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Liaoning
Liaoning
(Chinese: 辽宁; pinyin:  Liáoníng ) is a province of China, located in the northeast of the country. The modern province was established in 1907 as Fengtian or Fengtien province and the name was changed to Liaoning
Liaoning
in 1929. It was also known as Mukden province at the time, for the Manchu
Manchu
pronunciation of Shengjing, the former name of the provincial capital Shenyang. Under the Japanese-puppet Manchukuo
Manchukuo
regime, the province reverted to its 1907 name but the name Liaoning
Liaoning
was restored in 1945 and again in 1954. Liaoning
Liaoning
is the southernmost part of Manchuria, the Chinese Northeast. It is also known in Chinese as "the Golden Triangle"[4] from its shape and strategic location, with the Yellow Sea
Yellow Sea
( Korea Bay
Korea Bay
and Bohai Sea) in the south, North Korea's North Pyongan
North Pyongan
and Chagang
Chagang
provinces in the southeast, Jilin
Jilin
to the northeast, Hebei
Hebei
to the southwest, and Inner Mongolia to the northwest. The Yalu River
Yalu River
marks its border with North Korea, emptying into the Korea Bay
Korea Bay
between Dandong
Dandong
in Liaoning
Liaoning
and Sinuiju
Sinuiju
in North Korea.

Contents

1 History 2 Geography 3 Paleontology 4 Politics 5 Administrative divisions 6 Economy

6.1 Agriculture 6.2 Mining 6.3 Oil 6.4 Industry 6.5 Trade 6.6 Economic and technological development zones 6.7 Regional development strategies

6.7.1 Central Liaoning
Liaoning
City Cluster ( Shenyang
Shenyang
Metro Area) 6.7.2 Liaoning
Liaoning
Coastal Economic Belt

7 Demography 8 Religion 9 Tourism 10 Education

10.1 Colleges and universities

11 Sports 12 See also 13 Notes 14 References 15 External links

History[edit]

Shenyang, the capital of Liaoning
Liaoning
Province

In the past Liaoning
Liaoning
formed part of Korean kingdoms as Gojoseon
Gojoseon
and Goguryeo, as well as Chinese polities such as the Yan State (of the Zhou Dynasty) and the Han Dynasty. It was also inhabited by non-Han peoples such as Xiongnu, Donghu, Xianbei. In addition, the Balhae, Khitan, Jurchen, Mongol
Mongol
Empire and Northern Yuan
Northern Yuan
ruled Liaoning.[5][6]

The Ming Liaodong
Liaodong
Wall (in purple)

The Ming Empire took control of Liaoning
Liaoning
in 1371,[7] just three years after the expulsion of the Mongols from Beijing. Around 1442, a defense wall was constructed to defend the agricultural heartland of the province from a potential threat from the Jurchen-Mongol Oriyanghan (who were Ming's tributaries) from the northwest. Between 1467 and 1468, the wall was expanded to protect the region from the northeast as well, against attacks from Jianzhou Jurchens (who were later to become known as the Manchu
Manchu
people). Although similar in purpose to the Great Wall
Great Wall
of China, this " Liaodong
Liaodong
Wall" was of a lower-cost design. While stones and tiles were used in some parts, most of the wall was in fact simply an earth dike with moats on both sides.[8]

The late-Ming Liaodong
Liaodong
(eastern Liaoning) separated by the wall from the "Kingdom of the Jurchen" (Regno di Niuche). The map was created during the early Qing, and mentions that "presently" the Jurchen (Tartari del Kin) have already conquered the rest of China

Despite the Liaodong
Liaodong
Wall, the Manchus conquered Liaodong, or eastern Liaoning, in the early 17th century, decades before the rest of China fell to them. The Manchu
Manchu
dynasty, styled "Later Jin", established its capital in 1616–1621 in Xingjing (兴京), which was located outside of the Liaodong
Liaodong
Wall in the eastern part of the modern Liaoning Province (today's ruins of Hetu Ala at Xilaocheng Village in Xinbin Manchu
Manchu
Autonomous County (新宾满族自治县), part of Fushun City).[9] It was moved to Dongjing (east of today's Liaoyang, Liaoning),[10][11] and finally in 1625 to Shengjing
Shengjing
(now, Shenyang, Liaoning). Although the main Qing capital was moved from Shengjing
Shengjing
to Beijing
Beijing
after it fell to the Qing in 1644, Shengjing
Shengjing
retained its importance as a regional capital throughout most of the Qing era. The Qing conquest of Liaoning
Liaoning
resulted in a significant population loss in the area, as many local Chinese residents were either killed during fighting, or fled south of the Great Wall, many cities being destroyed by the retreating Ming forces themselves. As late as 1661, the Civil Governor (Fuyin) of Fengtian Province, Zhang Shangxian reported that, outside of Fengtian City (Shenyang), Liaoyang, and Haicheng, all other cities east of the Liaohe
Liaohe
were either abandoned, or hardly had a few hundred residents left. In the Governor's words, " Tieling
Tieling
and Fushun
Fushun
only have a few vagrants". West of the Liaohe, only Ningyuan, Jinzhou, and Guangning had any significant populations remaining.[12]

Liaodong
Liaodong
(Leao-Tong) in the early Qing, surrounded by the Willow Palisade. This map, published in 1734, was based on data collected by Jesuits in the early 18th century. The capital is in Shenyang (Chinyang); most other cities mentioned in Governor Zhang's report are shown as well

In the latter half of the seventeenth century (starting with laws issued in 1651 and 1653), the imperial Qing government recruited migrants from south of the Great Wall
Great Wall
(notably, from Shandong) to settle the relatively sparsely populated area of Fengtian Province (roughly corresponding to today's Liaoning).[13] Many of the current residents of Liaoning
Liaoning
trace their ancestry to these seventeenth century settlers. The rest of China's Northeast, however, remained officially off-limits to Han Chinese
Han Chinese
for most of the Manchu
Manchu
era. To prevent the migration of Chinese to those regions (today's Jilin
Jilin
and Heilongjiang, as well as the adjacent parts of Inner Mongolia), the so-called Willow Palisade
Willow Palisade
was constructed (ca. 1638 – ca. 1672). The Palisade encircled the agricultural heartlands of Fengtian, running in most areas either somewhat outside the old Ming Liaodong
Liaodong
Wall, or reusing it, and separating it from the Manchu
Manchu
forests to the northeast and the Mongol
Mongol
grazing lands to the northwest.[14] Later on, the Qing government tried to stop the migrants flow to Fengtian or even to make some settlers return to their original places of residence – or, failing that, to legalize them. For example, an edict issued in 1704 commented on the recent Han Chinese
Han Chinese
settlers in Fengtian having failed to comply with earlier orders requiring them to leave, and asked them either to properly register and join a local defense group (保; bao), or to leave the province for their original places within the next ten years. Ten years later, naturally, another edict appeared, reminding of the necessity to do something with illegal migrants...[15] In any event, the restrictive policy was not as effective as desired by the officials in Beijing, and Fengtian's population doubled between 1683 and 1734.[15] During the Qing Dynasty, Manchuria
Manchuria
was ruled by three generals, one of whom, the General of Shengjing
Shengjing
(Mukden i Jiyanggiyūn) ruled much of modern Liaoning. In 1860, the Manchu
Manchu
government began to reopen the region to migration, which quickly resulted in Han Chinese
Han Chinese
becoming the dominant ethnic group in the region. In the 20th century, the province of Fengtian was set up in what is Liaoning
Liaoning
today. When Japan
Japan
and Russia
Russia
fought the Russo-Japanese War in 1904–1905, many key battles took place in Liaoning, including the Battle of Port Arthur
Battle of Port Arthur
and the Battle of Mukden, which was, to that point, the largest land battle ever fought. During the Warlord Era
Warlord Era
in the early twentieth century, Liaoning
Liaoning
was under the Fengtian Clique, including Zhang Zuolin
Zhang Zuolin
and his son Zhang Xueliang. The province first received its present name on January 29, 1929; the Zhongdong Railway Incident took place later that year.RE In 1931, Japan
Japan
invaded and the area came under the rule of the Japanese-controlled puppet state of Manchukuo. The Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
that took place following Japanese defeat in 1945 had its first major battles (the Liaoshen Campaign) in and around Liaoning.

Dalian, second largest city in Liaoning
Liaoning
Province

At the founding of the People's Republic of China
China
in 1949, Liaoning did not exist; instead there were two provinces, Liaodong
Liaodong
and Liaoxi, as well as five municipalities, Shenyang, Lüda (present-day Dalian), Anshan, Fushun, and Benxi. These were all merged into "Liaoning" in 1954, and parts of former Rehe province were merged into Liaoning
Liaoning
in 1955. During the Cultural Revolution
Cultural Revolution
Liaoning
Liaoning
also took in a part of Inner Mongolia, though this was reversed later. Liaoning
Liaoning
was one of the first provinces in China
China
to industrialize, first under Japanese occupation, and then even more in the 1950s and 1960s. The city of Anshan, for example, is home to one of the largest iron and steel complexes in China. In recent years, this early focus on heavy industry has become a liability, as many of the large state-run enterprises have experienced economic difficulties. Recognizing the special difficulties faced by Liaoning
Liaoning
and other provinces in Northeast China
China
because of their heritage of heavy industry, the Chinese central government recently launched a "Revitalize the Northeast" Campaign. Geography[edit]

Landsat 7
Landsat 7
image of western Liaoning

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It is possible to think of Liaoning
Liaoning
as three approximate geographical regions: the highlands in the west, plains in the middle, and hills in the east. The highlands in the west are dominated by the Nulu'erhu Mountains, which roughly follow the border between Liaoning
Liaoning
and Inner Mongolia. The entire region is dominated by low hills. The central part of Liaoning
Liaoning
consists of a basin drained by rivers such as the Liao, Daliao, and their tributaries. This region is mostly flat and low-lying. The eastern part of Liaoning
Liaoning
is dominated by the Changbai Shan and Qianshan ranges, which extend into the sea to form the Liaodong Peninsula. The highest point in Liaoning, Mount Huabozi (1336 m), is found in this region. Liaoning
Liaoning
has a continental monsoon climate, and rainfall averages to about 440 to 1130 mm annually. Summer is rainy while the other seasons are dry. Major cities:

Shenyang Dalian Anshan Liaoyang Fushun Dandong Jinzhou Yingkou

Paleontology[edit] Main article: Jehol Biota Liaoning
Liaoning
contains some of the foremost paleontological sites in the world. Known collectively as the Jehol Group, they include the Yixian Formation, Jiufotang Formation
Jiufotang Formation
and Tiaojishan Formation. The name Jehol derives from a now defunct provincial division of that name, which covered an area that is now Western Liaoning, Eastern Hebei, and a small part of Inner Mongolia. Fossils were first found there during the 1920s. During the Japanese occupation of the area through the 1930s and early 1940s, more fossils were found, but records of them were lost after World War II ended. The area remained relatively unexplored until the 1990s. It was in 1996 that Liaoning
Liaoning
made the headlines with the announcement of the discovery of Sinosauropteryx prima, the first example of a filamented "feathered" dinosaur. Sinosauropteryx prima
Sinosauropteryx prima
was a small feathered meat-eating dinosaur, from the Lower Cretaceous
Lower Cretaceous
Yixian Formation.[16] This discovery pushed the evolution of feathers back in time and showed that dinosaurs, not only birds, had feathers. It also showed a direct evolutionary link between theropod dinosaurs and modern birds. Since then, dozens of ground-breaking finds have been discovered throughout the Jehol group. These including the earliest flower, earliest eutherian mammal, known as Eomaia,[17] the earliest known metatherian, an intact embryo of a pterosaur,[18] Repenomamus robustus—a 15 kg heavy mammal that ate dinosaurs, Sinornithosaurus millenii, as well as many birds and feathered dinosaurs.[19] Discoveries such as Dilong paradoxus, another feathered theropod, date to the early Cretaceous Period. This is some 60 million years before Tyrannosaurus, and thus these discoveries push the evolution of feathers earlier than previously thought.[18] The Liaoning
Liaoning
fossils are noted for their high degree of preservation—often including soft body tissues, which is rare.[20] Aside from the famous birds and feathered dinosaurs, the Liaoning fossils include insects, fish, aquatic arthropods, and plants.[21] The Liaoning
Liaoning
deposit is widely considered to be the one of the world's premier fossil sites.[20] The high level of preservation is believed to be due to how the animals died. The area was volcanically active, and large plumes of volcanic dust repeatedly covered the area, instantly killing and burying any living thing in the area. The extremely fine grain of the sediment and the chemical composition of the ash prevented the usual bacterial decay.[21] In some specimens, extremely fine details can be seen such as the proboscis of the bee Florinemestruis used to drink nectar from the earliest flowers.[18] In other specimens, colours are still visible, including stripes on fish and spots on turtles.[21] Politics[edit] Main articles: Politics of Liaoning and List of provincial leaders of the People's Republic of China The politics of Liaoning
Liaoning
is structured in a single party-government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China. The Governor of Liaoning
Liaoning
(辽宁省省长) is the highest-ranking official in the People's Government of Liaoning. However, in the province's single party-government governing system, the Governor has less power than the Communist Party of China
China
Liaoning
Liaoning
Provincial Committee Secretary (辽宁省委书记 for short), colloquially termed the " Liaoning
Liaoning
Party Chief". Previous to 1949 and the takeover of the Communist forces, Liaoning was governed by the Fengtian clique
Fengtian clique
of warlords and interchangeably officials of the Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
bureaucracy. During the Qing Dynasty Liaoning
Liaoning
was known as the province of Fengtian (奉天), and was governed by a zǒngdū or Viceroy (The Viceroy of the Three Eastern Provinces, Chinese: 东三省总督), along with the provinces of Jilin
Jilin
and Heilongjiang. The province itself also had a governor (巡抚; xúnfǔ). Administrative divisions[edit] Main articles: List of administrative divisions of Liaoning and List of township-level divisions of Liaoning Liaoning
Liaoning
is divided into fourteen prefecture-level divisions, all prefecture-level cities (including two sub-provincial cities):

Administrative divisions of Liaoning

№ Division code[22] English name Chinese Pinyin Area in km2[23] Population 2010[24] Seat Divisions[25]

Districts Counties Aut. counties CL cities

  210000 Liaoning 辽宁省 Liáoníng Shěng 145900.00 43,746,323 Shenyang 59 17 8 16

1 210100 Shenyang 沈阳市 Shěnyáng Shì 12860.00 8,106,171 Hunnan District 10 2

1

2 210200 Dalian 大连市 Dàlián Shì 12573.85 6,690,432 Xigang District 7 1

2

3 210300 Anshan 鞍山市 Ānshān Shì 9252.00 3,645,884 Tiedong District 4 1 1 1

7 210400 Fushun 抚顺市 Fǔshùn Shì 11272.00 2,138,090 Shuncheng District 4 1 2

4 210500 Benxi 本溪市 Běnxī Shì 8420.00 1,709,538 Pingshan District 4

2

6 210600 Dandong 丹东市 Dāndōng Shì 15289.61 2,444,697 Zhenxing District 3

1 2

10 210700 Jinzhou 锦州市 Jǐnzhōu Shì 9890.62 3,126,463 Taihe District 3 2

2

14 210800 Yingkou 营口市 Yíngkǒu Shì 5365.46 2,428,534 Zhanqian District 4

2

8 210900 Fuxin 阜新市 Fùxīn Shì 10354.99 1,819,339 Xihe District 5 1 1

11 211000 Liaoyang 辽阳市 Liáoyáng Shì 4743.24 1,858,768 Baita District 5 1

1

12 211100 Panjin 盘锦市 Pánjǐn Shì 4071.10 1,392,493 Xinglongtai District 3 1

13 211200 Tieling 铁岭市 Tiělǐng Shì 12979.69 2,717,732 Yinzhou District 2 3

2

5 211300 Chaoyang 朝阳市 Cháoyáng Shì 19698.00 3,044,641 Shuangta District 2 2 1 2

9 211400 Huludao 葫芦岛市 Húludǎo Shì 10414.94 2,623,541 Longgang District 3 2

1

  Sub-provincial cities

These prefecture-level cities are in turn divided into 100 county-level divisions (56 districts, 17 county-level cities, 19 counties, and 8 autonomous counties), which are then further subdivided into 1511 township-level divisions (613 towns, 301 townships, 77 ethnic townships, and 520 subdistricts). Economy[edit] Liaoning
Liaoning
has the largest provincial economy of Northeast China. Its nominal GDP for 2011 was 2.20 trillion yuan (ca. US$348 billion), making it the 7th largest in China
China
(out of 31 provinces). Its per capita GDP was 41,782 yuan (US$6,172). Among the three provinces of Northeast China, Liaoning
Liaoning
is the largest in terms of GDP. In 2008, Liaoning
Liaoning
was the region with the highest GDP growth among global G8x8, the eight provinces or states below national level with the highest GDP of the top eight GDP nations. According to preliminary statistics, Liaoning
Liaoning
maintained its GDP growth rate of 13.1 percent in 2009 and held its position as the province with the highest economic growth. Economic growth has since slowed down, with the economy expanding 3% in 2015 and contracting 1.3% in the first quarter of 2016.[26] Leading industries include petrochemicals, metallurgy, electronics telecommunications, and machinery.[27] On a national level, Liaoning is a major producer of pig iron, steel and metal-cutting machine tools, all of whose production rank among the top three in the nation. Liaoning
Liaoning
is one of the most important raw materials production bases in China. Industries such as mining, quarrying, smelting and pressing of ferrous metals, petroleum and natural gas extraction, are all of great significance. Meanwhile, Liaoning
Liaoning
is an important production base of equipment and machinery manufacturing, with Shenyang
Shenyang
and Dalian
Dalian
being the industrial centers. Enterprises such as Shenyang
Shenyang
Jinbei Co. Ltd., Daxian Group Co. Ltd., and Shenyang
Shenyang
Machine Tool Co. Ltd., are leaders in their sectors. The province’s light industry mainly focuses on textiles and clothing industries which include cotton and wool spinning, chemical fiber production, knitting, silk production, and the manufacturing of both garments and textile machinery. In 2008, its tertiary industry accounted for 34.5 percent of total GDP. In the future, Liaoning
Liaoning
will continue its efforts to restructure large and medium-sized state enterprises. Meanwhile, the province will concentrate in developing its four pillar industries – petrochemicals, metallurgy, machinery and electronics. Agriculture[edit] Main agricultural products of Liaoning
Liaoning
include maize, sorghum, and soybeans. The region around Dalian
Dalian
produces three-quarters of China's exported apples and peaches. Cotton
Cotton
is also produced. Liaoning's fruits include apples from Dalian
Dalian
and Yingkou, golden peaches from Dalian, pears from Beizhen
Beizhen
of Jinzhou, white pears from Huludao
Huludao
and Suizhong, and apricots and plums from Gushan of Dandong. Mining[edit] Liaoning
Liaoning
has the most iron, magnesite, diamond, and boron deposits among all province-level subdivisions of China. Liaoning
Liaoning
is also an important source of petroleum and natural gas. Salt
Salt
is produced along the coast. Oil[edit] Along with Liaoning's rich mineral reserves, the province also has abundant deposits of crude oil, especially in the Liaohe
Liaohe
Oilfield.[27] Industry[edit] Liaoning
Liaoning
is one of China's most important industrial bases, covering a wide range of industries, such as machinery, electronics, metal refining, petroleum, chemical industries, construction materials, coal, and so on. The sea off Dalian
Dalian
abounds with quality seafood, such as abalones, sea cucumbers, scallops, prawns, crabs, and sea urchins. The big fish of Dandong, the jellyfish of Yingkou, and the clams of Panjin
Panjin
are known worldwide for their good tastes right from the sea and in products made in Liaoning
Liaoning
for export domestically and internationally. Trade[edit] The cities of Dalian, Dandong
Dandong
and Yingkou
Yingkou
have been developed as major ports and economic gateways to all of northeast China. Economic and technological development zones[edit] Of the development zones formally recognized by the PRC State Council, 56 are located in Liaoning, including 14 on the national level and 42 on the provincial level. These zones are further grouped into Economic Development Zones, High-Tech Zones, Free Trade and Export Processing Zones, and Special
Special
Development Zones.[28]

Shenyang
Shenyang
Cross-Strait Science Industrial Zone

In October 1995, the Shenyang
Shenyang
Cross-Strait Science Industrial Zone was approved to be established by State Council. The Shenyang
Shenyang
Cross-Strait Science Industrial Zone is the only zone established as part of the Shenyang
Shenyang
Hunnan Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone. It has a total area of 5 km2 (1.9 sq mi). It welcomes international investment. It focuses on the development of instruments manufacturing, telecommunication, bio-pharmaceuticals, electronics, and new materials.[29]

Liaoning
Liaoning
Shenyang
Shenyang
Export Processing Zone

The Liaoning
Liaoning
Shenyang
Shenyang
Zhangshi Export Processing Zone was approved to be established by the state government in June 2005. It is located in the national-level Shenyang
Shenyang
Economic & Technological Development Zone, with a planned area of 62 km2 (24 sq mi) and current area of 14.1 km2 (5.4 sq mi). It encourages and focuses on the development of auto and auto parts, electronics, precision machinery, new energy, new materials, and the fine chemical industry.[30]

Shenyang
Shenyang
Economic and Technological Development Zone Shenyang
Shenyang
Hunnan Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone

The Shenyang
Shenyang
Hunnan Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone used to be called the Shenyang
Shenyang
Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone. Established in 1988, it is a national high-tech development zone approved by the State Council. The zone is located in western Shenyang
Shenyang
City with an area of 32 square kilometres (12 sq mi). Its encouraged industries include electronic information, new materials, biological engineering, energy saving, and environmental protection.[31]

Anshan
Anshan
Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone Dalian
Dalian
Economic & Technological Development Zone

The Dalian
Dalian
Economic & Technological Development Zone (now known as the " Dalian
Dalian
Development Area") was established in September 1984, as one of the first of the China
China
National Economic and Technological Development Zones. The zone had a GDP of 70.31 billion yuan in 2007 and the total volume of its import and export trade was 14.92 billion dollars, which accounts for a quarter of such trade for all of Liaoning
Liaoning
Province. Most of the enterprises in Dalian
Dalian
ETDZ are factories owned by foreign enterprises, especially from Japan, South Korea and the United States, such as Canon, Pfizer, Toshiba, and Intel.[32]

Dalian
Dalian
Export Processing Zone

The Dalian
Dalian
Export Processing Zone was approved to be set up by the State Council in April 2000, with a planned area of 2.95 km2 (1.14 sq mi). It is divided into two parts, A Zone and B Zone. A Zone has a construction area of 1.5 km2 (0.58 sq mi), and started operation in May 2001. All the basic infrastructure is available, which includes road, water, gas, and power supply, telecommunication, and so on. A Zone promotes industries such as home appliances, lighting, machinery, construction materials, and medical instruments.[33]

Dalian
Dalian
Free Trade Zone

The Dalian
Dalian
Free Trade Zone was approved to be set up by the government in May, 1992. Policies include duty-free trade. It has attracted some leading industries, such as electronics, machinery, and plastics.[34]

Dalian
Dalian
Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone

The Dalian
Dalian
Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone was approved to be a national-level development zone in 1991. It has a total area of 35.6 square kilometres (13.7 sq mi). It focuses on and encourages the following industries: electronic information, bio-pharmaceuticals, and new materials.[35]

Dandong
Dandong
Border Economic Corporation Zone

The Dandong
Dandong
Border Economic Corporation Zone was approved to be a national-level development zone in 1992. It is located in the bank of Yalu River, and opposite Sinuiju, a North Korean city. It promotes industries such as electronic information, machinery manufacturing, and bio-pharmaceuticals.[36]

Yingkou
Yingkou
Economic & Technical Development Zone

Regional development strategies[edit] Central Liaoning
Liaoning
City Cluster ( Shenyang
Shenyang
Metro Area)[edit] The Central Liaoning
Liaoning
city cluster is a megalopolis centered on Shenyang
Shenyang
(urban population 4 million). Within its 150 km (93 mi) radius, it includes Anshan
Anshan
(urban population 1.3 million), Fushun
Fushun
(1.3 million), Yingkou
Yingkou
(1.1 million), Benxi
Benxi
(0.95 million), Liaoyang
Liaoyang
(0.7 million), and Tieling
Tieling
(0.4 million). In April 2010, the State Council of the People's Republic of China approved a national development strategy for the Shenyang
Shenyang
Metro Area. The core of this strategy is innovation in industrial development, integration of the eight cities, integration of urban and rural areas as well as the promotion of more market-oriented development.[37] Liaoning
Liaoning
Coastal Economic Belt[edit] The Party Secretary of the Liaoning
Liaoning
Provincial Committee of the Communist Party of China, Li Keqiang, initiated the development of a strategy entitled "5 Points and One Line", which he first proposed on a visit to Yingkou
Yingkou
in late 2005. Liaoning
Liaoning
Province formally launched the development strategy for the entire Liaoning
Liaoning
coastline in early 2006, so as to re-invigorate the provincial economy from its traditional status as a "rustbelt" of Chinese state-owned enterprises. The "Five Points" indicate five key development areas in the province and cover seven zones: the Changxing Island Harbor Industrial Zone in Dalian; Yingkou
Yingkou
Coastal Industrial Base; Liaoxi
Liaoxi
Jinzhou
Jinzhou
Bay Coastal Economic Zone; Dandong, and the Zhuanghe
Zhuanghe
Huayuankou Industrial Zone. The five zones together cover a planned area of nearly 500 square kilometres (190 sq mi). The "One Line" mentioned in the strategy represents a new series of motorways along the coast. The coastline of 1,433 kilometers will become the connection between the five above zones, through which 6 provincial cities, 21 counties and 113 towns will be interlinked. Coastal motorways directly connect the entire string of five zones along the Bohai sea. Demography[edit]

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1912[38] 12,133,000 —    

1928[39] 15,233,000 +25.6%

1936-37[40] 15,254,000 +0.1%

1947[41] 10,007,000 −34.4%

1954[42] 18,545,147 +85.3%

1964[43] 26,946,200 +45.3%

1982[44] 35,721,693 +32.6%

1990[45] 39,459,697 +10.5%

2000[46] 41,824,412 +6.0%

2010[47] 43,746,323 +4.6%

Liaoning
Liaoning
Province was known as Fengtian Province until 1929. Shenyang
Shenyang
part of Liaoning
Liaoning
Province until 1947; dissolved in 1954 and incorporated into Liaoning
Liaoning
Province. Dalian
Dalian
(Lüda) part of Liaoning
Liaoning
Province until 1947; dissolved in 1954 and incorporated into Liaoning
Liaoning
Province. Andong Province
Andong Province
( Liaodong
Liaodong
Province) split from Liaoning
Liaoning
Province in 1947; dissolved in 1954 and incorporated into Liaoning
Liaoning
Province. Liaobei
Liaobei
Province split from Liaoning
Liaoning
Province in 1947; dissolved in 1949 and parts were incorporated into Liaoning
Liaoning
Province. Rehe Province
Rehe Province
incorporated into a province in 1928; dissolved in 1955 and parts were incorporated into Liaoning
Liaoning
Province. Liaoxi
Liaoxi
Province split from Liaoning
Liaoning
Province in 1949; dissolved in 1954 and incorporated into Liaoning
Liaoning
Province.

The population of Liaoning
Liaoning
is mostly Han Chinese
Han Chinese
with minorities of Manchus, Mongols, Hui, Koreans
Koreans
and Xibe.

Ethnic groups in Liaoning, 2000 census

Nationality Population Percentage

Han Chinese 35,105,991 83.94%

Manchu 5,385,287 12.88%

Mongol 669,972 1.60%

Hui 264,407 0.632%

Koreans 241,052 0.576%

Xibe 132,615 0.317%

Excludes members of the People's Liberation Army
People's Liberation Army
in active service. Source: Department of Population, Social, Science and Technology Statistics of the National Bureau of Statistics of China (国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司) and Department of Economic Development of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission of China (国家民族事务委员会经济发展司), eds. Tabulation on Nationalities of 2000 Population Census of China (《2000年人口普查中国民族人口资料》). 2 vols. Beijing: Nationalities Publishing House (民族出版社), 2003. (ISBN 7-105-05425-5) Religion[edit]

Religion in Liaoning
Liaoning
(2012)[48]   Non religious and traditional faiths (91.3%)    Buddhism
Buddhism
(5.5%)   Protestantism (2.2%)   Islam (0.6%)    Catholicism
Catholicism
(0.2%)   Others (0.1%)

According to a 2012 survey[48] only around 10% of the population of Liaoning
Liaoning
belongs to organised religions, the largest groups being Buddhists with 5.5%, followed by Protestants with 2.2%, Muslims with 0.6% and Catholics with 0.2%.

Jade
Jade
Buddha Temple in Anshan

The reports didn't give figures for other types of religion; around 90% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in Chinese folk religions (cults of nature deities and ancestors), Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, folk religious sects. The significant Manchu
Manchu
population, although strongly assimilated to the Han Chinese
Han Chinese
and practicing Chinese religions, also retains its own pure Manchu
Manchu
shamanism. At the same time, the local religion of the Han people throughout Manchuria
Manchuria
has developed patterns of deities, ideas, and practices inherited from Manchu
Manchu
and Tungus shamanism, making it quite different from central and southern Chinese folk religion. The Mongol
Mongol
ethnic minority either follows the Mongolian folk religion
Mongolian folk religion
and shamanism, or Tibetan Buddhism. Further information: Religion in Northeast China

Tourism[edit]

Chongzheng Hall in the Mukden Palace

The Mukden Palace
Mukden Palace
was the palace of the Qing Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
emperors before they conquered the rest of China
China
and moved their capital to Beijing. Though not as large nor as well known as its counterpart (the Forbidden City) in Beijing, the Mukden palace is significant for its representation of palace architecture at the time, and has recently been included on the UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
as an extension of the Imperial Palace site in Beijing. In addition, three imperial tombs dating from the Qing Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
are located in Liaoning. These tomb sites have been grouped with other Ming and Qing Dynasties tombs (such as the Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
Tombs in Beijing, and the Ming Xiaoling
Ming Xiaoling
Mausoleum in Nanjing) as a combined UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site. Wunu Mountain City, a Goguryeo
Goguryeo
site found in Huanren Manchu
Manchu
Autonomous County, is part of a combined UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
that also includes sites in Ji'an, Jilin. Benxi
Benxi
offers a boat ride though a large stalactite filled cave and underground river. Anshan
Anshan
hosts the Jade
Jade
Buddha Palace, the largest Buddha statue made of jade in the world. Liaoyang, one of the oldest continuously-inhabited cities in northeast China, has a number of historical sites, including the White Pagoda (Baita), that dates to the Yuan Dynasty. The port city of Dalian, located on the tip of the Liaodong
Liaodong
Peninsula, is a tourist destination in its own right, with beaches, resorts, zoos, seafood, shopping, Russian- and Japanese-era heritage architecture, and streetcars, a rare sight in China. Dandong, on the border with North Korea, is a medium-sized city that offers a cross-river view of the North Korean city of Sinŭiju. Bijia Mountain
Bijia Mountain
is a curious island which joins to the mainland at low tide by a land bridge. Education[edit] Colleges and universities[edit] See also: List of universities and colleges in Liaoning Under the national Ministry of Education:

Northeastern University Dalian
Dalian
University of Technology

Under various other national agencies:

National Police University of China Dalian
Dalian
Maritime University Dalian
Dalian
Nationalities University

Under the provincial government:

China
China
Medical University Shenyang
Shenyang
Normal University Shenyang
Shenyang
Medical College Liaoning
Liaoning
Medical University Liaoning
Liaoning
Normal University Liaoning
Liaoning
Technical University Liaoning
Liaoning
University Liaoning University
Liaoning University
of Petroleum
Petroleum
and Chemical
Chemical
Technology Shenyang
Shenyang
Agricultural University Shenyang
Shenyang
Institute of Aeronautical Engineering Shenyang
Shenyang
Institute of Chemical
Chemical
Technology Shenyang
Shenyang
Jianzhu University Shenyang
Shenyang
Ligong University Shenyang
Shenyang
Pharmaceutical University Shenyang
Shenyang
University Shenyang
Shenyang
University of Technology Anshan
Anshan
Normal University Bohai University Dalian
Dalian
Jiaotong University Dalian
Dalian
Medical University Dalian
Dalian
University Dalian
Dalian
University of Foreign Languages Dongbei University of Finance and Economics Liaoning
Liaoning
Institute of Technology Liaoning
Liaoning
Radio and TV University (辽宁广播电视大学) Shenyang
Shenyang
Polytechnic College (沈阳职业技术学院)

Sports[edit] Professional sports teams based in Liaoning
Liaoning
include:

Chinese Basketball Association

Liaoning
Liaoning
Flying Leopards Liaoning
Liaoning
Hengye

Chinese Football Association Super League
Chinese Football Association Super League
(Chinese Super League)

Liaoning
Liaoning
FC

Chinese Football Association Jia League
Chinese Football Association Jia League
( China
China
League One)

Dalian
Dalian
Yifang F.C. Dalian
Dalian
Transcendence F.C.

See also[edit]

Major national historical and cultural sites (Liaoning) Shenyang
Shenyang
Mandarin 2013 National Games of China Chinese aircraft carrier Liaoning Gojoseon–Yan War

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

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China
National Human Development Report 2016" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. p. 146. Retrieved 2017-12-05.  ^ " Liaoning
Liaoning
Travel Guide: Map, History, Sightseeing, Ethnic Minority, Climate". Retrieved 2010-03-14.  ^ History of Mongolia, Volume II, 2003 ^ 先秦辽阳地区部族问题初探 ^ John W. Dardess (2012). Ming China, 1368-1644: A Concise History of a Resilient Empire. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 18–. ISBN 978-1-4422-0490-4.  ^ Edmonds, Richard Louis (1985). Northern Frontiers of Qing China
China
and Tokugawa Japan: A Comparative Study of Frontier Policy. University of Chicago, Department of Geography; Research Paper No. 213. pp. 38–40. ISBN 0-89065-118-3.  ^ Xingjing ^ Dongjing ^ Edmonds (1985), p. 113 ^ Edmonds (1985), p. 74 ^ Edmonds (1985), pp. 74–75 ^ Edmonds (1985), pp. 58–61 ^ a b Edmonds (1985), p. 76 ^ Chen, P-J., Dong, Z-M., Zhen, S-N. 1998. An exceptionally well-preserved theropod dinosaur from the Yixian Formation of China. Nature. Vol. 391:14.–152. ^ Vaughan, Terry A; Ryan, James M.; Cheshire, Leonard; Czaplewski, Nicholas J. (2011). Mammalogy. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. pp. 114–116. ISBN 1449644376.  ^ a b c Manning, Phillip Lars (2008). Grave Secrets of Dinosaurs: Soft Tissues and Hard Science. National Geographic Books. ISBN 1426202199. Retrieved 23 July 2014.  ^ Selden, Paul; Nudds, John (2012). Evolution of Fossil Ecosystems. Elsevier. pp. 168–182. ISBN 0124046371.  ^ a b Brusatte, Stephen L. (2012). Dinosaur
Dinosaur
Paleobiology, Volume 1 of TOPA Topics in Paleobiology. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 75–77. ISBN 1118273559. Retrieved 23 July 2014.  ^ a b c Norell, Mark; Gaffney, Eugene S.; Dingus, Lowell (2000). Discovering Dinosaurs: Evolution, Extinction, and the Lessons of Prehistory. University of California Press. pp. 214–216. ISBN 0520225015.  ^ "中华人民共和国县以上行政区划代码". 中华人民共和国民政部.  ^ 深圳市统计局. 《深圳统计年鉴2014》. 深圳统计网. 中国统计出版社. Retrieved 2015-05-29.  ^ shi, Guo wu yuan ren kou pu cha ban gong; council, Guo jia tong ji ju ren kou he jiu ye tong ji si bian = Tabulation on the 2010 population census of the people's republic of China
China
by township / compiled by Population census office under the state; population, Department of; statistics, employment statistics national bureau of (2012). Zhongguo 2010 nian ren kou pu cha fen xiang, zhen, jie dao zi liao (Di 1 ban. ed.). Beijing
Beijing
Shi: Zhongguo tong ji chu ban she. ISBN 978-7-5037-6660-2.  ^ 中华人民共和国民政部 (August 2014). 《中国民政统计年鉴2014》. 中国统计出版社. ISBN 978-7-5037-7130-9.  ^ Efforts are needed to make sure China’s economic statistics are genuinely reliable Global Times
Global Times
29 August 2016 ^ a b http://thechinaperspective.com/topics/province/liaoning-province/ ^ China
China
Liaoning
Liaoning
Business Guide ^ RightSite.asia Shenyang
Shenyang
Cross-Strait Science Industrial Zone ^ RightSite.asia Liaoning
Liaoning
Shenyang
Shenyang
Zhangshi Export Processing Zone ^ RightSite.asia Shenyang
Shenyang
Hunnan Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone ^ RightSite.asia Dalian
Dalian
Economic & Technological Development Zone Archived 2011-08-26 at the Wayback Machine. ^ RightSite.asia Dalian
Dalian
Export Processing Zone Archived 2011-08-26 at the Wayback Machine. ^ RightSite.asia Dalian
Dalian
Free Trade Zone Archived 2011-08-26 at the Wayback Machine. ^ RightSite.asia Dalian
Dalian
Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone Archived 2011-08-26 at the Wayback Machine. ^ RightSite.asia Dandong
Dandong
Border Economic Corporation Zone Archived 2010-04-18 at the Wayback Machine. ^ China
China
Liaoning
Liaoning
Business Guide ^ "1912年中国人口". Retrieved 6 March 2014.  ^ "1928年中国人口". Retrieved 6 March 2014.  ^ "1936-37年中国人口". Retrieved 6 March 2014.  ^ "1947年全国人口". Retrieved 6 March 2014.  ^ "中华人民共和国国家统计局关于第一次全国人口调查登记结果的公报". National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on August 5, 2009.  ^ "第二次全国人口普查结果的几项主要统计数字". National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on September 14, 2012.  ^ "中华人民共和国国家统计局关于一九八二年人口普查主要数字的公报". National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on May 10, 2012.  ^ "中华人民共和国国家统计局关于一九九〇年人口普查主要数据的公报". National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on June 19, 2012.  ^ "现将2000年第五次全国人口普查快速汇总的人口地区分布数据公布如下". National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on August 29, 2012.  ^ "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China
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China
Family Panel Studies 2012: 当代中国宗教状况报告——基于CFPS(2012)调查数据 Archived 2014-08-09 at the Wayback Machine.. p. 013

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Liaoning.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Liaoning.

(in Chinese) Official website of the Liaoning
Liaoning
Provincial Government Liaoning
Liaoning
Information Guide (in English) (in Chinese) Complete Map of the Seven Coastal Provinces from 1821-1850 Economic profile for Liaoning
Liaoning
at HKTDC

Places adjacent to Liaoning

Inner Mongolia

Jilin

Hebei

Liaoning

North Pyongan, North Korea

Bohai Sea

Korea Bay

v t e

Liaoning
Liaoning
topics

Shenyang
Shenyang
(capital)

General

History Politics Economy

Geography

Cities Changbai Mountains Qianshan Mountains Liao River Liaodong
Liaodong
Peninsula

Education

Liaoning
Liaoning
University Liaoning
Liaoning
Normal University Northeastern University Dalian
Dalian
University

Culture

Cuisine Manchu
Manchu
People

Visitor attractions

Mukden Palace Early Qing Tombs Wunu Mountain City Anshan
Anshan
Jade
Jade
Buddha Bijia Mountain Dalian

Category Commons

v t e

County-level divisions of Liaoning
Liaoning
Province

Shenyang
Shenyang
(capital)

Sub-provincial cities

Shenyang

Shenhe District Huanggu District Heping District Dadong District Tiexi District Sujiatun District Hunnan District Shenbei New Area Yuhong District Liaozhong District Xinmin City Faku County Kangping County

Dalian

Xigang District Zhongshan District Shahekou District Ganjingzi District Lüshunkou District Jinzhou
Jinzhou
District Pulandian District Wafangdian
Wafangdian
City Zhuanghe
Zhuanghe
City Changhai County

Prefecture-level cities

Anshan

Tiedong District Tiexi District Lishan District Qianshan District Haicheng City Tai'an County Xiuyan Autonomous County

Fushun

Shuncheng District Xinfu District Dongzhou District Wanghua District Fushun
Fushun
County Xinbin Autonomous County Qingyuan Autonomous County

Benxi

Pingshan District Xihu District Mingshan District Nanfen District Benxi
Benxi
Autonomous County Huanren Autonomous County

Dandong

Zhenxing District Yuanbao District Zhen'an District Fengcheng City Donggang City Kuandian Autonomous County

Jinzhou

Taihe District Guta District Linghe District Linghai
Linghai
City Beizhen
Beizhen
City Heishan County Yi County

Yingkou

Zhanqian District Xishi District Bayuquan District Laobian District Dashiqiao
Dashiqiao
City Gaizhou
Gaizhou
City

Fuxin

Haizhou District Xinqiu District Taiping District Qinghemen District Xihe District Zhangwu County Fuxin
Fuxin
Autonomous County

Liaoyang

Baita District Wensheng District Hongwei District Gongchangling District Taizihe District Dengta
Dengta
City Liaoyang
Liaoyang
County

Panjin

Xinglongtai District Shuangtaizi District Dawa District Panshan County

Tieling

Yinzhou District Qinghe District Diaobingshan
Diaobingshan
City Kaiyuan City Tieling
Tieling
County Xifeng County Changtu County

Chaoyang

Shuangta District Longcheng District Beipiao
Beipiao
City Lingyuan
Lingyuan
City Chaoyang County Jianping County Harqin Zuoyi Autonomous County

Huludao

Longgang District Lianshan District Nanpiao District Xingcheng
Xingcheng
City Suizhong County Jianchang County

v t e

Provincial-level divisions of the People's Republic of China

Provinces

Anhui Fujian Gansu Guangdong Guizhou Hainan Hebei Heilongjiang Henan Hubei Hunan Jiangsu Jiangxi Jilin Liaoning Qinghai Shaanxi Shandong Shanxi Sichuan Yunnan Zhejiang

Autonomous regions

Guangxi Inner Mongolia Ningxia Tibet Xinjiang

Municipalities

Beijing Chongqing Shanghai Tianjin

Special
Special
administrative regions

Hong Kong Macau

Other

Taiwan¹

Note: Taiwan
Taiwan
is claimed by the People's Republic of China
China
but administered by the Republic of China
China
(see Political status of Taiwan).

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