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LIANGGUANG (traditional Chinese : 兩廣; simplified Chinese : 两广; pinyin : Liǎngguǎng; Cantonese Yale : Léuhng Gwóng; literally: "The Two Expanses", postal : Liangkwang) is a Chinese term for the province of Guangdong
Guangdong
and former province and present autonomous region of Guangxi
Guangxi
, collectively. It particularly refers to the viceroyalty of Liangguang
Liangguang
under the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
, when the territory was considered to include Hainan
Hainan
and the leased territories of British Hong Kong
British Hong Kong
, the French Kouang-Tchéou-Wan and Portuguese Macau
Macau
. The Viceroy of Liangguang
Viceroy of Liangguang
existed from 1735-1911.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Guangxi
Guangxi
autonomy * 1.2 Hainan
Hainan
separation

* 1.3 Leased territories

* 1.3.1 Hong Kong * 1.3.2 Kouang-Tchéou-Wan * 1.3.3 Macau
Macau

* 2 See also * 3 References

HISTORY

The area has been considered the southern expanse of China
China
since the creation of Guangzhou
Guangzhou
in 226. Prior to that, the area was known as the Nanhai Commandery .

GUANGXI AUTONOMY

In the 1920s and 1930s, the areas of Guangxi
Guangxi
dominated by the Zhuang people greatly aided the Communist Party of China
Communist Party of China
in the Chinese Civil War . Soon after the Communist victory in 1949, in 1952 the People\'s Republic of China
China
created a Zhuang autonomous prefecture in the western half of Guangxi. However, some scholars of the Zhuang do not believe that this decision came out of genuine grassroots demands from that ethnic group, who made up only 33% of the province's population, which is contradictory to reality of facts from Chinese scholars that the Zhuang people
Zhuang people
clearly maintain their distinct culture and lifestyle (i.e. language, religion, etc.). Scholars like George Moseley and Diana Lary instead argue that the conversion of Guangxi
Guangxi
to a Zhuang autonomous region was designed to foil local sentiment against the Communist Party as well as to smash pan- Lingnan
Lingnan
sentiment. Shortly afterward, many Cantonese in the Guangxi
Guangxi
government were replaced by Zhuangs and Guangxi
Guangxi
annexed the Nanlu region of Guangdong in 1952, giving the formerly landlocked region access to the sea. In 1958, the entire province was officially designated the Guangxi
Guangxi
Zhuang Autonomous Region .

HAINAN SEPARATION

In 1988, Hainan
Hainan
was separated from Guangdong
Guangdong
and established as a separate province.

LEASED TERRITORIES

Hong Kong

Hong Kong was leased to the British Empire
British Empire
in 1841 until the transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong in 1997, when it was converted into a special administrative region .

Kouang-Tchéou-Wan

Kouang-Tchéou-Wan, also known as Zhanjiang
Zhanjiang
, was leased to the French Third Republic
French Third Republic
in 1898 until the end of World War II
World War II
in 1946.

Macau

Macau
Macau
was granted to the Portuguese Empire
Portuguese Empire
in 1557 until the transfer of sovereignty over Macau
Macau
in 1999, when it was converted into a special administrative region.

SEE ALSO

* Lingnan
Lingnan

REFERENCES

* ^ Olson, James Stuart (1998). "Zhuang". An Ethnohistorical Dictionary of China. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 393. * ^ A B C Kaup, Katherine Palmer (2000). Creating the Zhuang: Ethnic Politics in China. Lynne Reinner Publishers. p. 52. * ^ A B Hutchings, Graham (2003). " Guangxi
Guangxi
Zhuang Autonomous Region". Modern China: A Guide to a Century of Change. Harvard University Press. p. 173. * ^ Ramsey, Samuel Robert (1987). "Minority Languages of China". The Languages of China. Princeton University Press. pp. 234–235. * ^ Li, Xulian; Huang, Quanxi (2004). "The Introduction and Development of the Zhuang Writing System". In Zhou, Minglang; Sun, Hongkai. Language Policy in the People's Republic of China: Theory and Practice Since 1949. Springer. p. 240. * ^ Cen Xianan (2003). On research to Zhuang's Mo Religion Belief. "Economic and Social Development",no.12. p.23-26.(in Chinese)

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