliao, and their tributaries. This region is mostly flat and low-lying. The eastern part of Liaoning is dominated by the Changbai Mountains and Qianshan Mountains which extend into the sea to form the Liaodong Peninsula. The highest point in Liaoning, Mount Huabozi (1336 m), is found in this region. Liaoning has a continental climate, continental monsoon climate, and rainfall averages to about 440 to 1130 mm annually. Summer is rainy while the other seasons are dry. Major cities: * Shenyang * Dalian * Anshan * Liaoyang * Fushun * Dandong * Jinzhou * Yingkou


Paleontology

Liaoning contains some of the foremost paleontological sites in the world. Known collectively as the Jehol Group, they include the Yixian Formation, Jiufotang Formation and Tiaojishan Formation. The name ''Jehol Province, Jehol'' derives from a now defunct provincial division of that name, which covered an area that is now Western Liaoning, Eastern Hebei, and a small part of Inner Mongolia. Fossils were first found there during the 1920s. During the Japanese occupation of the area through the 1930s and early 1940s, more fossils were found, but records of them were lost after World War II ended. The area remained relatively unexplored until the 1990s. It was in 1996 that Liaoning made the headlines with the announcement of the discovery of ''Sinosauropteryx prima'', the first example of a filamented "feathered" dinosaur. ''Sinosauropteryx prima'' was a small feathered meat-eating dinosaur, from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation.Chen, P-J., Dong, Z-M., Zhen, S-N. 1998. An exceptionally well-preserved theropod dinosaur from the Yixian Formation of China. Nature. Vol. 391:14.–152. This discovery pushed the evolution of feathers back in time and showed that dinosaurs, not only birds, had feathers. It also showed a direct evolutionary link between theropod dinosaurs and modern birds. Since then, dozens of ground-breaking finds have been discovered throughout the Jehol group. These including the earliest flower, earliest eutherian mammal, known as ''Eomaia'', the earliest known metatherian, an intact embryo of a pterosaur, ''Repenomamus robustus''—a 15 kg heavy mammal that ate dinosaurs, ''Sinornithosaurus millenii'', as well as many birds and feathered dinosaurs. Discoveries such as ''Dilong paradoxus'', another feathered theropod, date to the early Cretaceous Period. This is some 60 million years before ''Tyrannosaurus'', and thus these discoveries push the evolution of feathers earlier than previously thought. The Liaoning fossils are noted for their high degree of preservation—often including soft body tissues, which is rare. Aside from the famous birds and feathered dinosaurs, the Liaoning fossils include insects, fish, aquatic arthropods, and plants. The Liaoning deposit is widely considered to be the one of the world's premier fossil sites. The high level of preservation is believed to be due to how the animals died. The area was volcanically active, and large plumes of volcanic dust repeatedly covered the area, instantly killing and burying any living thing in the area. The extremely fine grain of the sediment and the chemical composition of the ash prevented the usual bacterial decay. In some specimens, extremely fine details can be seen such as the proboscis of the bee ''Florinemestruis'' used to drink nectar from the earliest flowers. In other specimens, colours are still visible, including stripes on fish and spots on turtles.


Politics

The politics of Liaoning is structured in a single party-government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China. The Governor of Liaoning () is the highest-ranking official in the People's Government of Liaoning. However, in the province's single party-government governing system, the Governor has less power than the Communist Party of China Liaoning Provincial Committee Secretary ( for short), colloquially termed the "Liaoning Party Chief". Previous to 1949 and the takeover of the Communist forces, Liaoning was governed by the Fengtian clique of warlords and interchangeably officials of the Chiang Kai-shek bureaucracy. During the Qing Dynasty Liaoning was known as the province of Fengtian (), and was governed by a zǒngdū or Viceroy (The Viceroy of the Three Eastern Provinces, ), along with the provinces of Jilin and Heilongjiang. The province itself also had a governor ().


Administrative divisions

Liaoning is divided into fourteen Administrative divisions of China#Prefectural level, prefecture-level divisions, all Prefecture-level city, prefecture-level cities (including two Sub-provincial divisions in the People's Republic of China, sub-provincial cities): These prefecture-level cities are in turn divided into 100 Administrative divisions of the People's Republic of China#County level, county-level divisions (56 district of China, districts, 17 county-level cities, 19 County (People's Republic of China), counties, and 8 autonomous counties), which are then further subdivided into 1511 Administrative divisions of the People's Republic of China#Township level, township-level divisions (613 town of China, towns, 301 Townships of the People's Republic of China, townships, 77 ethnic townships, and 520 Subdistricts of China, subdistricts). At the end of the year 2017, the total population is 43.69 millio


Urban areas


Economy

Liaoning has the largest and wealthiest provincial economy of Northeast China. Its nominal GDP for 2017 was 2.39 trillion yuan (ca. US$354 billion), making it the 14th largest in China (out of 31 provinces). Its per capita GDP was 54,745 yuan (US$8,108). Among the three provinces of , Liaoning is the largest in terms of GDP and GDP per capita. In 2008, Liaoning was the region with the highest GDP growth among globa
G8x8
the eight provinces or states below national level with the highest GDP of the top eight GDP nations. According to preliminary statistics, Liaoning maintained its GDP growth rate of 13.1 percent in 2009 and held its position as the province with the highest economic growth. Economic growth has since slowed down, with the economy expanding 3% in 2015 and contracting 1.3% in the first quarter of 2016. Leading industries include petrochemicals, metallurgy, electronics telecommunications, and machinery. On a national level, Liaoning is a major producer of pig iron, steel and metal-cutting machine tools, all of whose production rank among the top three in the nation. Liaoning is one of the most important raw materials production bases in China. Industries such as mining, quarrying, smelting and pressing of ferrous metals, petroleum and natural gas extraction, are all of great significance. Meanwhile, Liaoning is an important production base of equipment and machinery manufacturing, with Shenyang and Dalian being the industrial centers. Enterprises such as Shenyang Jinbei Co. Ltd., Daxian Group Co. Ltd., and Shenyang Machine Tool Co. Ltd., are leaders in their sectors. The province's light industry mainly focuses on textiles and clothing industries which include cotton and wool spinning, chemical fiber production, knitting, silk production, and the manufacturing of both garments and textile machinery. In 2008, its tertiary industry accounted for 34.5 percent of total GDP. In the future, Liaoning will continue its efforts to restructure large and medium-sized state enterprises. Meanwhile, the province will concentrate in developing its four pillar industries – petrochemicals, metallurgy, machinery and electronics.


Agriculture

Main agriculture, agricultural products of Liaoning include maize, sorghum, and soybeans. The region around Dalian produces three-quarters of China's exported apples and peaches. Cotton is also produced. Liaoning's fruits include apples from Dalian and Yingkou, golden peaches from Dalian, pears from Beizhen of Jinzhou, white pears from Huludao and Suizhong, and apricots and plums from Gushan of Dandong.


Mining

Liaoning has the most iron, magnesite, diamond, and boron deposits among all province-level subdivisions of China. Liaoning is also an important source of petroleum and natural gas. Salt is produced along the coast.


Oil

Along with Liaoning's rich mineral reserves, the province also has abundant deposits of crude oil, especially in the Liaohe oil field, Liaohe Oilfield.


Industry

Liaoning is one of China's most important industrial bases, covering a wide range of industries, such as machinery, electronics, metal refining, petroleum, chemical industries, construction materials, coal, and so on. The sea off Dalian abounds with quality seafood, such as abalones, sea cucumber (food), sea cucumbers, scallops, prawns, crabs, and sea urchins. The big fish of Dandong, the jellyfish of Yingkou, and the clams of Panjin are known worldwide for their good tastes right from the sea and in products made in Liaoning for export domestically and internationally.


Trade

The cities of Dalian, Dandong and Yingkou have been developed as major ports and economic gateways to all of northeast China.


Economic and technological development zones

Of the development zones formally recognized by the PRC State Council, 56 are located in Liaoning, including 14 on the national level and 42 on the provincial level. These zones are further grouped int
Economic Development ZonesHigh-Tech ZonesFree Trade and Export Processing Zones
an
Special Development Zones
*Shenyang Cross-Strait Science Industrial Zone In October 1995, the Shenyang Cross-Strait Science Industrial Zone was approved to be established by State Council. The Shenyang Cross-Strait Science Industrial Zone is the only zone established as part of the Shenyang Hunnan Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone. It has a total area of . It welcomes international investment. It focuses on the development of instruments manufacturing, telecommunication, bio-pharmaceuticals, electronics, and new materials. * Liaoning Shenyang Export Processing Zone The Liaoning Shenyang Zhangshi Export Processing Zone was approved to be established by the state government in June 2005. It is located in the national-level Shenyang Economic & Technological Development Zone, with a planned area of and current area of . It encourages and focuses on the development of auto and auto parts, electronics, precision machinery, new energy, new materials, and the fine chemical industry. * Shenyang Economic and Technological Development Zone * Shenyang Hunnan Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone The Shenyang Hunnan Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone used to be called the Shenyang Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone. Established in 1988, it is a national high-tech development zone approved by the State Council. The zone is located in western Shenyang City with an area of . Its encouraged industries include electronic information, new materials, biological engineering, energy saving, and environmental protection. * Anshan Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone * Dalian Development Area, Dalian Economic & Technological Development Zone The Dalian Economic & Technological Development Zone (now known as the "Dalian Development Area") was established in September 1984, as one of the first of the China National Economic and Technological Development Zones. The zone had a GDP of 70.31 billion yuan in 2007 and the total volume of its import and export trade was 14.92 billion dollars, which accounts for a quarter of such trade for all of Liaoning Province. Most of the enterprises in Dalian ETDZ are factories owned by foreign enterprises, especially from Japan, South Korea and the United States, such as Canon, Pfizer, Toshiba, and Intel. * Dalian Export Processing Zone The Dalian Export Processing Zone was approved to be set up by the State Council in April 2000, with a planned area of . It is divided into two parts, A Zone and B Zone. A Zone has a construction area of , and started operation in May 2001. All the basic infrastructure is available, which includes road, water, gas, and power supply, telecommunication, and so on. A Zone promotes industries such as home appliances, lighting, machinery, construction materials, and medical instruments. * Dalian Free Trade Zone The Dalian Free Trade Zone was approved to be set up by the government in May, 1992. Policies include duty-free trade. It has attracted some leading industries, such as electronics, machinery, and plastics. * Dalian Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone The Dalian Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone was approved to be a national-level development zone in 1991. It has a total area of . It focuses on and encourages the following industries: electronic information, bio-pharmaceuticals, and new materials. * Dandong Border Economic Corporation Zone The Dandong Border Economic Corporation Zone was approved to be a national-level development zone in 1992. It is located in the bank of Yalu River, and opposite Sinuiju, a North Korean city. It promotes industries such as electronic information, machinery manufacturing, and bio-pharmaceuticals. * Yingkou Economic & Technical Development Zone


Regional development strategies


Central Liaoning City Cluster (Shenyang Metro Area)

The Central Liaoning city cluster is a Megalopolis (city type), megalopolis centered on Shenyang (urban population 4 million). Within its radius, it includes Anshan (urban population 1.3 million), Fushun (1.3 million), Yingkou (1.1 million), Benxi (0.95 million), Liaoyang (0.7 million), and Tieling (0.4 million). In April 2010, the State Council of the People's Republic of China approved a national development strategy for the Shenyang Metro Area. The core of this strategy is innovation in industrial development, integration of the eight cities, integration of urban and rural areas as well as the promotion of more market-oriented development.


Liaoning Coastal Economic Belt

The Party Secretary of the Liaoning Provincial Committee of the Communist Party of China, Li Keqiang, initiated the development of a strategy entitled "5 Points and One Line", which he first proposed on a visit to Yingkou in late 2005. Liaoning Province formally launched the development strategy for the entire Liaoning coastline in early 2006, so as to re-invigorate the provincial economy from its traditional status as a "rustbelt" of Chinese state-owned enterprises. The "Five Points" indicate five key development areas in the province and cover seven zones: the Changxing Island Harbor Industrial Zone in Dalian; Yingkou Coastal Industrial Base; Liaoxi Jinzhou Bay Coastal Economic Zone; Dandong, and the Zhuanghe Huayuankou Industrial Zone. The five zones together cover a planned area of nearly . The "One Line" mentioned in the strategy represents a new series of motorways along the coast. The coastline of 1,433 kilometers will become the connection between the five above zones, through which 6 provincial cities, 21 counties and 113 towns will be interlinked. Coastal motorways directly connect the entire string of five zones along the Bohai sea.


Demography

The population of Liaoning is mostly Han Chinese with List of Chinese nationalities, minorities of Manchu people, Manchus, Mongols in China, Mongols, Hui people, Hui, Koreans in China, Koreans and Sibe people, Xibe. Excludes members of the People's Liberation Army in active service.
Source:, 2 volumes


Religion

According to a 2012 survey only around 10% of the population of Liaoning belongs to organised religions, the largest groups being Buddhism in China, Buddhists with 5.5%, followed by Protestantism in China, Protestants with 2.2%, Islam in China, Muslims with 0.6% and Catholicism in China, Catholics with 0.2%. The reports didn't give figures for other types of religion; around 90% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in Chinese folk religions (cults of nature deities and ancestors), Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Chinese salvationist religions, folk religious sects. The significant Manchu people, Manchu population, although strongly assimilated to the Han Chinese and practicing Chinese religions, also retains its own pure Manchu shamanism. At the same time, the Dongbei folk religion, local religion of the Han people throughout Manchuria has developed patterns of deities, ideas, and practices inherited from Manchu and Tungusic peoples, Tungus shamanism, making it quite different from central and southern Chinese folk religion. The Mongols in China, Mongol ethnic minority either follows the Mongolian folk religion and shamanism, or Tibetan Buddhism.


Tourism

Image:Mukden palace Chongzheng Hall 04.jpg, Chongzheng Hall in the Mukden Palace The Mukden Palace was the palace of the Qing Dynasty emperors before they conquered the rest of China and moved their capital to Beijing. Though not as large nor as well known as its counterpart (the Forbidden City) in Beijing, the Mukden palace is significant for its representation of palace architecture at the time, and has recently been included on the UNESCO World Heritage Site as an extension of the Imperial Palace site in Beijing. In addition, three imperial tombs dating from the Qing Dynasty are located in Liaoning. These tomb sites have been grouped with other Ming Dynasty, Ming and Qing Dynasties tombs (such as the Ming Dynasty Tombs in Beijing, and the Ming Xiaoling, Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum in Nanjing) as a combined UNESCO World Heritage Site. Wunu Mountain City, a Goguryeo site found in Huanren Manchu autonomous county, Huanren Manchu Autonomous County, is part of a combined UNESCO World Heritage Site that also includes sites in Ji'an, Jilin, Ji'an, Jilin. Benxi offers a boat ride through a large stalactite filled cave and underground river. Anshan hosts the Jade Buddha Palace, the largest Gautama Buddha, Buddha statue made of jade in the world. Liaoyang, one of the oldest continuously-inhabited cities in northeast China, has a number of historical sites, including the White Pagoda (Baita), that dates to the Yuan Dynasty. The port city of Dalian, located on the tip of the Liaodong Peninsula, is a tourist destination in its own right, with beaches, resorts, zoos, seafood, shopping, Russian- and Japanese-era heritage architecture, and streetcars, a rare sight in China. Dandong, on the border with
North Korea North Korea (Korean language, Korean: /, McCune–Reischauer, MR: ''Chosŏn''; literally /, McCune–Reischauer, MR: ''Pukchosŏn'', or /, Revised Romanization of Korean, RR: ''Bukhan'' in South Korean usage), officially the Democrati ...
, is a medium-sized city that offers a cross-river view of the North Korean city of Sinuiju, Sinŭiju. Bijia Mountain is a curious island which joins to the mainland at low tide by a land bridge.


Education


Colleges and universities

Under the national Ministry of Education: * Northeastern University (Liaoning), Northeastern University * Dalian University of Technology Under various other national agencies: * National Police University of China * Dalian Maritime University * Dalian Nationalities University Under the provincial government: * China Medical University (PRC), China Medical University * Shenyang Normal University * Shenyang Medical College * Liaoning Medical University * Liaoning Normal University * Liaoning Technical University * Liaoning University * Liaoning University of Petroleum and Chemical Technology * Shenyang Agricultural University * Shenyang Institute of Aeronautical Engineering * Shenyang Institute of Chemical Technology * Shenyang Jianzhu University * Shenyang Ligong University * Shenyang Pharmaceutical University * Shenyang University * Shenyang University of Technology * Anshan Normal University * Bohai University * Dalian Jiaotong University * Dalian Medical University * Dalian University * Dalian University of Foreign Languages * Dongbei University of Finance and Economics * Liaoning Institute of Technology * Liaoning Radio and TV University () * Shenyang Polytechnic College ()


Sports

Professional sports teams based in Liaoning include: * Chinese Basketball Association ** Liaoning Flying Leopards ** Liaoning Hengye * Chinese Football Association Super League (Chinese Super League) ** Dalian Professional F.C. * Chinese Football Association Jia League (China League One) ** Liaoning FC


See also

* Major national historical and cultural sites (Liaoning) * Shenyang Mandarin * 2013 National Games of China * Chinese aircraft carrier Liaoning, Chinese aircraft carrier ''Liaoning'' * Gojoseon–Yan War


References


External links

*
Official website of the Liaoning Provincial Government

Liaoning Information Guide
*
Complete Map of the Seven Coastal Provinces
from 1821 to 1850

at Hong Kong Trade Development Council, HKTDC {{Authority control Liaoning, Provinces of the People's Republic of China Manchuria States and territories established in 1907 1907 establishments in China