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LEXMARK INTERNATIONAL, INC. is a Chinese-owned corporation based in the United States
United States
that manufactures laser printers and imaging products. The company is headquartered in Lexington, Kentucky
Lexington, Kentucky
.

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Operations * 3 Acquisitions * 4 Inkjet exit * 5 Legal cases * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links

HISTORY

Lexmark
Lexmark
Headquarters, Lexington, KY

Lexmark
Lexmark
was formed on March 27, 1991 when IBM
IBM
divested a number of its hardware manufacturing operations, including printer and printer supply operations, to the investment firm Clayton, Dubilier & Rice, Inc. in a leveraged buyout . Lexmark
Lexmark
became a publicly traded company on the New York Stock Exchange on November 15, 1995.

It was reported in April 2016 that Lexmark
Lexmark
would be acquired by Apex Technology and PAG Asia Capital for $3.6 billion USD. Lexmark
Lexmark
was set to be acquired at $40.50 per share in the transaction. Initial talks for the acquisition were begun at the Remax World Expo in 2015. The deal was closed on November 29, 2016. Lexmark
Lexmark
stated that its headquarters would remain in Lexington, and that its enterprise software line of business would be spun off and "rebranded" to Kofax
Kofax
.

OPERATIONS

The firm's corporate headquarters is located in Lexington and research and development (R&D) offices are distributed globally with additional R Lenexa, Kansas; Cebu , Philippines; Kolkata
Kolkata
, West Bengal, India; Berlin, Germany; Stockholm, Sweden and Irvine, California. Lexmark
Lexmark
has offices throughout North and South America, Asia, Africa and Europe. The company has more than 12,000 employees worldwide.

ACQUISITIONS

* In May 2010, Lexmark
Lexmark
acquired Perceptive Software for $280 million to build upon its software offerings. Perceptive Software was a software firm that developed enterprise content management (ECM) and document output management (DOM) applications. * In 2011, Lexmark
Lexmark
International purchased Netherlands-based Pallas Athena in a cash transaction valued at approximately $50.2 million. The purchase of Pallas Athena added business process management (BPM), document output management (DOM) and process mining software capabilities to Lexmark's services. * In March 2012, Lexmark
Lexmark
announced the acquisition of Luxembourg-based BDGB Enterprise, including its U.S. subsidiary Brainware , Inc., for a cash purchase price of approximately $148 million. Brainware's intelligent data capture platform extracted critical information from paper and electronic documents, validated the extracted data and passed it to customers' data management systems, enterprise resource planning (ERP) and/or financial management systems. * In March 2012, Lexmark
Lexmark
acquired Australia-based ISYS Search Software and U.S.-based Nolij Corporation, both for $32 million. ISYS built enterprise search solutions and Nolij developed Web-based document imaging and workflow software. * In January 2013, Lexmark
Lexmark
acquired Minnesota-based Acuo Technologies for $45 million. Acuo Technologies developed medical imaging document management software. * In March 2013, Lexmark
Lexmark
announced acquisitions of AccessVia and Twistage for a combined purchase price of approximately $31.5 million.

* In late August 2013, Lexmark
Lexmark
signed an agreement to acquire Germany-based Saperion AG. Saperion was a developer and provider of enterprise content management (ECM) and business process management (BPM) software in Europe. The company was purchased for $72 million. * In early October 2013, Lexmark
Lexmark
acquired PACSGEAR. PACSGEAR was a provider of connectivity solutions for medical image management and electronic health records. The company was purchased for approximately $54 million. * In September 2014, Lexmark
Lexmark
acquired Stockholm, Sweden-based ReadSoft for $251 million. ReadSoft was a financial process automation solutions company that specialized in software solutions for document process automation on-premises or in the cloud. * In May 2015, Lexmark
Lexmark
announced that it had acquired Kofax
Kofax
for roughly $1 billion. Kofax, headquartered in Irvine, California, was a provider of smart process applications. They combined capture, process management, analytics and mobile capabilities to organizations. This line of business was, in turn, spun off from Lexmark
Lexmark
when it was acquired by Apex Technology in November 2016.

INKJET EXIT

In August 2012, Lexmark
Lexmark
announced that it would stop production of its inkjet printer line. Lexmark
Lexmark
will continue to provide service, support and aftermarket supplies for its inkjet installed base.

In April 2013, Funai
Funai
Electric Company, Ltd. announced that it had signed an agreement to acquire Lexmark's inkjet technology and assets for approximately $100 million (approximately ¥ 9.5 billion). Funai acquired more than 1,500 inkjet patents, Lexmark's inkjet-related research and development assets and tools, all outstanding shares and the manufacturing facility of Lexmark
Lexmark
International (Philippines), Inc., and other inkjet-related technologies and assets.

LEGAL CASES

Lexmark
Lexmark
pioneered the use of profits from ink cartridges as a business model, with the result of modifying the legal models of product ownership and patent exhaustion over several years.

A court victory in 2005 was handed to Lexmark
Lexmark
in the case of ACRA v. Lexmark
Lexmark
. This case states that Lexmark
Lexmark
can enforce the "single use only" policy written on the side of Lexmark
Lexmark
printer cartridge boxes sold to certain large customers at a discount, with the understanding that the customers will return the cartridges to Lexmark
Lexmark
after using them. This means that these customers can face lawsuits if they breach the agreements, and do not return the cartridges.

Also in 2005, Lexmark
Lexmark
suffered a legal defeat in the case of Lexmark Int\'l v. Static Control Components , when the U.S. Supreme Court rejected Lexmark's petition for a writ of certiorari , thereby rejecting their attempt to have the Court hear their case. In this case, the defendant was a manufacturer of microchips that allowed third-party ink and toner cartridges to work on printers, including many manufactured by Lexmark. Such printers incorporated a feature that would require authentication from a microchip within the ink/toner cartridge in order to function; this was designed to prohibit users from refilling the cartridges. However, a recent firmware update allowed Lexmark
Lexmark
to prevent end users from refilling ink cartridges or using third-party ink cartridges.

Lexmark
Lexmark
also lost in the Supreme Court case Impression Products, Inc. v. Lexmark
Lexmark
International, Inc. in 1 7-1 ruling that reversed and remanded a Federal Circuit court decision (30 May 2017):

When a patentee chooses to sell an item, that product is no longer within the limits of the monopoly and instead becomes the private, individual property of the purchaser, with the rights and benefits that come along with ownership. A patentee is free to set the price and negotiate contracts with purchasers, but may not, by virtue of his patent, control the use or disposition of the product after ownership passes to the purchaser. The sale terminates all patent rights to that item.

SEE ALSO

* List of Lexmark products

REFERENCES

* ^ A B C D E F "2014 Form 10-K, Lexmark
Lexmark
International, Inc". United States
United States
Securities and Exchange Commission. * ^ "Customs Ruling HQ 544887". U.S. Customs and Border Protection. October 2, 1992. * ^ " Lexmark
Lexmark
International Group 1996 annual report, SEC Form 10-K". Advameg. March 24, 1997. * ^ " IBM
IBM
Archives: 1991". * ^ Lewis, Peter H. (December 22, 1991). "The Executive Computer; Can I.B.M. Learn From a Unit It Freed?". The New York Times. Retrieved May 7, 2010. * ^ "LXK stock quote - Lexmark
Lexmark
International, Inc. stock price". NASDAQ.com. Retrieved April 22, 2013. * ^ "Details Disclosed for Lexmark
Lexmark
Acquisition Deal". RT Recycling Times. April 21, 2016. Retrieved June 12, 2016. * ^ "Former Lexmark
Lexmark
Executive Reveals Deal with Ninestar-Apex". RT Recycling Times. April 20, 2016. Retrieved August 15, 2016. * ^ A B Truman, Cheryl (November 29, 2016). " Lexmark
Lexmark
acquisition completed: Rooke out, company exits software business". Lexington Herald-Leader . Retrieved January 28, 2017. * ^ " Lexmark
Lexmark
2014 Annual Report". Lexmark
Lexmark
International, Inc. Retrieved January 19, 2016. * ^ A B "About Us - Kofax". Retrieved January 19, 2016. * ^ " Lexmark
Lexmark
Newsroom - News Releases". Newsroom.lexmark.com. May 21, 2010. Retrieved April 22, 2013. * ^ " Lexmark
Lexmark
acquires Pallas Athena - LEXINGTON, Ky., Oct. 18, 2011 /PRNewswire/". Prnewswire.com. Retrieved April 22, 2013. * ^ " Lexmark
Lexmark
acquires Brainware - Mar 5, 2012". Newsroom.lexmark.com. Retrieved April 22, 2013. * ^ " Lexmark
Lexmark
acquires ISYS Search Software and Nolij - Mar 19, 2012". Newsroom.lexmark.com. Retrieved April 22, 2013. * ^ " Lexmark
Lexmark
acquires Acuo Technologies - Jan 2, 2013". Newsroom.lexmark.com. January 2, 2013. Retrieved April 22, 2013. * ^ " Lexmark
Lexmark
acquires Twistage and AccessVia". Newsroom.lexmark.com. March 5, 2013. Retrieved September 21, 2013. * ^ " Lexmark
Lexmark
announces agreement to acquire Saperion". Retrieved January 19, 2016. * ^ " Lexmark
Lexmark
acquires PACSGEAR". Retrieved January 19, 2016. * ^ Big acquisition brings Perceptive Software opportunity and layoffs Bizjournals.com, September 19, 2014 * ^ "Even Better Invoice Processing. ReadSoft is now Lexmark". Retrieved January 19, 2016. * ^ " Lexmark
Lexmark
completes acquisition of Kofax, announces Enterprise Software leadership change". Retrieved January 19, 2016. * ^ " Lexmark
Lexmark
announces restructuring". Lexmark. August 28, 2012. Retrieved August 28, 2012. * ^ " Lexmark
Lexmark
to exit inkjet printer market". pcpro.co.uk. August 28, 2012. Retrieved August 28, 2012. * ^ " Lexmark
Lexmark
announces restructuring". Newsroom.lexmark.com. August 28, 2012. Retrieved April 22, 2013. * ^ " Funai
Funai
acquiring Lexmark\'s inkjet-related technology and assets". Newsroom.lexmark.com. April 1, 2013. Retrieved September 21, 2013. * ^ Duan, Charles (October 21, 2016). "How a Printer Company Redefined Ownership; Lexmark\'s strategy has changed the rules about what you can do with something you \'bought.\'". Slate . Retrieved October 22, 2016. * ^ Impression Products, Inc. v. Lexmark
Lexmark
International, Inc., 30 May