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{{Infobox Chinese |title= Demchok River |pic= |c = {{linktext|lang=zh|典角河 |l= |p = Diǎnjiǎo hé |showflag = p The Charding Nullah, traditionally known as the Lhari stream and called the Demchok River by China,{{efn|name="White Paper XII" is a small river that originates near the Charding La pass that is also on the border between the two countries and flows northeast to join the Indus River near a peak called "Lhari Karpo" (white holy peak). There are villages on both sides of the mouth of the river, romanised as Demchok and Dêmqog. The river serves as the ''de facto'' border between China and India in the Demchok sector.{{efn|name="White Paper XII"


Etymology


The Indian government refers to the river as "Charding Nullah" after its place of origin, the Charding La pass, with nullah meaning a mountain stream. The Chinese government uses the term "Demchok river" by the location of its mouth, near the Demchok village.{{efn|name="White Paper XII"|On 21 September 1965, the Indian Government wrote to the Chinese Government, complaining of Chinese troops who were said to have "moved forward in strength right up to the Charding Nullah and have assumed a threatening posture at the Indian civilian post on the western orthwesternside of the Nullah on the Indian side of the 'line of actual control'." The Chinese Government responded on 24 September stating, "In fact, it was Indian troops who on September 18, intruded into the vicinity of the Demchok village on the Chinese side of the 'line of actual control' after crossing the Demchok River from Parigas (in Tibet, China)..." The historical documents name the river as "Lhari stream".{{sfnp|Fisher, Rose & Huttenback, Himalayan Battleground|1963|p=107 Lhari,{{efn|Alternative spellings of Lahri include "Lahri", "Lari" or "Lairi" meaning "holy mountain" in Tibetan, is the name used for the white rocky peak (4,865 m) behind the village of Demchok. Claude Arpi
The Case of Demchok
Indian Defence Review, 19 May 2017.
It has also been referred to as "Lari Karpo" ("white lhari") and "Demchok Lari Karpo" in Tibetan documents.{{sfnp|Fisher, Rose & Huttenback, Himalayan Battleground|1963|pp=106–107{{efn|Scholars translate the Tibetan term ''lha-ri'' as "soul mountain". Many peaks in Tibet are named ''lhari'' including a "Demchok lhari" in the northern suburbs of Lhasa. {{citation |last=McKay |first=Alex |title=Kailas Histories: Renunciate Traditions and the Construction of Himalayan Sacred Geography |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=l3HsCgAAQBAJ&pg=PA520 |year=2015 |publisher=BRILL |isbn=978-90-04-30618-9 |page=520 "Karpo", meaning "white", serves to distinguish the Ladakh's mountain peak from the others. "Lhari stream at Demchok" is the phrase used in the 1684 Treaty of Tingmosgang,{{sfnp|Lamb, Treaties, Maps and the Western Sector|1965|p=38 forming the basis for the Indian government's identification of the stream with Charding Nullah.{{efn|Fisher et al. states that the Lhari stream flows "five miles southeast of Demchok".{{sfnp|Fisher, Rose & Huttenback, Himalayan Battleground|1963|p=39 This seems incorrect. Rather the Indian alignment of the border is five miles southeast of Demchok. It follows the ''watershed'' of the Lhari stream/Charding Nullah. See {{harvp|Indian Report, Part 1|1962|loc=Q21 (p. 38)


Description


{{OSM Location map | coord = {{coord|32.63|79.43 | float = right | zoom = 9 | width = 270 | height = 200 | caption =
Charding Nullah
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mark-coord8 = {{coord|32.6949|79.4593 | mark8 = Red pog.svg | mark-size8 = 6 | label8 = Dêmqog | label-size8 = 10 | label-color8 = hard red | label-pos8 = right |label-offset-x8 = 0 |label-offset-y8 = 3 | mark-title8 = Dêmqog | mark-image8 = | mark-description8 = Chinese-administered village | mark-coord9 = {{coord|32.5098|79.6762 | mark9 = Black pog.svg | mark-size9 = 8 | label9 = Tashigang |labela9 = (Zhaxigang) | label-size9 = 11 | label-color9 = gray | label-pos9 = top |label-offset-x9 = 0 |label-offset-y9 = 0 | mark-title9 = Tashigang | mark-image9 = | mark-description9 = Zhaxigang | mark-coord19 = {{coord|33.1969|79.8210 | mark19 = Black pog.svg | mark-size19 = 8 | label19 = Risong | label-size19 = 11 | label-color19 = gray | label-pos19 = left |label-offset-x19 = 0 |label-offset-y19 = 0 | mark-title19 = Risong | mark-image19 = | mark-description19 = | mark-coord10 = {{coord|32.80737|79.38093 | mark10 = AS-rzeka-icon.svg | mark-size10 = 12 | label10 = Indus River | label-size10 = 11 | label-color10 = hard blue | label-pos10 = right |label-offset-x10 = 0 |label-offset-y10 = 0 | mark-title10 = Indus River | mark-image10 = | mark-description10 = Sengge Zangbo | mark-coord11 = {{coord|32.5993|79.3999 | mark11 = AS-rzeka-icon.svg | mark-size11 = 14 | label11 = Charding | labela11 = Nullah | label-size11 = 10 | label-color11 = hard blue | label-pos11 = right |label-offset-x11 = 0 |label-offset-y11 = 0 | mark-title11 = Charding Nullah | mark-image11 = | mark-description11 = Tributary of the Indus river | mark-coord12 = {{coord|32.6103|79.3498 | mark12 = AS-rzeka-icon.svg | mark-size12 = 12 | label12 = Nilu | label-size12 = 10 | label-color12 = hard blue | label-pos12 = top |label-offset-x12 = 0 |label-offset-y12 = 0 | mark-title12 = Nilu Nullah | mark-image12 = | mark-description12 = Tributary of the Charding Nullah | mark-coord13 = {{coord|32.5818|79.202 | mark13 = AS-rzeka-icon.svg | mark-size13 = 12 | label13 = Koyul |labela13 = Lungpa | label-size13 = 10 | 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hard red | label-pos23 = right | label-offset-x23 = 0 | label-offset-y23 = 0 | mark-title23 = Chang La | mark-image23 = | mark-description23 = Mountain pass on the Indian claim line | mark-coord24 = {{coord|32.696355|79.284238 | mark24 = Mountain pass 12x12 e.svg | mark-size24 = 10 | label24 = Umling La | label-size24 = 10 | label-color24 = hard red | label-pos24 = top | label-offset-x24 = -10 | label-offset-y24 = 0 | mark-title24 = Umling La | mark-image24 = | mark-description24 = Mountain pass on the Chinese claim line | mark-coord27 = {{coord|32.64905|79.51888 | mark27 = Fadenkreuz.svg | mark-size27 = 8 | label27 = | label-size27 = 10 | label-color27 = hard red | label-pos27 = bottom | label-offset-x27 = 0 | label-offset-y27 = 0 | mark-title27 = | mark-image27 = | mark-description27 = Point on the Indian claim line | mark-coord28 = {{coord|32.5557|79.276 | mark28 = Fadenkreuz.svg | mark-size28 = 8 | label28 = | label-size28 = 10 | label-color28 = hard red | label-pos28 = bottom | label-offset-x28 = 0 | label-offset-y28 = 0 | mark-title28 = | mark-image28 = | mark-description28 = Point on the Chinese claim line | mark-coord29 = {{coord|32.7872|79.223 | mark29 = Fadenkreuz.svg | mark-size29 = 8 | label29 = | label-size29 = 10 | label-color29 = hard red | label-pos29 = bottom | label-offset-x29 = 0 | label-offset-y29 = 0 | mark-title29 = | mark-image29 = | mark-description29 = Point on the Chinese claim line | mark-coord30 = {{coord|32.9451|79.2516 | mark30 = Fadenkreuz.svg | mark-size30 = 8 | label30 = | label-size30 = 10 | label-color30 = hard red | label-pos30 = bottom | label-offset-x30 = 0 | label-offset-y30 = 0 | mark-title30 = Indus river bed | mark-image30 = | mark-description30 = Point on the Chinese claim line

Sources

The Charding Nullah originates below the Charding La pass, which is on a large spur that divides the Sutlej river basin from the Indus river basin. In this area, the Sutlej river tributaries flow southeast into West Tibet and the Indus river and its tributaries flow northwest, parallel to the Himalayan ranges.

Charding–Nilu Nullah Junction

The Charding Nullah flows northeast along a narrow mountain valley. Halfway down the valley it is joined by another nullah from the left, called Nilu Nullah (or Nilung/Ninglung). The Charding–Nilu Nullah Junction (CNNJ, 4900 m) is recognised by both the Indian and Chinese border troops as a strategic point.

Changthang plateau

{{Main|Changthang plateau The entire area surrounding the Charding Nullah is referred to as the Changthang plateau. It consists of rocky mountain heights of Ladakh and Kailas ranges and sandy river valleys which are only good for grazing yaks, sheep and goats (the famous pashmina goats) reared by Changpa nomads. The Indian-controlled northern side of the nullah is close to Hanle, the site of the Hanle Monastery. The Chinese-controlled southern side has the village of Tashigang (Zhaxigang) which also has a monastery, both having been built by the Ladakhi ruler Sengge Namgyal ({{reign|1616|1642). At the end of Tibet–Ladakh–Mughal War, the Tibetan troops retreated to Tashigang where they fortified themselves. {{OSM Location map | coord = {{coord|32.6988|79.4562 | float = right | zoom = 12 | width = 270 | height = 200 | caption =
The two villages
| nolabels = 1 | map-data = | mark-coord1 = {{coord|32.7040811|79.4467432 | mark1 = Red pog.svg | mark-size1 = 6 | label1 = Demchok | label-size1 = 10 | label-color1 = hard red | label-pos1 = right | label-offset-x1 = 0 | label-offset-y1 = -7 | mark-title1 = Demchok | mark-image1 = | mark-description1 = Indian-administered village | mark-coord2 = {{coord|32.6835043|79.4354181 | mark2 = Red pog.svg | mark-size2 = 6 | label2 = Hot Spring | label-size2 = 10 | label-color2 = hard red | label-pos2 = left | label-offset-x2 = 0 | label-offset-y2 = -7 | mark-title2 = Hot Spring | mark-image2 = | mark-description2 = Indian-administered village | mark-coord8 = {{coord|32.6949|79.4593 | mark8 = Red pog.svg | mark-size8 = 6 | label8 = Dêmqog | label-size8 = 10 | label-color8 = hard red | label-pos8 = right |label-offset-x8 = 0 |label-offset-y8 = 3 | mark-title8 = Dêmqog | mark-image8 = | mark-description8 = Chinese-administered village | mark-coord10 = {{coord|32.80737|79.38093 | mark10 = AS-rzeka-icon.svg | mark-size10 = 12 | label10 = Indus River | label-size10 = 11 | label-color10 = hard blue | label-pos10 = right |label-offset-x10 = 0 |label-offset-y10 = 0 | mark-title10 = Indus River | mark-image10 = | mark-description10 = Sengge Zangbo | mark-coord11 = {{coord|32.5993|79.3999 | mark11 = AS-rzeka-icon.svg | mark-size11 = 14 | label11 = Charding | labela11 = Nullah | label-size11 = 10 | label-color11 = hard blue | label-pos11 = right |label-offset-x11 = 0 |label-offset-y11 = 0 | mark-title11 = Charding Nullah | mark-image11 = | mark-description11 = Tributary of the Indus river

Mouth

At the bottom of the valley, the Charding Nullah branches into a 2 km-wide delta as it joins the Indus river. During the British colonial period, there were villages on both the sides of the delta, going by the name "Demchok". The southern village appears to have been the main one, frequently referred to by travelers.{{harvp|Lange, Decoding Mid-19th Century Maps of the Border Area|2017|p=353: 'At present officially located in India, the village of Demchok marked the border between Tibet and Ladakh for a long time. Abdul Wahid Radhu, a former representative of the Lopchak caravan, described Demchok in his travel account as "the first location on the Tibetan side of the border".'{{harvp|Indian Report, Part 3|1962|pp=3–4: According to a report by the governor of Ladakh in 1904–05, "I visited Demchok on the boundary with Lhasa. ... A nullah falls into the Indus river from the south-west and it (Demchok) is situated at the junction of the river. Across is the boundary of Lhasa, where there are 8 to 9 huts of the Lhasa zamindars. On this side there are only two zamindars." Prior to the Sino-Indian War of 1962, India had established a border post to the south of the delta (the "New Demchok post"). As the war progressed, the post was evacuated and the Chinese forces occupied it.{{sfnp|Cheema, Crimson Chinar|2015|p=190 The Chinese spelt the name of the village as Dêmqog. Travel writer Romesh Bhattacharji states they expected to set up a trading village, but India never renewed trade after the war. He states that the southern Dêmqog village has only commercial buildings whereas the northern village has security-related buildings.{{sfnp|Bhattacharji, Ladakh|2012|loc=Chapter 9: "Changthang: The High Plateau"


Notes


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References


{{reflist|30em


Bibliography


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External links



Demchok Eastern Sector
on OpenStreetMap (Chinese-controlled)
Demchok Western Sector
on OpenStreetMap (Indian-controlled) Category:International rivers of Asia Category:Indus basin Category:Rivers of China Category:Rivers of India Category:Rivers of Jammu and Kashmir Category:Rivers of Tibet Category:Geography of Ladakh Category:Geography of Tibet Category:History of Ladakh Category:History of Tibet