The LIANCOURT ROCKS, also known as DOKDO or TOKTO (Korean
Hangul : 독도;
Hanja : 獨島, "solitary island")
in Korean , and TAKESHIMA (竹島, "bamboo island") in Japanese , are
a group of small islets in the
Sea of Japan . While South Korea
controls the islets, its sovereignty over them is contested by
The Franco-English name of the islets derives from Le Liancourt, the name of a French whaling ship which came close to being wrecked on the rocks in 1849.
* 1 Geography * 2 Distances * 3 Climate
* 4 Ecology
* 4.1 Pollution and environmental destruction
* 5 Demographics and economy * 6 Construction
* 7 History
* 7.1 Whaling * 7.2 Sovereignty dispute
* 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 External links
Altogether, there are about 90 islets and reefs, volcanic rocks formed in the Cenozoic era, more specifically 4.6 to 2.5 million years ago. A total of 37 of these islets are recognized as permanent land.
The total area of the islets is about 187,450 square metres (46.32 acres), with their highest point at 169 metres (554 ft) on the West Islet. The western islet is about 88,640 square metres (21.90 acres); the eastern islet is about 73,300 square metres (18.1 acres). The western islet consists of a single peak and features many caves along the coastline. The cliffs of the eastern islet are about 10 to 20 metres (33 to 66 ft) high. There are two large caves giving access to the sea, as well as a crater.
In 2006, a geologist reported that the islets formed 4.5 million years ago and are quickly eroding.
Due to their location and small size, the
The islets are volcanic rocks , with only a thin layer of soil and moss. About 49 plant species, 107 bird species, and 93 insect species have been found to inhabit the islets, in addition to local marine life with 160 algal and 368 invertebrate species identified. Although between 1,100 and 1,200 litres of fresh water flow daily, desalinization plants have been installed on the islets for human consumption because existing spring water suffers from guano contamination. Since the early 1970s trees and some types of flowers were planted. According to historical records, there used to be trees indigenous to Liancourt Rocks, which have supposedly been wiped out by overharvesting and fires caused by bombing drills over the islets. A recent investigation, however, identified ten spindle trees aged 100–120 years. Cetaceans such as Minke whales , orcas , and dolphins are known to migrate through these areas.
POLLUTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL DESTRUCTION
A view from one of the rocks on a calm day
Records of the human impact on the
There is a serious concern for pollution in the seas surrounding the
Liancourt Rocks. The sewage water treatment system established on the
islets has malfunctioned and sewage water produced by inhabitants of
DEMOGRAPHICS AND ECONOMY
The base that houses South Korean Police Guards on Liancourt
As of February 2017, there are two civilian residents, two government officials, six lighthouse managers, and 40 members of the coast guard living on the islets. Since the South Korean Coast Guard was sent to the islets, civilian travel has been subject to South Korean government approval; they have stated that the reason for this is that the islet group is designated as a nature reserve.
In March 1965, Choi Jong-duk moved from the nearby Ulleungdo to the islets to make a living from fishing. He also helped install facilities from May 1968. In 1981, Choi Jong-dok changed his administrative address to the Liancourt Rocks, making himself the first person to officially live there. He died there in September 1987. His son-in-law, Cho Jun-ki, and his wife also resided there from 1985 until they moved out in 1992. Meanwhile, in 1991, Kim Sung-do and Kim Shin-yeol transferred to the islets as permanent residents, still continuing to live there.
The South Korean government gave its approval to allow 1,597 visitors to visit the islets in 2004. Since March 2005, more tourists have received approval to visit. The South Korean government lets up to 70 tourists land at any one given time; one ferry provides rides to the islets every day. Tour companies charge around 350,000 Korean won per person (about US$250 as of 2009 ).
American and French whaleships cruised for right whales off the rocks between 1849 and 1892.
Sovereignty over the islands has been an ongoing point of contention
Korean claims are partly based on references to an island called Usan-do (우산도, 于山島/亐山島) in various medieval historical records, maps, and encyclopedia such as Samguk Sagi , Annals of Joseon Dynasty , Dongguk Yeoji Seungnam, and Dongguk munhon bigo. According to the Korean view, these refer to today's Liancourt Rocks. A South Korean Police boat approaches the dock on Liancourt Rocks' East Islet.
Japanese researchers of these documents have claimed the various references to Usan-do refer at different times to Jukdo , its neighboring island Ulleungdo , or a non-existent island between Ulleungdo and Korea. The first printed usage of the name Dokdo was in a Japanese log book in 1904.
Other key points of the dispute involve the legal basis which Japan used to claim the islands in 1905, and the legal basis of South Korea's claim on the islands in 1952.
* ^ "Since the end of World War II, Korea and
* ^ "동도는 ‘우산봉’ 서도는 ‘대한봉’… 독도
봉우리 공식이름 생겼다",
The Dong-a Ilbo , 29 October 2012
* ^ A B "Dokdo Residents".
Gyeongsangbuk-do Province. Retrieved
February 13, 2017.
* ^ BBC staff 2006 .
* ^ "Act 1395 amending Chapter 14-2, Ri-Administration under
Ulleung County, Local Autonomy Law, Ulleung County
(울릉군리의명칭과구역에관한조례 )". "Pursuant to Act
1395 amending Chapter 14-2, Ri-Administration under Ulleung County,
Local Autonomy Law, Ulleung County, passed March 20, 2000, enacted
April 7, 2000, the administrative designation of Dokdo addresses as 42
to 76, Dodong-ri, Ulleung-eup, Ulleung County, North Gyungsang
Province, is changed to address 1 to 37, Dokdo-ri, Ulleung-eup,
Ulleung County, North Gyungsang Province." "2000년 4월 7일
울릉군조례 제1395호로 독도리가 신설됨에 따라
독도의 행정구역이 종전의 경상북도 울릉군 울릉읍
도동리 산42～76번지에서 경상북도 울릉군 울릉읍
독도리 산1～37번지로 변경 됨.""조회". Archived from the
original on 1 March 2009. Retrieved 12 September 2008.
* ^ Kirk 2008 .
* ^ A B C D E F Gyeo ngbuk Province 2001 .
* ^ BBC staff 2008 .
* ^ ""독도ㆍ울릉도 `침몰하고 있다\'"". Yeonhap News. 1
December 2006. Retrieved 1 January 2015.
* ^ BAEK In-ki, SHIM Mun-bo & Korea Maritime Institute 2006 , pp.
* ^ A B "The Issue of Takeshima". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of
Japan. Retrieved 26 October 2012.
* ^ Gyeo ngbuk Province 2001b .
* ^ Gyeo ngbuk Province 2001a .
* ^ "독도 자연생태계 정밀조사결과(요약)" .
* ^ Lee, Kyu Tae (27 June 2003), "(pseud.)The Trees of Liancourt
Rocks", Chosun Daily
* ^ "Indigenous Spindle Tree Colony Found on
* BAEK In-ki; SHIM Mun-bo; Korea Maritime Institute (December 2006), A study of Distance between Ulleungdo and Dokdo and Ocean Currents (울릉도와 독도의 거리와 해류에 관한 연구), pp. 20–22, ISBN 978-89-7998-340-1 , archived from the original on 12 January 2013 * BBC staff (20 April 2006), Seoul and Tokyo hold island talks, BBC * BBC staff (27 July 2008), "Island row hits Japanese condoms", BBC News * Fern, Sean (Winter 2005), "Tokdo or Takeshima? The International Law of Territorial Acquisition in the Japan-Korea Island Dispute", Stanford Journal of East Asian Affairs, 5 (1) * Gyeo ngbuk Province (2001), "Introducing Dokdo", Cyber Dokdo, Korean Government * Gyeo ngbuk Province (2001a), "Natural Environment", Cyber Dokdo, Korean Government * Gyeo ngbuk Province (2001b), "Visit Dokdo", Cyber Dokdo, Korean Government * Ha, Michael (26 August 2008), "A Unique Trip to Dokdo — Islets in the News", The Korea Times , archived from the original on 4 March 2016 * Kirk, Donald (26 July 2008), Seoul has desert island dreams, Asia Times Online * KOIS staff (12 January 2007), Cell phones give Korean ring to Dokdo, Korea.net Korean Culture and Information Service (KOIS), archived from the original on 2 March 2009 * KOIS staff (12 June 2007a), Doosan pours big drink for Dokdo residents, Korea.net Korean Culture and Information Service (KOIS), archived from the original on 2 March 2009 * Sang-Hun, Choe (28 August 2008), "A fierce Korean pride in a lonely group of islets", International Herald Tribune, archived from the original on 28 August 2008 * Yonhap staff (20 July 2011), N. Korea denounces Japan\'s vow to visit island near Dokdo, Yonhap News Agency
* International relations portal
Wikimedia Commons has media related to LIANCOURT ROCKS .
* The Issue of Takeshima(The Issue of Takeshima, Asia, Regional
Affairs, The Ministry of Foreign Affairs,
* 10 Issues of Takeshima (Northeast Asia Division, Asian and Oceanian Affairs Bureau, The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Japan)
Coordinates : 37°14′30″N 131°52′00″E / 37.24167°N 131.86667°E / 37.24167; 131.86667
* v * t * e
Territorial disputes in East, South, and Southeast Asia
Land Islands and waters