Liangguang (traditional Chinese: 兩廣; simplified Chinese: 两广;
pinyin: Liǎngguǎng; Cantonese Yale: Léuhng Gwóng; "The Two
Expanses", postal: Liangkwang) is a Chinese term for the province of
Guangdong and former province and present autonomous region of
Guangxi, collectively. It particularly refers to the viceroyalty of
Liangguang under the Qing dynasty, when the territory was considered
Hainan and the leased territories of British Hong Kong, the
French Kouang-Tchéou-Wan and Portuguese Macau. The Viceroy of
Liangguang existed from 1735-1911.
1.3 Leased territories
1.3.1 Hong Kong
2 See also
The area has been considered the southern expanse of
China since the
Guangzhou in 226. Prior to that, the area was known as the
In the 1920s and 1930s, the areas of
Guangxi dominated by the Zhuang
people greatly aided the
Communist Party of China
Communist Party of China in the Chinese Civil
War. Soon after the Communist victory in 1949, in 1952 the People's
China created a Zhuang autonomous prefecture in the
western half of Guangxi. However, some scholars of the Zhuang do not
believe that this decision came out of genuine grassroots demands from
that ethnic group, who made up only 33% of the province's
population, which is contradictory to reality of facts from
Chinese scholars that the
Zhuang people clearly maintain their
distinct culture and lifestyle (i.e. language, religion, etc.).
Scholars like George Moseley and Diana Lary instead argue that the
Guangxi to a Zhuang autonomous region was designed to
foil local sentiment against the Communist Party as well as to smash
Lingnan sentiment. Shortly afterward, many Cantonese in the
Guangxi government were replaced by Zhuangs and
Guangxi annexed the
Nanlu region of
Guangdong in 1952, giving the formerly landlocked
region access to the sea. In 1958, the entire province was
officially designated the
Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region.
Hainan was separated from
Guangdong and established as a
Hong Kong was leased to the
British Empire in 1841 until the transfer
of sovereignty over Hong Kong in 1997, when it was converted into a
special administrative region.
Kouang-Tchéou-Wan, also known as Zhanjiang, was leased to the French
Third Republic in 1898 until the end of
World War II
World War II in 1946.
Macau was granted to the
Portuguese Empire in 1557 until the transfer
of sovereignty over
Macau in 1999, when it was converted into a
special administrative region.
^ Olson, James Stuart (1998). "Zhuang". An Ethnohistorical Dictionary
of China. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 393.
^ a b c Kaup, Katherine Palmer (2000). Creating the Zhuang: Ethnic
Politics in China. Lynne Reinner Publishers. p. 52.
^ a b Hutchings, Graham (2003). "
Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region".
Modern China: A Guide to a Century of Change. Harvard University
Press. p. 173.
^ Ramsey, Samuel Robert (1987). "Minority Languages of China". The
Languages of China. Princeton University Press.
^ Li, Xulian; Huang, Quanxi (2004). "The Introduction and Development
of the Zhuang Writing System". In Zhou, Minglang; Sun, Hongkai.
Language Policy in the People's Republic of China: Theory and Practice
Since 1949. Springer. p. 240.
^ Cen Xianan (2003). On research to Zhuang's Mo Religion Belief.
"Economic and Social Development",no.12. p.