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Lexus
Lexus
(レクサス, Rekusasu) is the luxury vehicle division of Japanese car maker Toyota. The Lexus
Lexus
marque is marketed in more than 70 countries and territories worldwide[1] and has become Japan's largest-selling make of premium cars. It has ranked among the 10 largest Japanese global brands in market value.[2] Lexus
Lexus
is headquartered in Nagoya, Japan. Operational centers are located in Brussels, Belgium and the U.S. in Plano, Texas. Lexus
Lexus
originated from a corporate project to develop a new premium sedan, code-named F1, which began in 1983 and culminated in the launch of the Lexus LS
Lexus LS
in 1989. Subsequently, the division added sedan, coupé, convertible and SUV models. Lexus
Lexus
did not exist as a brand in its home market until 2005, and all vehicles marketed internationally as Lexus
Lexus
from 1989 to 2005 were released in Japan
Japan
under the Toyota marque and an equivalent model name. In 2005, a hybrid version of the RX crossover debuted and additional hybrid models later joined the division's lineup. Lexus
Lexus
launched its own F marque performance division in 2007 with the debut of the IS F sport sedan, followed by the LFA supercar in 2009. Lexus
Lexus
vehicles are largely produced in Japan, with manufacturing centered in the Chūbu and Kyūshū
Kyūshū
regions, and in particular at Toyota's Tahara, Aichi, Chūbu and Miyata, Fukuoka, Kyūshū
Kyūshū
plants. Assembly of the first Lexus
Lexus
built outside the country, the Ontario, Canada-produced RX 330, began in 2003. Following a corporate reorganization from 2001 to 2005, Lexus
Lexus
began operation of its own design, engineering and manufacturing centers. Since the 2000s, Lexus
Lexus
has increased sales outside its largest market, the United States. The division inaugurated dealerships in the Japanese domestic market
Japanese domestic market
in 2005, becoming the first Japanese premium car marque to launch in its country of origin.[3] The brand was introduced in Southeast Asia, Latin America, Europe
Europe
and other regions. The division's lineup also reflects regional differences for model and powertrain configurations. Lexus
Lexus
is quickly becoming a strong competitor to BMW, Mercedes-Benz and Audi
Audi
which are some of the best-selling luxury automobile brands in the world.[citation needed]

Contents

1 History

1.1 1980s: The F1 project

1.1.1 Brand
Brand
development 1.1.2 Launch

1.2 1990s: Growth and expansion 1.3 2000s: Global reorganization

1.3.1 Hybrids and F models

1.4 2010s: Recent developments

2 Corporate affairs

2.1 Operations 2.2 Sales 2.3 US sales figures[157] 2.4 Financial performance

3 Automobiles

3.1 Vehicle lineup 3.2 F marque 3.3 Model nomenclature

4 Design and technology

4.1 L-finesse

5 Production

5.1 Assembly plants 5.2 Quality rankings

6 Service 7 Motorsport 8 Marketing

8.1 Lexus
Lexus
slogans

9 See also 10 References

10.1 Notes 10.2 Bibliography

11 External links

History[edit] 1980s: The F1 project[edit] The brand was created around the same time as Japanese rivals Nissan and Honda
Honda
developed their Infiniti
Infiniti
and Acura
Acura
premium brands. The Japanese government imposed voluntary export restraints for the U.S. market, so it was more profitable for Japanese automakers to export more expensive cars to the U.S. In 1983, Toyota
Toyota
chairman Eiji Toyoda issued a challenge to build the world's best car.[4] The project, code-named F1 (“Flagship One”)[5] developed the Lexus LS
Lexus LS
400 to expand Toyota’s product line in the premium segment.[6] The F1 project followed the Toyota Supra sports car and the premium Toyota
Toyota
Mark II models.[7] Both the Supra and Mark II were rear-wheel drive cars with a powerful 7M-GE or 7M-GTE inline-six engine. The largest sedan Toyota
Toyota
built at the time was the limited-production, 1960s-vintage Toyota
Toyota
Century, a domestic, hand-built limousine, and V8-powered model,[8] followed by the inline-six-engined Toyota
Toyota
Crown premium sedan.[8][9] The Century was conservatively styled for the Japanese market and along with the Crown not slated for export after a restyle in 1982.[9] The F1 designers targeted their new sedan at international markets and began development on a new V8 engine.[8][9]

Lexus
Lexus
television debut with champagne glasses stacked on the hood of a revving LS 400

Japanese manufacturers exported more expensive models in the 1980s due to voluntary export restraints negotiated by the Japanese government and U.S. trade representatives that restricted mainstream car sales.[10] In 1986, Honda
Honda
launched its Acura
Acura
marque in the U.S., influencing Toyota's plans for a luxury division.[11] The initial Acura
Acura
model was an export version of the Honda
Honda
Legend, itself launched in Japan
Japan
in 1985 as a rival to the Toyota
Toyota
Crown, Nissan Cedric/Gloria and Mazda
Mazda
Luce.[12] In 1987, Nissan unveiled its plans for a premium brand, Infiniti,[13] and revised its Nissan President
Nissan President
sedan in standard wheelbase form for export as the Infiniti
Infiniti
Q45, which it launched in 1990.[14] Mazda
Mazda
began selling the Luce as the Mazda
Mazda
929 in North America in 1988 and later began plans to develop an upscale marque to be called Amati, but its plans did not come to fruition.[13] Toyota
Toyota
researchers visited the U.S. in May 1985 to conduct focus groups and market research on luxury consumers.[15] During that time, several F1 designers rented a home in Laguna Beach, California
Laguna Beach, California
to observe the lifestyles and tastes of American upper class consumers.[15] Meanwhile, F1 engineering teams conducted prototype testing on locations ranging from the German autobahn to U.S. roads.[16] Toyota’s market research concluded that a separate brand and sales channel were needed to present its new sedan, and plans were made to develop a new network of dealerships in the U.S. market.[17] Brand
Brand
development[edit] In 1986, Toyota’s longtime advertising agency Saatchi & Saatchi formed a specialized unit, Team One, to handle marketing for the new brand.[11] Image consulting firm Lippincott & Margulies was hired to develop a list of 219 prospective names; Vectre, Verone, Chaparel, Calibre and Alexis were chosen as top candidates.[18] While Alexis quickly became the front runner, concerns were raised that the name applied to people more than cars (being associated with the Alexis Carrington character on the popular 1980s prime time drama Dynasty).[18][19] As a result, the first letter was removed and the "i" replaced with a "u" to morph the name to Lexus.[19]

LS 400 sedan launched in 1989

Theories of the etymology of the Lexus
Lexus
name have suggested it is the combination of the words "luxury" and "elegance,"[20] and that it is an acronym for "luxury exports to the U.S."[20] According to Team One interviews, the brand name has no specific meaning and simply denotes a luxurious and technological image.[18] Prior to the release of the first vehicles, database service LexisNexis
LexisNexis
obtained a temporary injunction forbidding the name Lexus
Lexus
from being used because it might cause product confusion.[21] The injunction threatened to delay the division's launch and marketing efforts.[21] The U.S. appeals court lifted the injunction, deciding that there was little likelihood of confusion between the two products.[21] The original Lexus
Lexus
slogan, developed after Team One representatives visited Lexus
Lexus
designers in Japan
Japan
and noted an obsessive attention to detail, became "The Relentless Pursuit of Perfection."[22] The Lexus logo was developed by Molly Designs and Hunter Communications.[23][24] The final design for the Lexus
Lexus
logo featured a stylized “L” within an oval, and according to Toyota, was rendered using a mathematical formula.[18] The first teaser ads featuring the Lexus
Lexus
name and logo appeared at the Chicago, Los Angeles and New York auto shows in 1988.[25] Launch[edit] The F1 project was completed in 1989, involving 60 designers, 24 engineering teams, 1,400 engineers, 2,300 technicians, 220 support workers, approximately 450 prototypes and more than $1 billion in costs.[26] The resulting car, the Lexus LS
Lexus LS
400, had a design that shared no major elements with previous Toyota
Toyota
vehicles, with a new 4.0 L V8 gasoline engine and rear-wheel drive.[27][28] The car debuted in January 1989 at the North American International Auto Show
North American International Auto Show
in Detroit[13] and sales of the vehicle began the following September at a network of 81 new Lexus
Lexus
dealerships in the U.S.[29] The LS 400 was sold along with the smaller ES 250, a rebadged version of the Japanese market Toyota
Toyota
Camry Prominent/ Toyota
Toyota
Vista.[16] The launch of Lexus was accompanied by a multimillion-dollar advertising campaign.[30]

1991 SC 400 coupe was the third Lexus
Lexus
model

The LS 400 was praised for its quietness, well-appointed and ergonomic interior, engine performance, build quality, aerodynamics, fuel economy and value.[16][31] However, it was criticized by some automobile columnists for derivative styling and a suspension regarded as too compromising of handling for ride comfort.[16][32] In some markets it was priced against mid-size, six-cylinder Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
and BMW
BMW
models.[33] It was rated by Car and Driver
Car and Driver
magazine as better than the higher-priced Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
420 SEL and BMW
BMW
735i in terms of ride, handling and performance.[34] The LS 400 also won motoring awards from automotive publications including Automobile Magazine
Automobile Magazine
and Wheels Magazine.[35][36] Lexus
Lexus
quickly established customer loyalty and its debut was generally regarded as a shock to existing luxury marques. BMW's and Mercedes-Benz's U.S. sales figures dropped 29 percent and 19 percent, respectively, with BMW
BMW
executives accusing Lexus
Lexus
of dumping in that market, while 35 percent of Lexus
Lexus
buyers traded in a Lincoln or Cadillac.[34] In December 1989, Lexus
Lexus
initiated a voluntary recall of all 8,000 LS 400s based upon two customer complaints over defective wiring and an overheated brake light.[34] A 20-day operation to replace the parts on affected vehicles included technicians to pick up, repair and return cars to customers free of charge, and also flying personnel and renting garage space for owners in remote locations.[34] This response was covered in media publications and helped establish the marque's early reputation for customer service.[37][38] By the end of 1989, a total of 16,392 LS 400 and ES 250 sedans were sold in the four months following the U.S. launch.[39] Although sales had begun at a slower pace than expected, the final tally matched the division's target of 16,000 units for that year.[40] Following initial models, plans called for the addition of a sports coupe along with a redesigned ES sedan.[41] 1990s: Growth and expansion[edit]

1998 RX 300, first Lexus
Lexus
crossover SUV

In 1990, during its first full year of sales, Lexus
Lexus
sold 63,594 LS 400 and ES 250 sedans in the U.S.,[42] the majority being the LS model.[42] That year, Lexus
Lexus
also began limited exports to the United Kingdom, Switzerland, Canada
Canada
and Australia.[16][43] In 1991, Lexus launched its first sports coupe, the SC 400, which shared the LS 400’s V8 engine
V8 engine
and rear-wheel drive design.[41] This was followed by the second generation ES 300 sedan, which succeeded the ES 250 and became Lexus' top seller.[41] At the conclusion of 1991, Lexus
Lexus
had become the top-selling premium car import in the U.S.,[44][45] with sales reaching 71,206 vehicles.[42] That year, Lexus
Lexus
ranked highest in J.D. Power and Associates' studies on initial vehicle quality, customer satisfaction and sales satisfaction for the first time.[46] The marque also began increasing U.S. model prices past those of comparable American premium makes, but still below high-end European models.[45] By 1992, the LS 400's base price had risen 18 percent.[47] In 1993, Lexus
Lexus
launched the mid-size GS 300 sports sedan, based on the Toyota
Toyota
Aristo using the Toyota
Toyota
"S" platform from the Toyota
Toyota
Crown, which had sold for two years prior in Japan.[41] The GS 300 was priced below the LS 400 in the marque's lineup.[48] That same year, Lexus became one of the first marques to debut a certified pre-owned program, with the aim of improving trade-in model values.[49] The marque introduced the second generation LS 400 in 1994.[50] In May 1995, sales were threatened by the U.S. government's proposal of 100 percent tariffs on upscale Japanese cars in response to the widening U.S.- Japan
Japan
trade deficit.[51] SUVs were exempt from the proposed sanctions.[52] Normal sales operations resumed by late 1995 when the Japanese auto manufacturers collectively agreed to greater American investments and the tariffs were not enacted.[51]

ES 300 was the best-selling Lexus
Lexus
sedan in the 1990s

In 1996, Lexus
Lexus
debuted its first sport utility vehicle, the LX 450,[53] followed by the third generation ES 300 sedan. The marque's plans for developing an SUV model had accelerated during the U.S.- Japan
Japan
tariff discussions of 1995.[52] Lexus
Lexus
added the first luxury-branded crossover SUV, the RX 300, and the second generation GS 300 and GS 400 sedans in 1998. The RX crossover targeted suburban buyers who desired an upmarket SUV but did not need the LX's off-road capability.[54] It was particularly successful, eventually becoming the marque's top-selling model ahead of the ES sedan.[54] The same year, Lexus
Lexus
made its debut in South America's most populous country when it launched sales in Brazil.[55][56] In 1999, Lexus
Lexus
recorded its 1 millionth vehicle sold in the U.S. market[44] and was ranked the top-selling premium car maker in the U.S. overall.[54]

2000s: Global reorganization[edit]

2004 RX 400h, first hybrid version of Lexus' best-selling vehicle

In 2000, Lexus
Lexus
introduced the IS line, a series of entry-level sport sedans. In 2001, the first convertible was introduced, as well as the SC 430, a redesigned ES 300 and the third generation LS 430.[57] The GX 470 mid-size SUV debuted in 2002, followed by the second generation RX 330 in 2003.[58] The following year, Lexus
Lexus
recorded its 2 millionth U.S. vehicle sale,[59][60] and the first luxury-branded production hybrid SUV, the RX 400h.[61] This vehicle used Toyota's Hybrid Synergy Drive system that combined gasoline and electric motors.[62] In 2005, Lexus
Lexus
completed an organizational separation from parent company Toyota,[63] with dedicated design, engineering, training, and manufacturing centers working exclusively for the division.[64][65] This effort coincided with Lexus' launch in its home market of Japan and an expanded global launch of the brand in markets such as China.[65][66] Executives aimed to increase Lexus
Lexus
sales outside of its largest market in the U.S.[65][67] To accompany this expansion, next generation Lexus
Lexus
vehicles were redesigned as "global models" for international release.[68] In the European market, where Lexus
Lexus
had long faced struggling sales owing to low brand recognition, few dedicated dealerships, and 1990s import quotas,[69][70] the marque announced plans to introduce hybrid and diesel powertrains,[71] increase the number of Lexus
Lexus
dealerships, and expand operations in emerging markets such as Russia.[72][73]

2005 Lexus
Lexus
IS, second generation with F marque variant in 2007

Lexus' arrival in the Japanese market in July 2005 marked the first introduction of a Japanese premium car marque in the domestic market.[3] New generation LS, IS, ES, GS, and RX models subsequently became available in Japan
Japan
along with the SC 430, ending domestic sales of Toyota-branded models under the Celsior, Altezza, Windom, Aristo, Harrier, and Soarer nameplates, respectively. The Altezza and Aristo were previously exclusive to Japanese Toyota
Toyota
retail sales channels called Toyota
Toyota
Vista Store, the Windom was exclusive to Toyota
Toyota
Corolla Store, the Celsior and Harrier were exclusive to Toyopet Store, and the Soarer was previously available at both Toyota
Toyota
Store and Toyopet Store locations.[74][75] Lexus
Lexus
models sold in Japan
Japan
featured higher specifications and a price premium compared with their discontinued Toyota
Toyota
counterparts.[74] Sales for the first half-year were slower than expected,[76] affected by the contraction of the domestic auto market and price increases,[77] but improved in subsequent months with an expanded lineup.[77][78] Through the mid-2000s, Lexus
Lexus
experienced sales successes in South Korea and Taiwan, becoming the top-selling import make in both markets in 2005;[79][80] the marque also sold well in the Middle East, where it ranked first or second among rivals in multiple countries,[81] and in Australia, where Lexus
Lexus
reached third in luxury car sales in 2006.[82][83] Division executives in 2006 announced an expansion goal from 68 countries to 76 worldwide by 2010.[84] By the end of the decade, this expansion resulted in official launches in Malaysia and South Africa in 2006,[85][86] Indonesia in 2007,[87] Chile in 2008,[88][89] and the Philippines in 2009.[90]

Hybrids and F models[edit] In 2006, Lexus
Lexus
began sales of the GS 450h, a V6 hybrid performance sedan,[91] and launched the fourth generation LS line, comprising both standard- and long-wheelbase V8 (LS 460 and LS 460 L) and hybrid (LS 600h and LS 600h L) versions.[92] The fifth generation ES 350 also debuted in the same year. The LS 600h L subsequently went on sale as the most expensive sedan ever produced in Japan.[93] By the end of 2006, Lexus' annual sales had reached 475,000 vehicles worldwide.[94] In January 2007, Lexus
Lexus
announced a new F marque performance division, which would produce racing-inspired versions of its performance models. The IS F, made its debut at the 2007 North American International Auto Show,[95] accompanied by a concept car, the LF-A.

2006 GS 450h, first rear-wheel drive hybrid

In October 2007, Lexus
Lexus
entered the Specialty Equipment Market Association show in the U.S. for the first time with the IS F, and announced its F-Sport performance trim level and factory-sanctioned accessory line.[96] Increased emphasis on sporty models was an effort to target rivals from Mercedes-Benz's AMG and BMW's M divisions.[95][97] Models such as the SC 400 and GS 400 had received favorable reactions from sport luxury buyers,[98] most Lexus
Lexus
models had been characterized as favoring comfort over sporty road feel and handling, compared with European rivals.[99] By the end of 2007, Lexus annual worldwide sales had surpassed 500,000 vehicles,[100] and the marque ranked as the top-selling premium import in China for the first time.[101] The largest sales markets in order of size for 2007 were the U.S., Japan, the UK, China, Canada, and Russia.[94][102] In 2008, amidst the late-2000s recession and a weakened world car market, global sales fell 16 percent to 435,000,[103][104][105] with declines in markets such as the U.S. and Europe
Europe
where deliveries fell by 21 percent and 27.5 percent, respectively.[106][107] In 2009, the marque launched the HS 250h,[108] a dedicated hybrid sedan for North America and Japan, the RX 450h, the second generation hybrid SUV replacing the earlier RX 400h, and later that year debuted the US$375,000 production LFA exotic coupe.[109] In late 2009, citing higher sales of hybrid models over their petrol counterparts,[110][111] Lexus
Lexus
announced plans to become a hybrid-only marque in Europe.[112] By the end of the decade, Lexus
Lexus
ranked as the fourth-largest premium car make in the world by volume,[113] and was the number one selling premium car marque in the U.S. for 10 consecutive years.[105][113][114] 2010s: Recent developments[edit]

2012 Lexus
Lexus
LFA

In 2010, Lexus
Lexus
underwent a gradual sales recovery in North America and Asia as the marque focused on adding hybrids and new model derivatives.[81] Sales in the U.S. held steady despite the 2009–2010 Toyota
Toyota
vehicle recalls, several of which included Lexus
Lexus
models.[115] The ES 350 and certain IS models were affected by a recall for potentially jamming floor mats,[115] while parent company Toyota
Toyota
bore the brunt of negative publicity amid investigations over its series of product recalls and problem rates per-vehicle.[115][116] The redesigned GX 460 was also voluntarily recalled in April 2010 for a software update, one week after Consumer Reports
Consumer Reports
issued a recommendation not to buy the SUV, citing a possible rollover risk following the slow stability control response to a high-speed emergency turn.[117] Although the publication knew of no reported incidents, the GX 460 received updated stability control software.[117] In late 2010 and early 2011, Lexus
Lexus
began sales of the CT 200h, a compact four-door hybrid hatchback designed for Europe, in multiple markets.[118][119] Sales of lower-displacement regional models were also expanded, beginning with the ES 240 in China followed by the RX 270; Japan, Russia, and Taiwan were among markets which received model variants intended for reduced emissions or import taxes.[120][121] In March 2011, the Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami caused severe disruption to Lexus' Japan-based production lines, hindering the marque's near-term sales prospects.[122] Lexus' U.S. executives stated that due to vehicle shortages amidst close competition from BMW, Mercedes-Benz, and Audi, the marque would not remain the country's top-selling premium car brand.[122]

2010 CT 200h, first Lexus
Lexus
hatchback

Cumulative sales results for 2011 indicated a 14 percent sales drop in the U.S. market,[123] along with sales increases of 40 percent and 27 percent in Europe
Europe
and Japan
Japan
respectively,[124][125] for a global sales total of 410,000 units.[126] Lexus' streak of 11 consecutive years as the best-selling luxury marque in the U.S. ended that year, with the title going to BMW
BMW
followed by Mercedes-Benz.[127] While 45 percent of Lexus
Lexus
sales in the U.S. in 2011 relied upon the RX luxury crossover SUV, rival Mercedes-Benz's best-selling offering was the E-Class mid-luxury sedan, which commands considerably higher prices.[128] Subsequently, Toyota
Toyota
chairman Akio Toyoda
Akio Toyoda
vowed to restore passion to the marque and further increase its organizational independence, admitting that "...back then we did not regard Lexus
Lexus
as a brand, but as a distribution channel". As a result of Toyoda's organizational changes, Lexus
Lexus
senior managers report directly to the chairman for the first time in the marque's history.[127][128] In January 2012, the marque began sales of the fourth generation GS line, including GS 350 and GS 450h
GS 450h
variants, as well as a lower-displacement GS 250 model for select markets.[129] In April 2012, the sixth generation ES line, include ES 350 and ES 300h variants, debuted at the New York International Auto Show.[130] In April 2014, Lexus
Lexus
unveiled the five-seater NX crossover. The vehicle features a very first for a Lexus
Lexus
vehicle: a turbocharger. Its nomenclature is denoted as the 200t. In August 2014, Toyota
Toyota
announced it would be cutting its Lexus
Lexus
spare parts prices in China by up to 35 percent. The company admitted the move was in response to a probe foreshadowed earlier in the month by China's National Development and Reform Commission of Lexus
Lexus
spare parts policies, as part of an industry-wide investigation into what the Chinese regulator considers exorbitantly high prices being charged by automakers for spare parts and after-sales servicing.[131] In March 2016, Lexus
Lexus
announced that it will be producing a new flagship vehicle: the two-door LC 500. The vehicle will be produced for late 2017 in a V8 version putting out 467 horsepower. The LC 500h, a V6 hybrid variant, could potentially become available in late 2017 or early 2018.

Corporate affairs[edit]

Total sales and production

Regional sales, 2011 Units

Japan[125] 42,365

China[132] 56,303

Europe[124] 43,637

United States[123] 198,552

Type production, 2010 Units

Passenger vehicles 205,070

Crossover SUVs 159,560

Hybrid vehicles 66,226

Line production, 2010 Units

Japan
Japan
production[133] 283,012

Canada
Canada
production[134] 81,618

Total 364,630

Operations[edit] Lexus
Lexus
International, headed by managing officer Tokuo Fukuichi, coordinates the worldwide operations of Toyota's luxury division.[135][136] Other executives at Lexus' global headquarters, located in Nagoya, Aichi,[137] include Mark Templin, executive vice president of Lexus
Lexus
International,[135] and managers of the marque's Japan
Japan
Sales and Marketing and global Product and Marketing Planning divisions.[136][138] While organizationally separate from its parent company, Lexus
Lexus
International reports directly to Toyota
Toyota
chief executive officer Akio Toyoda.[126] In the U.S., Lexus
Lexus
operations are headed by Jeffrey Bracken, group vice president and general manager of the U.S. Lexus
Lexus
division, located in Southern California.[139] In Europe, Lexus
Lexus
operations are headed by Alain Uyttenhoven, vice president of Lexus
Lexus
Europe, located in Brussels.[140] Companion design facilities are located in Southern California[141] and central Japan,[142] with the head design studio devoted entirely to Lexus
Lexus
models in Toyota
Toyota
City, Aichi.[142][143] Lexus
Lexus
sales operations vary in structure by region. In many markets, such as the U.S., the dealership network is a distinct organization from corporate headquarters,[122] with separately owned and operated Lexus
Lexus
showrooms.[144] By contrast, in Japan
Japan
all 143 dealerships in the country are owned and operated by Lexus.[77] Several markets have a designated, third party regional distributor; for example, in the United Arab Emirates, sales operations are managed by Al-Futtaim Motors LLC,[81] and in Costa Rica, Lexus
Lexus
vehicles are sold via regional distributor Purdy Motors S.A.[145] Other officially sanctioned regional distributors have sold Lexus
Lexus
models prior to the launch of, or in absence of, a dedicated dealership network.[86]

This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (December 2017)

The Lexus
Lexus
brand launched in the Indian market in 2017,[146] with the models RX450h, LX450d, LX570d, ES300h[147], NX, LS[148]. Dealerships in Mumbai, Delhi, Gurgaon
Gurgaon
and Bangalore
Bangalore
became operational in March 2017, when the brand began sales in India. A second set of dealerships will be in Chandigarh, Cochin
Cochin
and Chennai
Chennai
and will be operational toward the end of 2017.[147] This made Lexus
Lexus
the fifth luxury brand to be launched in India, after Mercedes-Benz, Porsche, BMW
BMW
and Audi. Sales[edit] Global sales of Lexus
Lexus
vehicles reached an all-time high in 2007, with a total of 518,000. Sales decreased in subsequent years due to the effects of the 2008 recession and the Japanese tsunami of 2011. Following this, sales recovered and reached a new high of 523,000 in 2013.[149] In 2014, the Lexus
Lexus
brand set a new global sales record after selling 582,000 vehicles. This made Lexus
Lexus
the fourth best selling luxury brand in the world, trailing BMW, Audi
Audi
and Mercedes-Benz.[150]

Fuji Lexus
Lexus
College, training facility for dealers in Shizuoka, Japan

Global sales of Lexus
Lexus
vehicles increased by 12 percent in 2015 to reach another annual sales record with 652,000 units sold worldwide.[151] Global cumulative sales of Lexus
Lexus
brand hybrid electric cars reached the 500,000 mark in November 2012.[152] The 1 million sales milestone was achieved in March 2016.[153] The Lexus RX
Lexus RX
400h/RX 450h ranks as the top selling Lexus
Lexus
hybrid with 335,000 units delivered worldwide as of March 2016[update], followed by the Lexus CT
Lexus CT
200h with 267,000 units.[153] Lexus
Lexus
has not sold as well in Europe, where it suffers from smaller brand recognition, image, and a less-developed dealership network.[154] In European markets, the Lexus LS
Lexus LS
has ranked behind Jaguar, Mercedes-Benz, Audi, and BMW
BMW
in flagship luxury car sales.[155] Automotive
Automotive
analysts have suggested a possible rationale for the sales disparity, in that European buyers place less emphasis on vehicle reliability and have more brand loyalty to established domestic marques.[154] In contrast, the Lexus LS
Lexus LS
has ranked second in sales to the Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
S-Class (and ahead of rivals from BMW, Audi, and Jaguar) in markets outside Europe, such as South Africa.[156] US sales figures[157][edit] Currently all of Lexus’s models for the US market are imported from Japan, with the exception of the RX, which is also produced in Cambridge, Ontario
Ontario
for North America. The RX midsized crossover is Lexus’s best selling model in the United States, while the ES mid-sized car is the most popular sedan in the line-up.

Year Sales (All models) Market share (Percent / %)

2017 305,229 1.77

2016 331,228 1.89

2015 344,601 1.97

2014 311,389 1.88

2013 273,847 1.76

2012 244,162 1.68

2011 198,552 1.55

2010 229,329 1.98

2009 215,975 2.07

2008 260,087 1.96

2007 329,177 2.07

2006 322,434 1.95

2005 302,895 2.04

2004 287,927 1.70

2003 259,755 1.56

2002 234,109 1.40

2001 223,983 1.30

2000 206,037 1.20

1999 185,890 1.10

1998 156,260 1.00

1997 97,563 0.60

1996 81,529 0.50

1995 83,616 0.50

1994 91,554 0.58

1993 99,280 0.64

1992 92,890 0.69

1991 71,206 0.58

1990 63,534 0.46

1989 16,302 0.11

1988 0 0.00

Financial performance[edit] Financial data of Lexus
Lexus
operations are not disclosed publicly.[158] However, automotive analysts estimate that the Lexus
Lexus
division contributes a disproportionate share of Toyota's profits, relative to its limited production and sales volume.[158] Interviews with retired division officials indicate that depending on sales volume, vehicle product development cycles, and exchange rates, Lexus
Lexus
sales have accounted for as much as half of Toyota's annual U.S. profit in certain years.[158] Division executives have employed pricing strategies aimed at sustaining profit margins rather than sales volume, with historically fewer price incentives than rival brands.[158] In 2006, Lexus
Lexus
entered Interbrand's list of the Top 100 Global Brands for the first time, with an estimated brand value of approximately $3 billion annually.[159] In 2009, Interbrand
Interbrand
ranked Lexus
Lexus
as Japan's seventh largest brand, between Panasonic
Panasonic
and Nissan, based on revenue, earnings, and market value.[2]

Automobiles[edit] Vehicle lineup[edit] Further information: List of Lexus
Lexus
vehicles The global Lexus
Lexus
lineup features sedans of different size classes, including the compact IS and HS models, mid-size ES and GS models, and the full-size LS. Convertibles include the IS C models. Sport-utility vehicles range in size from the compact NX and RX crossover, to the mid-size GX and the full-size LX. Hybrid models include the CT hatchback, HS sedan, and variants of the GS, LS, and RX.[160] The F marque line produces a variant of the GS sedan, the RC coupe and the LFA.[160] F marque[edit] Further information: Lexus F
Lexus F
and Lexus
Lexus
F-Sport

Lexus F
Lexus F
marque emblem

Lexus
Lexus
produces its highest-performance models under its F marque division.[95] The name refers to Flagship and Fuji Speedway
Fuji Speedway
in Japan, whose first corner, 27R, inspired the shape of the "F" emblem.[161] F marque models are developed by the Lexus
Lexus
Vehicle Performance Development Division.[162] The first F marque model, the IS F, went on sale in 2007, followed by the LFA in 2009.[109] A related F-Sport performance trim level and factory-sanctioned accessory line is available for standard Lexus
Lexus
models such as the IS 250 and IS 350.[96] F-Sport succeeded an earlier in-house tuning effort, the TRD-based L-Tuned, which had offered performance packages on the IS and GS sedans in the early 2000s (decade).[163][164] The latest editions to the performance F marque include the Lexus RC
Lexus RC
F and Lexus GS
Lexus GS
F.[165] Model nomenclature[edit] Lexus
Lexus
production models are named alphanumerically using two-letter designations followed by three digits. The first letter indicates relative status in the Lexus
Lexus
model range (ranking),[166] and the second letter refers to car body style or type[166] (e.g. LS for 'luxury sedan'). The three digits indicate engine displacement in liters multiplied by a factor of one hundred (e.g. 350 for a 3.5 L engine).[166] A space is used between the letters and numbers. The same letter may be used differently depending on the model; 'S' can refer to 'sedan'[166] or 'sport'[75] (e.g. in LS and SC), while 'X' refers to 'luxury utility vehicle' or SUV.[166][167] On hybrids, the three digits refer to the combined gasoline-electric output.[62] For certain models, a lower case letter placed after the alphanumeric designation indicates powerplant type ('h' for hybrid, 'd' for diesel, 't' for turbocharged),[110] while capital letter(s) placed at the end indicates a class subtype (e.g. 'L' for long-wheelbase,[63] 'C' for coupe, 'AWD' for all-wheel drive). On F marque models, the two-letter designation and the letter 'F' are used with no numbers or hyphens (e.g. IS F).[110] Design and technology[edit]

Lexus
Lexus
Remote Touch
Remote Touch
controller

Lexus
Lexus
design has traditionally placed an emphasis on targeting specific vehicle development standards.[168] Since the marque's inception, design targets have ranged from aerodynamics and ride quality to interior ergonomics.[31][169] The backronym "IDEAL" ("Impressive, Dynamic, Elegant, Advanced, and Lasting") is used in the development process.[170] Each vehicle is designed according to approximately 500 specific product standards, known as " Lexus
Lexus
Musts," on criteria such as leather seat stitching.[171][172] Design elements from the marque's concept vehicle line, the LF series (including the 2003 LF-S and 2004 LF-C), have been incorporated in production models.[173][174] Vehicle cabins have incorporated electroluminescent Optitron gauges,[175] SmartAccess, a smart key entry and startup system,[176] and multimedia features. Beginning with the 2010 RX and HS models, the Remote Touch
Remote Touch
system, featuring a computer mouse-like controller with haptic feedback, was introduced;[108][177] other models have featured touchscreen controls (through the 2009 model year) as a navigation screen interface.[176] 2014 saw the introduction of the next version of Lexus’ remote-touch innovations—the Remote Touch
Remote Touch
Interface Touchpad in the new RC Coupe.[178] In 1989, Lexus
Lexus
became among the first premium car marques to equip models with premium audio systems, in partnership with stereo firm Nakamichi.[179][180] Since 2001, optional surround sound systems are offered via high-end audio purveyor Mark Levinson.[180] For reduced cabin noise, the first LS 400 introduced sandwich steel plating,[175] and later models added acoustic glass.[181] In 2006, the LS 460 debuted the first ceiling air diffusers and infrared body temperature sensors in a car.[182][183] Telematics
Telematics
services include G-Book
G-Book
with G-Link in Asia and Lexus
Lexus
Enform in North America.[184]

Eight-speed automatic transmission in the IS F and LS 460 Sport

In 2006, Lexus
Lexus
incorporated the first production eight-speed automatic transmission in an automobile with the LS 460,[182] and the gearbox was later adapted for the GS 460 and IS F models. Continuously variable transmissions, regenerative brakes, and electric motors have been used on all Lexus
Lexus
hybrid models.[62] In 2007, Lexus
Lexus
executives signaled intentions to equip further models with hybrid powertrains,[110] catering to demands for a decrease in both carbon pollution and oil reliance.[185] Hybrid models have been differentiated by separate badging and lighting technology; in 2008, the LS 600h L became the first production vehicle to use LED headlamps.[186] Safety features on Lexus
Lexus
models range from stability and handling programs (Vehicle Stability Control and Vehicle Dynamics Integrated Management)[187] to backup cameras, swivel headlights, and sonar warning systems. The Lexus
Lexus
Pre-Collision System (PCS) integrates multiple safety systems.[187] In 2007, Lexus
Lexus
introduced the first car safety systems with infrared and pedestrian detection capabilities, lane keep assist, a Driver Monitoring System
Driver Monitoring System
with facial recognition monitoring of driver attentiveness, and rear pre-collision whiplash protection, as part of the LS 460 PCS.[182] As a safety precaution, Lexus
Lexus
GPS navigation systems in many regions feature a motion lockout when the vehicle reaches a set speed; to prevent distraction, navigation inputs are limited, while voice input and certain buttons are still accessible. This safety feature has attracted criticism because passengers cannot use certain functions when the vehicle is in motion.[188] Pre-2007 models came with a hidden manufacturer override option,[189] and updated European models allow operation in motion.[190]

2006 LS 600h and LS 600h L in hybrid form

Production models in development have included convertibles, crossovers, and dedicated hybrids.[191][192] Under the F marque, Lexus plans to produce high-performance vehicles with its first expressions being the IS F and the LFA. Lexus
Lexus
officials have also discussed standard production model usage of varying platforms.[193] The LS uses a dedicated platform,[28] while the entry-level Lexus ES
Lexus ES
had been criticized for being too similar to the Toyota
Toyota
Camry, with which it shared platforms until its sixth generation,[130] in both styling and powertrain design.[194] The Nürburgring
Nürburgring
test track in Germany has also seen Lexus
Lexus
prototype testing.[195] L-finesse[edit] See also: Lexus
Lexus
LF Lexus
Lexus
introduced a new design language known as "L-finesse" in the mid-2000s with its LF series concepts and the 2006 Lexus
Lexus
GS.[196][197] L-finesse is represented by three Japanese kanji characters which translate as "Intriguing Elegance, Incisive Simplicity, and Seamless Anticipation".[197] Design characteristics, including a fastback profile, lower-set grille,[198] and the use of both convex and concave surfaces,[198] are derived from Japanese cultural motifs (e.g. the phrase kirikaeshi in arrowhead shapes).[199] While earlier Lexus models were criticized for reserved and derivative styling, and often mistaken for understated domestic market cars,[198] automotive design analyses described L-finesse as adding a distinctive nature and embrace of Japanese design identity.[196][197] Opinions varied for L-finesse's debut on the GS; Sports Car International's analysis praised the vehicle's in-person appearance;[200] Automobile Magazine criticized the daring of its forward styling,[201] and compared subsequent rival models for design similarities.[202] In 2012, the arrival of the redesigned fourth generation Lexus GS
Lexus GS
featured the introduction of a spindle-shaped grille design, intended to be used on all forthcoming Lexus
Lexus
models.[137] L-finesse exhibitions were presented at Milan's Salone del Mobile from 2005 through 2009.[203]

Production[edit] Assembly plants[edit]

Lexus
Lexus
models produced by the Tahara plant
Tahara plant
in Aichi, Japan

The first Lexus
Lexus
vehicles were manufactured in Toyota's Tahara plant, a highly sophisticated, computerized manufacturing plant in Japan.[160][204] Lexus
Lexus
production techniques include methods and standards of quality control that differ from Toyota
Toyota
models.[205][206] At the Tahara plant, separate assembly lines were developed for Lexus vehicles,[207][208] along with new molds and specialized manufacturing equipment.[208] Welding
Welding
processes, body panel fit tolerances, and paint quality requirements are more stringent.[205][209] Lexus
Lexus
plant workers, typically veteran technicians, are identified via repeated performance evaluations and ranked according to skill grade, with limited applicants accepted.[210] The highest level takumi (Japanese for "artisan") engineers are responsible for maintaining production standards at key points in the assembly process, such as testing engine performance.[63] Production vehicles are given visual inspections for flaws, individually test-driven at high speeds, and subjected to vibration tests.[205] Through the 2000s (decade), most Lexus
Lexus
sedan and SUV production has occurred in Japan
Japan
at the Tahara plant
Tahara plant
in Aichi and Miyata plant in Fukuoka.[67][160] In addition to the Tahara factory, Lexus
Lexus
vehicles have been produced at the Miyata plant ( Toyota
Toyota
Motor Kyushu, Inc.) in Miyawaka, Fukuoka, Higashi Fuji plant (Kanto Auto Works, Ltd.) in Susono, Shizuoka, and Sanage plant ( Toyota
Toyota
Boshoku Corp.; Araco) in Toyota
Toyota
City, Aichi.[67][160] Front-wheel drive
Front-wheel drive
cars, such as the ES and HS, are produced in the Fukuoka Prefecture.[160] The Kokura plant in Kitakyushu, Fukuoka, which opened in 2008, is a dedicated hybrid production site for Lexus
Lexus
models such as the gasoline-electric RX.[211] The North American–market RX 350 (since the 2004 model year) is produced at the Cambridge plant ( Toyota
Toyota
Canada, Inc.) in the city of Cambridge, in Ontario, Canada, which is the first Lexus production site located outside Japan. In late 2015, Lexus
Lexus
started to assemble North American-spec ES 350 sedans at the Georgetown plant (TMMK, Inc.).[212]

Assembly sites by model[67][160]

Plant Owner Location Model(s)

Tahara Toyota
Toyota
Motor Corp. Tahara, Aichi
Tahara, Aichi
Prefecture LS, GS, IS, GX, RC

Kokura Toyota
Toyota
Motor Kyushu, Inc. Kitakyushu, Fukuoka Prefecture CT, HS, RX

Miyata Toyota
Toyota
Motor Kyushu, Inc. Miyawaka, Fukuoka
Miyawaka, Fukuoka
Prefecture ES, IS, RX, NX

Motomachi Toyota
Toyota
Motor Corp. Toyota
Toyota
City, Aichi Prefecture LFA, LC

Higashi Fuji Kanto Auto Works, Ltd. Susono, Shizuoka
Susono, Shizuoka
Prefecture SC

Sanage Toyota
Toyota
Boshoku Corp. Toyota
Toyota
City, Aichi Prefecture LX

Cambridge Toyota
Toyota
Motor Manufacturing Canada, Inc.(TMMC) Cambridge, Ontario RX, RXh

Georgetown Toyota
Toyota
Motor Manufacturing Kentucky, Inc. Georgetown, Kentucky ES

Quality rankings[edit] In the 2000s (decade), Consumer Reports
Consumer Reports
named Lexus
Lexus
among the top five most reliable brands in its Annual Car Reliability Surveys of over one million vehicles across the U.S.[213][214]

Service[edit]

Lexus
Lexus
dealership showroom in Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan

Lexus
Lexus
has become known for efforts to provide an upscale image, particularly with service provided after the sale. The waiting areas in service departments are replete with amenities, ranging from refreshment bars to indoor putting greens.[215][216] Dealerships typically offer complimentary loaner cars or "courtesy cars" and free car washes,[216] and some have added on-site cafes and designer boutiques.[217][218] Service bays are lined with large picture windows for owners to watch the servicing of their vehicle.[219] In 2005, Lexus
Lexus
also began reserving parking lots at major sporting arenas, entertainment events, and shopping malls, with the only requirement for free entry being the ownership of a Lexus
Lexus
vehicle.[220] An online owner publication, Lexus
Lexus
Magazine,[221] features automotive and lifestyle articles and is published online monthly[222] and on a mobile site.[223] Since 2002, Lexus
Lexus
has scored consecutive top ratings in the Auto Express[224][225] and 76,000-respondent Top Gear customer satisfaction surveys in the UK.[226] Lexus
Lexus
has also repeatedly topped the 79,000-respondent J.D. Power Customer Service Index[227] and Luxury Institute, New York surveys in the U.S.[228] As a result of service satisfaction levels, the marque has one of the highest customer loyalty rates in the industry.[229] To improve customer service, employees are instructed to follow the " Lexus
Lexus
Covenant," the marque's founding promise (which states that " Lexus
Lexus
will treat each customer as we would a guest in our home"),[230] and some dealerships have incorporated training at upscale establishments such as Nordstrom department stores and Ritz-Carlton
Ritz-Carlton
hotels.[231] Motorsport[edit]

Lexus
Lexus
campaigned at the 24 Hours Nürburgring

Lexus
Lexus
first entered the motorsport arena in 1999 when its racing unit, Team Lexus,[232] fielded two GS 400 race vehicles in the Motorola Cup North American Street Stock Championship touring car series. In its 1999 inaugural season, Team Lexus
Lexus
achieved its first victory with its sixth race at Road Atlanta.[233] Led by Sports Car Club of America
Sports Car Club of America
and International Motor Sports Association
International Motor Sports Association
driver Chuck Goldsborough, based in Baltimore, Maryland,[234] Team Lexus
Lexus
capitalized on the debut of the first generation Lexus IS
Lexus IS
by entering three IS 300s in the third race of the 2001 Grand-Am Cup
Grand-Am Cup
season at Phoenix, Arizona.[235] Team Lexus
Lexus
won its first IS 300 victory that year at the Virginia International Raceway.[235] In 2002, Team Lexus' competitive efforts in the Grand-Am Cup
Grand-Am Cup
ST1 (Street Tuner) class achieved victories in the Drivers' and Team Championships,[233][234] as well as a sweep of the top three finishes at Circuit Mont-Tremblant
Circuit Mont-Tremblant
in Quebec, Canada.[236] After the release of the Lexus
Lexus
brand in the Japanese domestic market in 2005, Lexus
Lexus
sanctioned the entry of four SC 430 coupes in the Super GT series of the All Japan
Japan
Grand Touring Car Championship in the GT500 class. In the first race of the 2006 series, an SC 430 took the chequered flag,[237] and drivers André Lotterer
André Lotterer
and Juichi Wakisaka raced the SC 430 to capture the GT500 championship for that year.[238] In 2007, another SC 430 won the GT500 opening round race.[239] In 2006, Lexus
Lexus
raced a hybrid vehicle for the first time, entering a GS 450h performance hybrid sedan in partnership with Sigma Advanced Racing Development at the 24 Hours of Tokachi race in Hokkaido, Japan.[240] Lexus
Lexus
Canada
Canada
also entered the GS 450h
GS 450h
in 2007's Targa Newfoundland event.[241] In 2009, Lexus
Lexus
Super GT
Super GT
Team SC 430 and IS 350 racers won the GT500 and GT300 championships, respectively.[242]

In 2006, 2007, and 2008, Lexus
Lexus
won the Rolex Sports Car Series Manufacturers' Championship

Lexus' participation in endurance racing further includes the Rolex 24 Hours of Daytona, sanctioned by the Grand American Road Racing Association. After entering the Rolex Sports Car Series
Rolex Sports Car Series
in 2004, Lexus has won over 15 Rolex Series event races.[243] In 2005, Lexus
Lexus
was runner-up, and in 2006, it won the championship.[244] Although Toyota has won this race in the past, it was the first time that its luxury arm emerged as the winner. In 2007, six Lexus-powered Daytona prototypes were entered in the Rolex 24 Hours of Daytona
24 Hours of Daytona
event at the Daytona International Speedway. Lexus
Lexus
was a repeat winner of the event, with a Lexus-Riley prototype driven by Scott Pruett, Juan Pablo Montoya, and Salvador Durán
Salvador Durán
of Chip Ganassi Racing
Chip Ganassi Racing
finishing first; Lexus-Riley prototypes also took three of the top ten spots.[245] In 2008, Lexus
Lexus
won its third consecutive win at Daytona.[246] For the 2010 season, Lexus
Lexus
departed from the Rolex Sports Car Series, and Ganassi Racing switched to BMW/Dinan engines.[247] The LF-A prototype also competed on the Nürburgring
Nürburgring
from 2008 to 2011 in VLN
VLN
endurance races[248] and in the 24 Hours Nürburgring, also with the IS F.[249] On May 14, 2011, a CT 200h tuned up by Gazoo Racing competed in the Adenauer ADAC Rundstrecken-Trophy, a six-hour endurance race.[250] 3GT Racing, a partnership of Lexus
Lexus
and Paul Gentilozzi, entered two Lexus RC
Lexus RC
F GT3 at the 2017 IMSA WeatherTech SportsCar Championship.

Marketing[edit]

Lexus
Lexus
2054, a concept model produced for the film Minority Report

From its inception, Lexus
Lexus
has been advertised to luxury consumers using specific marketing strategies, with a consistent motif used for the marque's advertisements. Beginning in 1989, television ads were narrated by actor James Sloyan
James Sloyan
(the voice of "Mr. Lexus" until 2009),[30][251] and accompanied by vehicles that performed unusual stunts onscreen.[252] The first decade of Lexus
Lexus
commercials (1989–99) consisted primarily of disjunctive verbal descriptions, such as "relentless," "pursuit," and "perfection,"[253] while vehicles were used to claim superiority in precision, idling, and interior quiet and comfort on camera.[252] Examples included the champagne glass "Balance" (1989) and rolling "Ball Bearing" (1992).[252] In the 2000s (decade), commercials included descriptions of features,[254] or a narration of the events onscreen, and were often targeted at the marque's German competitors.[255] An annual "December to Remember" campaign featured scenes of family members surprising loved ones with the gift of a new Lexus.[256] The marque returned to the champagne glass theme in a 2006 LS 460 spot showing the sedan maneuvering between two stacks of glasses using its self-parking system, and in a 2010 LFA spot showing its engine sound shattering a glass via resonance frequency.[257]

Lexus LFA
Lexus LFA
Crystallised Wind, a full-size glass art model

Industry observers have attributed Lexus' early marketing successes to higher levels of perceived quality and lower prices than competitors, which have enabled the marque to attract customers upgrading from mass-market cars.[6][34] A reputation for dependability, bolstered by reliability surveys, also became a primary factor in attracting new customers from rival premium makes.[258][259] Lexus
Lexus
has since grown to command higher price premiums than rival Japanese makes,[260] with new models further increasing in price and reaching the more than $100,000 ultra-luxury category long dominated by rival European marques.[261][262][263] Automotive
Automotive
analysts have also noted Lexus' relative newcomer status as a marketing challenge for the brand,[264] although some have debated the requirement of a long history.[260][265] European rivals have marketed their decades of heritage and pedigree,[266] whereas Lexus' reputation rests primarily upon its perceived quality and shared history with parent company Toyota.[260] Several analysts have stated that Lexus
Lexus
will have to develop its own heritage over time by highlighting technological innovations and producing substantial products.[94][264] Lexus' marketing efforts have extended to sporting and charity event sponsorships, including the U.S. Open tennis Grand Slam event from 2005 to 2009, and the United States Golf Association's U.S. Open, U.S. Women's Open, U.S. Senior Open, and U.S. Amateur tournaments since 2007.[267][268] Lexus
Lexus
has organized an annual Champions for Charity golf series in the U.S. since 1989.[269] Endorsement contracts have also been signed with professional athletes Andy Roddick, Annika Sörenstam, and Peter Jacobsen.[270] Since 2008, Lexus
Lexus
has run the video website L Studio. Shows on L Studio include Web Therapy.[271] Lexus
Lexus
unveiled its new "Experience Amazing" tagline in the U.S. in a 60-second advertisement at the February 2017 Super Bowl LI.[272] The new tagline replaced Lexus's previous slogan, "The Pursuit of Perfection".[273] On March 30, 2018, Lexus
Lexus
premiered a fake partnership with 23 and Me during a spot on Saturday Night Live, for a pretend program that allows buyers to customize vehicles based on their DNA, as an April Fool's Day joke.[274] Lexus
Lexus
slogans[edit]

The Relentless Pursuit of Perfection (2001-2010) The Pursuit of Perfection (2010-2016) Experience Amazing (2017–present)

See also[edit]

The Championship by Lexus Slide (hoverboard)

References[edit] Notes[edit]

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in America. New York: Melcher Media. ISBN 0-9717935-7-3.  May, Matthew E. (2006). The Elegant Solution: Toyota's Formula for Mastering Innovation. Forward by Kevin Roberts. New York: Free Press. ISBN 0-7432-9017-8. LCCN 2006048411.  Morgan, James M.; Liker, Jeffrey K. (2006). The Toyota
Toyota
Product Development System: Integrating People, Process and Technology. New York: Productive Press. ISBN 1-56327-282-2. 

External links[edit]

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Lexus
vehicles.

Official website (Japan) Official website (select by country) Lexus
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Lexus
Lexus
– global production model lineup

Sedan Coupe SUV Hybrid F marque

IS HS ES GS LS

IS RC LC

RX GX LX NX

CT HS ES GS LS RX NX

IS LFA

Complete model list Model acronyms Model timeline

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Lexus

Current models

Hatchbacks

CT

Sedans

ES GS HS IS LS

Coupes

LC RC

Crossovers

NX RX UX

SUVs

GX LX

Discontinued

LFA SC

Concept vehicles

LF Series (LF-A LF-AR LF-C LF-Ch LF-Gh LF-S LF-Sh LF-X LF-Xh) Salone Milano (Evolving Fiber Invisible Garden Elastic Diamond Crystallised Wind) 2054 CT Umbra HB IS 430 IS F Racing IS F CCS LS ITS-Safety SC 430 CH FLV HPS HPX SLV Landau

Motorsport

F marque F-Sport Lexus
Lexus
Grand-Am (Rolex 24) Super GT
Super GT
IS 350 (GT300) Super GT
Super GT
SC 430 (GT500) Team Lexus Team LFA

Technology

Active Power Stabilizer Suspension System (APSSS) Driver Monitoring System Electronically Controlled Brake
Electronically Controlled Brake
(ECB) G-Link Intelligent Parking Assist (IPAS) Kinetic Dynamic Suspension System
Kinetic Dynamic Suspension System
(KDSS) Lexus
Lexus
Enform Lexus
Lexus
Hybrid Drive Lexus
Lexus
Link Pre-Collision System (PCS) Remote Touch Safety Connect Sport Direct Shift Transmission (SPDS) VVT-iE Vehicle Dynamics Integrated Management
Vehicle Dynamics Integrated Management
(VDIM)

Key people

Founder (Eiji Toyoda) Chief engineers (Nobuaki Katayama Ichiro Suzuki Haruhiko Tanahashi Yukihiko Yaguchi) Test driver/engineer (Hiromu Naruse)

See also

Lexus
Lexus
road vehicle timeline List of Lexus
Lexus
vehicles L-finesse L-Select Tahara plant The Pursuit of Perfection

A division of Toyota
Toyota
Motor Corporation (Cars Category Commons)

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Lexus, a division of Toyota
Toyota
Motor Corporation, vehicle production timeline

Type Line

1990s 2000s 2010s

9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Compact CT

A10

IS

XE10 XE20 XE30

HS

ANF10

Mid-size ES

V20 XV10 XV20 XV30 XV40 XV60

GS

S140 S160 S190 L10

Full-size LS

XF10 XF20 XF30 XF40 XF50

Crossover UX

NX

AZ10

RX

XU10 XU30 AL10 AL20

SUV GX

J120 J150

LX

J80 J100 J200

Coupé RC

XC10

SC

Z30 Z40

LC

Z100

LFA

LFA

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Toyota
Toyota
Motor Corporation

Marques

Toyota Daihatsu Lexus Hino Leahead1 Ranz2 Subaru3

Former marques

Scion

Subsidiaries

Calty Design Research Central Motors Hino Motors Kanto Auto Works Toyota
Toyota
Australia Toyota
Toyota
Central R&D Labs Toyota
Toyota
Financial Services Toyota
Toyota
Manufacturing UK Toyota
Toyota
(GB) PLC Toyota
Toyota
Motor Europe Toyota
Toyota
Motor Manufacturing Canada Toyota
Toyota
Motor Manufacturing France Toyota
Toyota
Motor Manufacturing Turkey Toyota
Toyota
Motor North America Toyota
Toyota
Motor Engineering & Manufacturing North America Toyota
Toyota
Motor Philippines Toyota
Toyota
Motor Thailand Toyota
Toyota
Motorsport GmbH

Joint ventures

WiLL GAC Toyota
Toyota
(50%) Indus Motors Company Sichuan FAW Toyota
Toyota
Motor (50%) Toyota
Toyota
Kirloskar Motor Toyota
Toyota
Peugeot Citroën Automobile Czech UMW Toyota
Toyota
Motor (49%)

Current models

Cars

86 Agya Allion Auris Aurion Avalon Avensis Aygo Camry

Camry Hybrid

Century Corolla

Corolla Altis Corolla Axio Corolla Fielder Corolla iM

Crown

Crown Majesta

Etios JPN Taxi Mark X Mirai Passo Pixis Epoch Pixis Joy Pixis Mega Premio Porte Prius

Prius Plug-in Hybrid Prius c

Probox Roomy Succeed Tank Verso Vios Vitz Yaris

Yaris iA

Pickup trucks/Utilities

Hilux

Hilux Vigo Hilux Revo

Land Cruiser 79 Series Pixis Truck Tacoma Tundra

SUVs/Crossovers

4Runner C-HR Fortuner Harrier

Harrier Hybrid

Highlander Kluger

Highlander Hybrid Kluger Hybrid

Land Cruiser 200 Land Cruiser Prado Land Cruiser 74 Series Land Cruiser 76 Series Land Cruiser 78 Series RAV4 Rush Sequoia

Vans

Alphard Avanza Calya Esquire Estima

Estima Hybrid

HiAce Innova

Kijang Innova

LiteAce Noah Pixis Van Previa Prius v/Prius +/Prius α ProAce Sienna Sienta TownAce Voxy

Commercial trucks

Dyna ToyoAce Type 73 Medium Truck

Buses

Coaster

Discontinued models

1000 1900 2000 2000GT AA AB AC AE Allex Altezza (Gita) Aristo Avensis Verso BA Bandeirante bB Belta Blade Blizzard Brevis Briska Caldina Cami Camry Coupe Camry Station wagon Camry Solara Carina Carina E Carina ED Carina FF Carina Surf Carina II Celica Celica Camry Celica Supra Celica XX Celsior Chaser Classic Comfort Corolla Ceres Corolla II Corolla Levin Corolla Rumion Corolla Spacio Corolla Sprinter Corolla SR5 Corolla Verso Corolla Tercel Corona Corona Absolute Corona Exsior Corona EXiV Corona Mark II Corona SF Corsa Cressida Cresta Crown Comfort Crown Sedan Curren Cynos DA Duet Echo FA FJ40 FJ Cruiser Fun Cargo Gaia Grand Hiace Granvia Hilux Surf Ipsum

Nadia Picnic

iQ Isis ist Kijang Lexcen Light Stout Macho Mark II Mark II Blit Mark II Qualis Mark X ZiO Master MasterAce Matrix Mega Cruiser MiniAce Model F MR2 MR-S Opa Origin Paseo Pixis Space Platz Progrès Pronard Publica Quick Delivery Ractis Raum Regius Revo RH RK RR SA Sai SB Scepter SD Sera SF SG Soarer Solara Soluna Space Cruiser Sparky Sports 800 SportsVan Sprinter Sprinter Carib Sprinter Cielo Sprinter Marino Sprinter Trueno Stallion Starlet Stout Su-Ki SunChaser Super Supra T100 Tamaraw Tercel Tiara Urban Cruiser Van VanWagon Venza Verossa Verso-S Vienta Vista Voltz Windom WISH Yaris Verso Zelas

Concepts and prototypes

1957 Sports 4500GT A-BAT Alessandro Volta Auris HSD Full Hybrid Concept Avalon AXV-II Toyota
Toyota
AXV-III AXV-IV CAL-1 Camry TS-01 Celica Cruising Deck Celica XYR Century GT45 C-HR concept Corona 1500S Convertible Corona 1900S Sporty Sedan Corona Sports Coupe Crown Convertible CS&S CX-80 DMT Dream Car Dream Car Model eCom Electronics Car ES3 EX-I EX-II EX-III EX-7 EX-11 F101 F110 F1/Ultimate Celica F3R FCHV Fine-N Fine-S Fine-X FSC FT-1 FT-86 FT-CH FT-EV FT-HS FT-SX FTX FX-1 FXV FXV-II FXS GTV HC-CV Hybrid X i-foot i-real i-swing i-unit Marinetta Marinetta 10 Motor Triathlon Race Car MP-1 NLSV PM Pod Prius c Concept Prius Custom Plus Concept Project Go Publica Sports RiN RSC RV-1 RV-2 RV-5 Sport Sportivo Coupe Sports 800 Gas Turbine Hybrid Sports X Street Affair SV-1 SV-2 SV-3 TAC3 VM180 Zagato Winglet X X-Runner

Motorsports

Formula Toyota Tom's Toyota
Toyota
Finance 86 Championship Toyota
Toyota
Team Australia Toyota
Toyota
Team Europe Toyota
Toyota
Racing

Other

Toyota
Toyota
Group Engines Transmissions Manufacturing facilities Hybrid Synergy Drive Toyota
Toyota
Racing Development Model codes G-Book
G-Book
telematics Entune Telematics TTC Toyota
Toyota
flower

1A brand of GAC Toyota 2A brand of Sichuan FAW Toyota
Toyota
Motor 3 Toyota
Toyota
holds a 16.1% stake in Subaru's parent company Subaru Corporation

Category Commons

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industry in Japan Economy of Japan Transport in Japan

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Mitsubishi Group

Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Mitsubishi Motors (66%) Mitsubishi Fuso (10.71%)

Mitsuoka Nissan

Cony Datsun Infiniti Kurogane Ohta Otomo Prince Shatai Tama

Suzuki

Hope

Toyota

Daihatsu Scion Lexus Hino WiLL

UD Trucks Yamaha

Shin Meiwa

Active Factories

Toyota
Toyota
Factories

Defunct Factories

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Components

Aisin Seiki Akebono Brake Bridgestone Calsonic Kansei Clarion Denso Fujitsu Ten GS Yuasa Hitachi HKS IHI Corporation Jatco JECS JTEKT Kawasaki Kayaba Industry Mabuchi Motor Mikuni Mitsuba Corporation NGK NHK Spring Nidec Nisshinbo Nissin Kogyo NSK NTN Corporation Sumitomo Riko Sumitomo Rubber Industries Takata Corporation Tokico Topy Industries Toyo Tire & Rubber Company Toyota
Toyota
Boshoku Tsubakimoto Chain Yanmar Yazaki Corporation Yokohama Rubber Company Zexel

Motorsport and tuners

5Zigen A'PEXi Autech Blitz Car Make T&E Dome Enkei GReddy HKS Impul JUN Auto Kojima Mazdaspeed Mine's Mugen Motorsports Nismo Rauh-Welt Begriff Rays Engineering RE Amemiya RS Watanabe SARD Spoon Sports Subaru
Subaru
Tecnica International Tanabe

Speed Star Racing

Tein Toda Racing Tomei Tommykaira Top Secret TOM'S Toyota
Toyota
Racing Development Veilside WALD International WedsSport Yashio Factory

Services

Autobacs Seven Yanase Imported Cars

Related topics

Japan
Japan
Automobile Manufacturers Association Tokyo Motor Show Tokyo Auto Salon Used vehicle exporting J-NCAP National Highway Expressways

Category Portal Note: defunct companies and marques above are show

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