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Lewis County is a
county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations. The term is derived from the Old French ...
located in the north central region of the
U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a W ...
of
Idaho Idaho () is a U.S. state, state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. It borders the state of Montana to the east and northeast, Wyoming to the east, Nevada and Utah to the south, and Washington (state), Washington and Oregon ...
. As of the 2010 census, the population was 3,821, making it the fourth-least populous county in Idaho. The
county seat A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or Parish (administrative division), civil parish. The term is used in Canada, China, Romania, Hungary and the United States. County towns have a similar fu ...
is Nezperce, and Kamiah, Idaho, Kamiah is the largest city. Partitioned from Nez Perce County, Idaho, Nez Perce County and established in 1911, it was named after the explorer Meriwether Lewis. Most of the county is within the Nez Perce people#Nez Perce Indian Reservation, Nez Perce Indian Reservation, though Native Americans of the United States, Native Americans comprise less than 6% of the county population. Similar to the opening of lands in Oklahoma, the U.S. government opened the reservation for white settlement in November 1895. The proclamation had been signed less than two weeks earlier by President Grover Cleveland, Cleveland.


Geography

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of , of which is land and (0.2%) is water. It is the fourth-smallest county in Idaho by area. The county contains the northern portion of the Camas prairie#Idaho, Camas Prairie, an elevated prairie-like region of the middle Columbia River, Columbia basin, south of the Clearwater River (Idaho), Clearwater River. The Clearwater River forms the eastern boundary of Lewis County, just upstream of where the Lewis and Clark Expedition put their canoes in the water for the trip to the Pacific Ocean.


History


Native American Settlement

Early settlement of Idaho by native peoples occurred around 14,000 years ago. Initially, natives of the region were spear hunters of big game. Documented settlement of Idaho's Camas Prairie by the Nez Perce dates back more than 8,000 years with characteristics of the Old Cordilleran Culture appearing in the region. Characteristics of this culture consist of more sophisticated tools for hunting and the introduction of art forms. The Nez Perce, like their Shoshoni counterparts of southern Idaho gained access to horses prior to the Lewis and Clark Expedition's first interaction with the tribe in 1805. The expedition camped near Kamiah in the winter of 1806 before returning to the main Clearwater River for their continued trek westward. The majority of Nez Perce County's territory is located within the boundary of the Nez Perce Reservation. The reservation was established in 1859 following the provisions of an 1855 treaty with the four bands of the Nez Perce Tribe. Relations with the Nez Perce were amicable until discovery of gold at multiple locations within the reservation's boundaries created tension starting in 1860. A smaller reservation was negotiated with the Kamiah and Lapwai bands of Nez Perce, with a treaty signed in 1867. The Salmon-Wallowa and lower Snake River bands were not a party to the treaty and efforts to force them to the reservation resulted in the Nez Perce War in 1877 that decisively forced all of the Nez Perce to the Nez Perce Reservation. Settlement of non-natives within the boundary of the reservation was authorized starting in 1894.


Non-Native Settlement

With the opening of non-native settlement by agreement of 1894, settlements emerged starting at Winchester in 1896 followed by Craigmont and Kamiah areas starting by 1898. By the 1900 Census, Nez Perce County established precincts for Central Ridge, Cold Springs, Fletcher, and Nez Perce within the territory of present Lewis County. Their combined population at the time was 2,782. Settlement increased along the route of the Camas Prairie Railroad which reached Reubens in 1906 with operation of the line starting in 1908. The railroad had stops at Nucrag, Reubens, and Craigmont. By 1908, multiple stage lines commenced operation with terminus at Kamiah. At the 1910 Census, Nez Perce established additional precincts for Chesley, Kamiah, Mason, Mohler, and Winchester. Together, all precincts at the 1910 census had a population of 5,037.


Development of Cities

Nez Perce Village incorporated in 1903 with Kippen Village following in 1907. Vollmer town was incorporated in 1908 with the villages of Ilo and Kamiah incorporated in 1909. Reubens and Winchester Villages incorporated by 1920. Ilo and Vollmer consolidated as Craigmont in 1920. Kippen Village was dis-incorporated by 1940 as it is absent from that census.


Adjacent counties

* Nez Perce County, Idaho, Nez Perce County – northwest * Idaho County, Idaho, Idaho County – southeast * Clearwater County, Idaho, Clearwater County – northeast


Major highways

* – U.S. Route 12 in Idaho, US 12 * – U.S. Route 95 in Idaho, US 95 * – Idaho State Highway 7, SH-7 * – Idaho State Highway 11, SH-11 * – Idaho State Highway 62, SH-62 * – Idaho State Highway 64, SH-64 *Image:ID-162.svg, 25px – Idaho State Highway 162, SH-162


National protected area

* Clearwater National Forest (part)


Demographics


2000 census

As of the census of 2000, there were 3,747 people, 1,554 households, and 1,050 families living in the county. The population density was 8 people per square mile (3/km2). There were 1,795 housing units at an average density of 4 per square mile (1/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 92.21% Race (United States Census), White, 0.35% Race (United States Census), Black or Race (United States Census), African American, 3.84% Race (United States Census), Native American, 0.43% Race (United States Census), Asian, 0.08% Race (United States Census), Pacific Islander, 0.93% from Race (United States Census), other races, and 2.16% from two or more races. 1.89% of the population were Race (United States Census), Hispanic or Race (United States Census), Latino of any race. 30.6% were of Germans, German, 17.5% United States, American, 10.6% English people, English and 8.7% Irish people, Irish ancestry. There were 1,554 households, out of which 27.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.80% were Marriage, married couples living together, and 32.40% were non-families. 28.10% of all households were made up of individuals, and 14.50% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.92. In the county, the population was spread out, with 25.40% under the age of 18, 5.30% from 18 to 24, 23.80% from 25 to 44, 27.10% from 45 to 64, and 18.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 101.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $31,413, and the median income for a family was $37,336. Males had a median income of $31,021 versus $22,538 for females. The per capita income for the county was $15,942. About 8.70% of families and 12.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.90% of those under age 18 and 9.00% of those age 65 or over.


2010 census

As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 3,821 people, 1,657 households, and 1,041 families living in the county. The population density was . There were 1,880 housing units at an average density of . The racial makeup of the county was 90.3% white, 4.7% American Indian, 0.4% black or African American, 0.4% Asian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 1.6% from other races, and 2.4% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 3.3% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 39.4% were Germans, German, 16.7% were English people, English, 16.5% were Irish people, Irish, and 3.0% were Americans, American. Of the 1,657 households, 24.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.8% were married couples living together, 7.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.2% were non-families, and 32.6% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.26 and the average family size was 2.84. The median age was 48.0 years. The median income for a household in the county was $35,808 and the median income for a family was $41,250. Males had a median income of $32,933 versus $23,850 for females. The per capita income for the county was $18,580. About 10.4% of families and 16.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30.1% of those under age 18 and 7.2% of those age 65 or over.


Communities


Cities

*Craigmont, Idaho, Craigmont *Kamiah, Idaho, Kamiah * Nezperce *Reubens, Idaho, Reubens *Winchester, Idaho, Winchester


Unincorporated communities

*Slickpoo, Idaho, Slickpoo


Politics

As a unionized logging county,Kevin Phillips (political commentator), Phillips, Kevin P.; ''The Emerging Republican Majority'', pp. 527-536 Lewis County was the most Democratic single county in Idaho during the Fifth Party System – it never voted Republican between 1932 and 1968 – and retained its Democratic leanings into the 1980s when Michael Dukakis won a majority whilst losing nationwide. Since the 1990s, however, with the Democratic Party's increasing focus on the urban coastal areas and de-unionization of the timber industry, the county has become as overwhelmingly Republican as older GOP strongholds in Idaho: Al Gore in 2000 and Hillary Clinton in 2016 did not crack a fifth of the vote.


See also

* National Register of Historic Places listings in Lewis County, Idaho


References


External links

* – Lewis County
County Parcel Map


– Lewis County {{authority control Lewis County, Idaho, Idaho counties 1911 establishments in Idaho Populated places established in 1911