CHARLES LUTWIDGE DODGSON (/ˈtʃɑːrlz ˈlʌtwɪdʒ ˈdɒdsən/ ;
27 January 1832 – 14 January 1898), better known by his pen name
LEWIS CARROLL (/ˈkærəl/ ), was an English writer , mathematician ,
* 1 Antecedents
* 2 Education
* 2.1 Home life * 2.2 Rugby * 2.3 Oxford
* 3 Character and appearance
* 3.1 Health challenges * 3.2 Social connections * 3.3 Politics, religion, and philosophy
* 4 Artistic activities
* 4.1 Literature
* 4.1.1 _Alice_ books * 4.1.2 _The Hunting of the Snark_ * 4.1.3 _Sylvie and Bruno_
* 4.2 Photography * 4.3 Inventions
* 5 Mathematical work * 6 Correspondence * 7 Later years
* 8 Controversies and mysteries
* 8.1 Discussion of Dodgson\'s sexuality
* 8.2 Ordination
* 8.3 Missing diaries
* 9 Memorials
* 10 Works
* 10.1 Literary works * 10.2 Mathematical works * 10.3 Other works
* 11 See also * 12 References * 13 Bibliography * 14 Further reading * 15 External links
Dodgson's family was predominantly northern English, with Irish connections, conservative and High Church Anglican. Most of Dodgson's male ancestors were army officers or Church of England clergy. His great-grandfather, also named Charles Dodgson , had risen through the ranks of the church to become the Bishop of Elphin . His paternal grandfather, another Charles, had been an army captain, killed in action in Ireland in 1803 when his two sons were hardly more than babies. The older of these sons – yet another Charles Dodgson – was Carroll's father. He went to Westminster School and then to Christ Church, Oxford . He reverted to the other family tradition and took holy orders . He was mathematically gifted and won a double first degree, which could have been the prelude to a brilliant academic career. Instead, he married his first cousin Frances Jane Lutwidge in 1830 and became a country parson .
Dodgson was born in the small parsonage at
Charles's father was an active and highly conservative cleric of the Church of England who later became the Archdeacon of Richmond and involved himself, sometimes influentially, in the intense religious disputes that were dividing the church. He was High Church, inclining to Anglo-Catholicism , an admirer of John Henry Newman and the Tractarian movement , and did his best to instil such views in his children. Young Charles was to develop an ambiguous relationship with his father's values and with the Church of England as a whole.
During his early youth, Dodgson was educated at home. His "reading
lists" preserved in the family archives testify to a precocious
intellect: at the age of seven, he was reading books such as _The
Pilgrim\'s Progress _. He also suffered from a stammer – a condition
shared by most of his siblings – that often influenced his social
life throughout his years. At the age of twelve, he was sent to
Richmond Grammar School (now part of
In 1846, Dodgson entered Rugby School where he was evidently unhappy, as he wrote some years after leaving:
I cannot say ... that any earthly considerations would induce me to go through my three years again ... I can honestly say that if I could have been ... secure from annoyance at night, the hardships of the daily life would have been comparative trifles to bear.
Scholastically, though, he excelled with apparent ease. "I have not had a more promising boy at his age since I came to Rugby", observed mathematics master R. B. Mayor.
He left Rugby at the end of 1849 and matriculated at Oxford in May 1850 as a member of his father's old college, Christ Church . After waiting for rooms in college to become available, he went into residence in January 1851. He had been at Oxford only two days when he received a summons home. His mother had died of "inflammation of the brain" – perhaps meningitis or a stroke – at the age of 47.
His early academic career veered between high promise and irresistible distraction. He did not always work hard but was exceptionally gifted and achievement came easily to him. In 1852, he obtained first-class honours in Mathematics Moderations and was shortly thereafter nominated to a Studentship by his father's old friend Canon Edward Pusey . In 1854, he obtained first-class honours in the Final Honours School of Mathematics, standing first on the list, graduating Bachelor of Arts . He remained at Christ Church studying and teaching, but the next year he failed an important scholarship through his self-confessed inability to apply himself to study. Even so, his talent as a mathematician won him the Christ Church Mathematical Lectureship in 1855, which he continued to hold for the next 26 years. Despite early unhappiness, Dodgson was to remain at Christ Church, in various capacities, until his death.
CHARACTER AND APPEARANCE
1863 photograph by Oscar G. Rejlander
The young adult Charles Dodgson was about 6 feet (1.83 m) tall and slender, and he had curly brown hair and blue or grey eyes (depending on the account). He was described in later life as somewhat asymmetrical , and as carrying himself rather stiffly and awkwardly, although this might be on account of a knee injury sustained in middle age. As a very young child, he suffered a fever that left him deaf in one ear. At the age of 17, he suffered a severe attack of whooping cough , which was probably responsible for his chronically weak chest in later life. Another defect which he carried into adulthood was what he referred to as his "hesitation", a stammer that he acquired in early childhood and which plagued him throughout his life.
The stammer has always been a significant part of the image of Dodgson. It is said that he stammered only in adult company and was free and fluent with children, but there is no evidence to support this idea. Many children of his acquaintance remembered the stammer, while many adults failed to notice it. Dodgson himself seems to have been far more acutely aware of it than most people whom he met; it is said that he caricatured himself as the Dodo in _Alice's Adventures in Wonderland_, referring to his difficulty in pronouncing his last name, but this is one of the many "facts" often repeated for which no first-hand evidence remains. He did indeed refer to himself as the dodo, but whether or not this reference was to his stammer is simply speculation.
Dodgson's stammer did trouble him, but it was never so debilitating that it prevented him from applying his other personal qualities to do well in society. He lived in a time when people commonly devised their own amusements and when singing and recitation were required social skills, and the young Dodgson was well equipped to be an engaging entertainer. He reportedly could sing tolerably well and was not afraid to do so before an audience. He was adept at mimicry and storytelling, and was reputedly quite good at charades .
In the interim between his early published writings and the success
of the _Alice_ books, Dodgson began to move in the pre-Raphaelite
social circle. He first met
John Ruskin in 1857 and became friendly
with him. He developed a close relationship with Dante Gabriel
Rossetti and his family, and also knew
William Holman Hunt
POLITICS, RELIGION, AND PHILOSOPHY
In broad terms, Dodgson has traditionally been regarded as politically, religiously, and personally conservative. Martin Gardner labels Dodgson as a Tory who was "awed by lords and inclined to be snobbish towards inferiors." The Reverend W. Tuckwell , in his _Reminiscences of Oxford_ (1900), regarded him as "austere, shy, precise, absorbed in mathematical reverie, watchfully tenacious of his dignity, stiffly conservative in political, theological, social theory, his life mapped out in squares like Alice's landscape." In _The Life and Letters of Lewis Carroll_, the editor states that "his Diary is full of such modest depreciations of himself and his work, interspersed with earnest prayers (too sacred and private to be reproduced here) that God would forgive him the past, and help him to perform His holy will in the future." When a friend asked him about his religious views, Dodgson wrote in response that he was a member of the Church of England, but "doubt if he was fully a 'High Churchman'". He added:
I believe that when you and I come to lie down for the last time, if only we can keep firm hold of the great truths Christ taught us—our own utter worthlessness and His infinite worth; and that He has brought us back to our one Father, and made us His brethren, and so brethren to one another—we shall have all we need to guide us through the shadows. Most assuredly I accept to the full the doctrines you refer to—that Christ died to save us, that we have no other way of salvation open to us but through His death, and that it is by faith in Him, and through no merit of ours, that we are reconciled to God; and most assuredly I can cordially say, "I owe all to Him who loved me, and died on the Cross of Calvary." — Carroll (1897)
Dodgson also expressed interest in other fields. He was an early member of the Society for Psychical Research , and one of his letters suggests that he accepted as real what was then called "thought reading". Dodgson wrote some studies of various philosophical arguments. In 1895, he developed a philosophical regressus-argument on deductive reasoning in his article "What the Tortoise Said to Achilles ", which appeared in one of the early volumes of _Mind_. The article was reprinted in the same journal a hundred years later in 1995, with a subsequent article by Simon Blackburn titled "Practical Tortoise Raising".
One of Carroll's own illustrations
From a young age, Dodgson wrote poetry and short stories, contributing heavily to the family magazine _ Mischmasch _ and later sending them to various magazines, enjoying moderate success. Between 1854 and 1856, his work appeared in the national publications _The Comic Times_ and _The Train_, as well as smaller magazines such as the _ Whitby Gazette _ and the _Oxford Critic_. Most of this output was humorous, sometimes satirical, but his standards and ambitions were exacting. "I do not think I have yet written anything worthy of real publication (in which I do not include the _Whitby Gazette_ or the _Oxonian Advertiser_), but I do not despair of doing so some day," he wrote in July 1855. Sometime after 1850, he did write puppet plays for his siblings' entertainment, of which one has survived: _La Guida di Bragia_.
In 1856, he published his first piece of work under the name that would make him famous. A romantic poem called "Solitude" appeared in _The Train_ under the authorship of "Lewis Carroll". This pseudonym was a play on his real name: _Lewis_ was the anglicised form of _Ludovicus_, which was the Latin for _Lutwidge_, and _Carroll_ an Irish surname similar to the Latin name _Carolus_, from which comes the name _Charles_. The transition went as follows: "Charles Lutwidge" translated into Latin as "Carolus Ludovicus". This was then translated back into English as "Carroll Lewis" and then reversed to make "Lewis Carroll". This pseudonym was chosen by editor Edmund Yates from a list of four submitted by Dodgson, the others being Edgar Cuthwellis, Edgar U. C. Westhill, and Louis Carroll.
_ "The chief difficulty
In 1856, Dean (i.e., head of the college)
Henry Liddell arrived at
Christ Church , bringing with him his young family, all of whom would
figure largely in Dodgson's life over the following years, and would
greatly influence his writing career. Dodgson became close friends
with Liddell's wife Lorina and their children, particularly the three
sisters Lorina, Edith, and
Information is scarce (Dodgson's diaries for the years 1858–1862
are missing), but it seems clear that his friendship with the Liddell
family was an important part of his life in the late 1850s, and he
grew into the habit of taking the children on rowing trips (first the
boy Harry, and later the three girls) accompanied by an adult friend
It was on one such expedition on 4 July 1862 that Dodgson invented the outline of the story that eventually became his first and greatest commercial success. He told the story to Alice Liddell and she begged him to write it down, and Dodgson eventually (after much delay) presented her with a handwritten, illustrated manuscript entitled _Alice's Adventures Under Ground_ in November 1864.
Before this, the family of friend and mentor
George MacDonald read
Dodgson's incomplete manuscript, and the enthusiasm of the MacDonald
children encouraged Dodgson to seek publication. In 1863, he had taken
the unfinished manuscript to Macmillan the publisher, who liked it
immediately. After the possible alternative titles were rejected –
The overwhelming commercial success of the first
Late in 1871, he published the sequel _
Through the Looking-Glass
_The Hunting Of The Snark_
_ THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (June 2014)_
In 1876, Dodgson produced his next great work _The Hunting of the
Snark _, a fantastical "nonsense" poem exploring the adventures of a
bizarre crew of nine tradesmen and one beaver, who set off to find the
Dante Gabriel Rossetti
_Sylvie And Bruno_
In 1895, 30 years after publication of his masterpieces, Carroll attempted a comeback, producing a two-volume tale of the fairy siblings Sylvie and Bruno . Carroll entwines two plots set in two alternative worlds, one set in rural England and the other in the fairytale kingdoms of Elfland, Outland, and others. The fairytale world satirizes English society, and more specifically the world of academia. _Sylvie and Bruno_ came out in two volumes and is considered a lesser work, although it has remained in print for over a century.
In 1856, Dodgson took up the new art form of photography under the influence first of his uncle Skeffington Lutwidge , and later of his Oxford friend Reginald Southey . He soon excelled at the art and became a well-known gentleman-photographer, and he seems even to have toyed with the idea of making a living out of it in his very early years.
A study by Roger Taylor and Edward Wakeling exhaustively lists every surviving print, and Taylor calculates that just over half of his surviving work depicts young girls, though about 60% of his original photographic portfolio is now missing. Dodgson also made many studies of men, women, boys, and landscapes; his subjects also include skeletons, dolls, dogs, statues, paintings, and trees. His pictures of children were taken with a parent in attendance and many of the pictures were taken in the Liddell garden because natural sunlight was required for good exposures.
He also found photography to be a useful entrée into higher social
circles. During the most productive part of his career, he made
portraits of notable sitters such as
John Everett Millais
By the time that Dodgson abruptly ceased photography (1880, over 24
years), he had established his own studio on the roof of
To promote letter writing, Dodgson invented "The Wonderland
Postage-Stamp Case" in 1889. This was a cloth-backed folder with
twelve slots, two marked for inserting the most commonly used penny
stamp, and one each for the other current denominations up to one
shilling. The folder was then put into a slipcase decorated with a
Another invention was a writing tablet called the nyctograph that allowed note-taking in the dark, thus eliminating the need to get out of bed and strike a light when one woke with an idea. The device consisted of a gridded card with sixteen squares and system of symbols representing an alphabet of Dodgson's design, using letter shapes similar to the Graffiti writing system on a Palm device.
He also devised a number of games, including an early version of what
today is known as
Scrabble . He appears to have invented – or at
least certainly popularized – the "doublet" (see word ladder ), a
form of brain-teaser that is still popular today, changing one word
into another by altering one letter at a time, each successive change
always resulting in a genuine word. For instance, CAT is transformed
into DOG by the following steps: CAT, COT, DOT, DOG. The games and
Other items include a rule for finding the day of the week for any date; a means for justifying right margins on a typewriter; a steering device for a velociam (a type of tricycle); new systems of parliamentary representation; more fair elimination rules for tennis tournaments; a new sort of postal money order; rules for reckoning postage; rules for a win in betting; rules for dividing a number by various divisors; a cardboard scale for the Senior Common Room at Christ Church which, held next to a glass, ensured the right amount of liqueur for the price paid; a double-sided adhesive strip to fasten envelopes or mount things in books; a device for helping a bedridden invalid to read from a book placed sideways; and at least two ciphers for cryptography .
Within the academic discipline of mathematics, Dodgson worked primarily in the fields of geometry , linear and matrix algebra , mathematical logic , and recreational mathematics , producing nearly a dozen books under his real name. Dodgson also developed new ideas in linear algebra (e.g., the first printed proof of the Kronecker-Capelli theorem ), probability, and the study of elections (e.g., Dodgson\'s method ) and committees ; some of this work was not published until well after his death. His occupation as Mathematical Lecturer at Christ Church gave him some financial security.
His mathematical work attracted renewed interest in the late 20th century. Martin Gardner's book on logic machines and diagrams and William Warren Bartley's posthumous publication of the second part of Carroll's symbolic logic book have sparked a reevaluation of Carroll's contributions to symbolic logic. Robbins\' and Rumsey's investigation of Dodgson condensation , a method of evaluating determinants , led them to the Alternating Sign Matrix conjecture, now a theorem. The discovery in the 1990s of additional ciphers that Carroll had constructed, in addition to his "Memoria Technica", showed that he had employed sophisticated mathematical ideas in their creation.
Dodgson wrote and received as many as 98,721 letters, according to a special letter register which he devised. He documented his advice about how to write more satisfying letters in a missive entitled "Eight or Nine Wise Words About Letter-Writing".
Dodgson's existence remained little changed over the remaining twenty years of his life, throughout his growing wealth and fame. He continued to teach at Christ Church until 1881 and remained in residence there until his death. The two volumes of his last novel _ Sylvie and Bruno _ were published in 1889 and 1893, but the intricacy of this work was apparently not appreciated by contemporary readers; it achieved nothing like the success of the _Alice_ books, with disappointing reviews and sales of only 13,000 copies.
The only known occasion on which he travelled abroad was a trip to Russia in 1867 as an ecclesiastic, together with the Reverend Henry Liddon . He recounts the travel in his "Russian Journal", which was first commercially published in 1935. On his way to Russia and back, he also saw different cities in Belgium, Germany, partitioned Poland, and France.
He died of pneumonia following influenza on 14 January 1898 at his
sisters' home, "The Chestnuts", in
CONTROVERSIES AND MYSTERIES
_ This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2014)_ _(Learn how and when to remove this template message )_
DISCUSSION OF DODGSON\'S SEXUALITY
Some late twentieth-century biographers have suggested that Dodgson's interest in children had an erotic element, including Morton N. Cohen in his _Lewis Carroll: A Biography_ (1995), Donald Thomas in his _Lewis Carroll: A Portrait with Background_ (1995), and Michael Bakewell in his _Lewis Carroll: A Biography_ (1996). Cohen, in particular, claims that Dodgson's "sexual energies sought unconventional outlets", and further writes:
We cannot know to what extent sexual urges lay behind Charles's preference for drawing and photographing children in the nude. He contended the preference was entirely aesthetic. But given his emotional attachment to children as well as his aesthetic appreciation of their forms, his assertion that his interest was strictly artistic is naïve. He probably felt more than he dared acknowledge, even to himself.
Cohen goes on to note that Dodgson "apparently convinced many of his
friends that his attachment to the nude female child form was free of
any eroticism ", but adds that "later generations look beneath the
surface" (p. 229). He argues that Dodgson may have wanted to marry the
Several other writers and scholars have challenged the evidential
basis for Cohen's and others' views about this interest of Dodgson.
Lebailly has endeavoured to set Dodgson's child-photography within the
"Victorian Child Cult", which perceived child-nudity as essentially an
expression of innocence. Lebailly claims that studies of child nudes
were mainstream and fashionable in Dodgson's time, and that most
photographers made them as a matter of course, including Oscar Gustave
Julia Margaret Cameron
Karoline Leach 's reappraisal of Dodgson focused in particular on his controversial sexuality. She argues that the allegations of paedophilia rose initially from a misunderstanding of Victorian morals, as well as the mistaken idea – fostered by Dodgson's various biographers – that he had no interest in adult women. She termed the traditional image of Dodgson "the Carroll Myth". She drew attention to the large amounts of evidence in his diaries and letters that he was also keenly interested in adult women, married and single, and enjoyed several relationships with them that would have been considered scandalous by the social standards of his time. She also pointed to the fact that many of those whom he described as "child-friends" were girls in their late teens and even twenties. She argues that suggestions of paedophilia emerged only many years after his death, when his well-meaning family had suppressed all evidence of his relationships with women in an effort to preserve his reputation, thus giving a false impression of a man interested only in little girls. Similarly, Leach points to a 1932 biography by Langford Reed as the source of the dubious claim that many of Carroll's female friendships ended when the girls reached the age of fourteen.
In addition to the biographical works that have discussed Dodgson's sexuality, there are modern artistic interpretations of his life and work that do so as well — in particular, Dennis Potter in his play _Alice_ and his screenplay for the motion picture _ Dreamchild _, and Robert Wilson in his film _Alice_.
Dodgson had been groomed for the ordained ministry in the Church of England from a very early age and was expected to be ordained within four years of obtaining his master's degree, as a condition of his residency at Christ Church. He delayed the process for some time but was eventually ordained as a deacon on 22 December 1861. But when the time came a year later to be ordained as a priest, Dodgson appealed to the dean for permission not to proceed. This was against college rules and, initially, Dean Liddell told him that he would have to consult the college ruling body, which would almost certainly have resulted in his being expelled. For unknown reasons, Liddell changed his mind overnight and permitted Dodgson to remain at the college in defiance of the rules. Dodgson never became a priest, unique amongst senior students of his time.
There is currently no conclusive evidence about why Dodgson rejected the priesthood. Some have suggested that his stammer made him reluctant to take the step, because he was afraid of having to preach. Wilson quotes letters by Dodgson describing difficulty in reading lessons and prayers rather than preaching in his own words. But Dodgson did indeed preach in later life, even though not in priest's orders, so it seems unlikely that his impediment was a major factor affecting his choice. Wilson also points out that the Bishop of Oxford , Samuel Wilberforce , who ordained Dodgson, had strong views against clergy going to the theatre, one of Dodgson's great interests. Others have suggested that he was having serious doubts about Anglicanism. He was interested in minority forms of Christianity (he was an admirer of F. D. Maurice ) and "alternative" religions (theosophy ). Dodgson became deeply troubled by an unexplained sense of sin and guilt at this time (the early 1860s) and frequently expressed the view in his diaries that he was a "vile and worthless" sinner, unworthy of the priesthood and this sense of sin and unworthiness may well have affected his decision to abandon being ordained to the priesthood.
At least four complete volumes and around seven pages of text are missing from Dodgson's 13 diaries. The loss of the volumes remains unexplained; the pages have been removed by an unknown hand. Most scholars assume that the diary material was removed by family members in the interests of preserving the family name, but this has not been proven. Except for one page, material is missing from his diaries for the period between 1853 and 1863 (when Dodgson was 21–31 years old). This was a period when Dodgson began suffering great mental and spiritual anguish and confessing to an overwhelming sense of his own sin. This was also the period of time when he composed his extensive love poetry, leading to speculation that the poems may have been autobiographical.
Many theories have been put forward to explain the missing material.
A popular explanation for one missing page (27 June 1863) is that it
might have been torn out to conceal a proposal of marriage on that day
by Dodgson to the 11-year-old
This paper is known as the "cut pages in diary document", and was
compiled by various members of Carroll's family after his death. Part
of it may have been written at the time when the pages were destroyed,
though this is unclear. The document offers a brief summary of two
diary pages that are missing, including the one for 27 June 1863. The
summary for this page states that Mrs. Liddell told Dodgson that there
was gossip circulating about him and the Liddell family's governess ,
as well as about his relationship with "Ina", presumably Alice's older
sister Lorina Liddell. The "break" with the Liddell family that
occurred soon after was presumably in response to this gossip. An
alternative interpretation has been made regarding Carroll's rumoured
involvement with "Ina": Lorina was also the name of
MIGRAINE AND EPILEPSY
In his diary for 1880, Dodgson recorded experiencing his first episode of migraine with aura, describing very accurately the process of "moving fortifications" that are a manifestation of the aura stage of the syndrome. Unfortunately, there is no clear evidence to show whether this was his first experience of migraine _per se_, or if he may have previously suffered the far more common form of migraine without aura, although the latter seems most likely, given the fact that migraine most commonly develops in the teens or early adulthood. Another form of migraine aura called Alice in Wonderland syndrome has been named after Dodgson's little heroine because its manifestation can resemble the sudden size-changes in the book. It is also known as micropsia and macropsia , a brain condition affecting the way that objects are perceived by the mind. For example, an afflicted person may look at a larger object such as a basketball and perceive it as if it were the size of a golf ball. Some authors have suggested that Dodgson may have suffered from this type of aura and used it as an inspiration in his work, but there is no evidence that he did.
Dodgson also suffered two attacks in which he lost consciousness. He
was diagnosed by a Dr. Morshead, Dr. Brooks, and Dr. Stedman, and they
believed the attack and a consequent attack to be an "epileptiform"
seizure (initially thought to be fainting, but Brooks changed his
mind). Some have concluded from this that he was a lifetime sufferer
of this condition, but there is no evidence of this in his diaries
beyond the diagnosis of the two attacks already mentioned. Some
Sadi Ranson in particular, have suggested that Carroll may
have suffered from temporal lobe epilepsy in which consciousness is
not always completely lost but altered, and in which the symptoms
mimic many of the same experiences as
Most of the standard diagnostic tests of today were not available in
the nineteenth century. Dr. Yvonne Hart, consultant neurologist at the
John Radcliffe Hospital
In 1982, his great-nephew unveiled a memorial stone to him in Poets\' Corner , Westminster Abbey .
* _The Principles of Parliamentary Representation_ (1884)
* _La Guida di Bragia, a Ballad Opera for the
Adventures in Wonderland _ (1865)
* _Rhyme? And Reason? _ (1869; also published as _Phantasmagoria_)
* _Through the Looking-Glass, and What
* _A Syllabus of Plane Algebraic Geometry_ (1860)
* _The Fifth
* _Some Popular Fallacies about Vivisection_ * _Eight or Nine Wise Words About Letter-Writing_ * _Notes by an Oxford Chiel_
* "Miss Jones", comic song 1862
Lewis Carroll identity
Lewis Carroll Shelf Award
RGS Worcester and The Alice Ottley School – Miss Ottley, the
first Headmistress of The
* ^ Elster, Charles Harrington (2006). _The big book of beastly
mispronunciations: the complete opinionated guide for the careful
speaker_. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. pp. 158–159. ISBN 061842315X .
* ^ Emerson, R. H. (1996). "The Unpronounceables: Difficult
Literary Names 1500–1940". _English Language Notes_. 34 (2):
63–74. ISSN 0013-8282 .
* ^ "Lewis Carroll". _Biography in Context_. Gale. Retrieved 24
* ^ "
* Clark, Ann (1979). _Lewis Carroll: A Biography_. London: J. M.
Dent. ISBN 0-460-04302-1 .
* Cohen, Morton (1996). _Lewis Carroll: A Biography_. Vintage Books
. pp. 30–35. ISBN 978-0-679-74562-4 .
* Collingwood, Stuart Dodgson (1898). _The Life and Letters of Lewis
Carroll_. London: T. Fisher Unwin.
* Leach, Karoline (1999). _In the Shadow of the Dreamchild: A New
Understanding of Lewis Carroll_. London: Peter Owen.
* Reed, Langford, _The Life of Lewis Carroll_ (1932. London: W. and
* Taylor, Alexander L., Knight, _The White Knight_ (1952. Edinburgh:
Oliver and Boyd)
* Taylor, Roger & Wakeling, Edward, _Lewis Carroll, Photographer_
Princeton University Press ) (ISBN 0691074437 ). Catalogues
nearly every Carroll photograph known to be still in existence.
* Thomas, Donald (1996). _
* Black, Duncan (1958). The Circumstances in which Rev. C. L.
Dodgson (Lewis Carroll) wrote his Three Pamphlets and Appendix: Text
of Dodgson's Three Pamphlets and of 'The Cyclostyled Sheet' in _The
Theory of Committees and Elections_, Cambridge: Cambridge University
* Bowman, Isa (1899). _The Story of Lewis Carroll: Told for Young
People by the Real
* Dodgson, Charles L. "The Pamphlets of Lewis Carroll"
* v.1 The Oxford Pamphlets (1993) ISBN 0-8139-1250-4 * v.2 The Mathematical Pamphlets (1994) ISBN 0-9303-26-09-1 * v.3 The Political Pamphlets (2001) ISBN 0-930326-14-8 * v.4 The Logic Pamphlets (2010) ISBN 978-0-930326-25-8 .
* Goodacre, Selwyn (2006). _All the snarks : the illustrated
editions of the hunting of the snark_. Oxford: Inky Parrot Press.
* Graham-Smith, Darien (2005), _Contextualising Carroll_, University
of Wales , Bangor: PhD Thesis (library.bangor.ac.uk)
Huxley, Francis _The Raven and the Writing Desk_ (1976) (ISBN
* Kelly, Richard, _Lewis Carroll_ (1990. Boston: Twayne Publishers)
* Kelly, Richard, ed. _Alice's Adventures in Wonderland_ (2000.
Peterborough, Ontario: broadviewpress.com)
* Lovett, Charlie, '
* Media from Commons * Quotations from Wikiquote * Texts from Wikisource * Data from Wikidata
Library resources about LEWIS CARROLL -------------------------
* Resources in your library * Resources in other libraries
* A calendar of events in 2015 commemorating the 150th anniversary
of Alice\'s Adventures in Wonderland
Fales Library Guide to the Alfred C. Berol Collection of Lewis
* Works by
* v * t * e
* _Alice\'s Adventures in Wonderland _ (1865) * _Rhyme? And Reason? _ (1869)
* _Through the Looking-Glass, and What
* _Eight or Nine Wise Words About Letter-Writing_
* v * t * e
Lewis Carroll's _
Adventures in Wonderland _
Through the Looking-Glass
Alice's Adventures in Wonderland
Through the Looking-Glass
* Works based on _
* Films and television * Disney franchise
* Translations of _Alice\'s Adventures in Wonderland_ * Translations of _Through the Looking-Glass_
All in the golden afternoon... "
How Doth the Little Crocodile "
* "The Mouse\'s Tale "
Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Bat "
You Are Old, Father William "
'Tis the Voice of the Lobster "
A New Alice in the Old Wonderland _ (1895)
New Adventures of Alice _ (1917)
Alice of Wonderland in Paris (1966)_
The Westminster Alice
* _Mopsa the Fairy _ (1869) * _ Davy and the Goblin _ (1884) * _The Admiral\'s Caravan _ (1891) * _ Gladys in Grammarland _ (1896) * _A New Wonderland _ (1898) * _ Rollo in Emblemland _ (1902) * _Justnowland _ (1912) * _ Alice in Orchestralia _ (1925)
* 1903 * 1910 * 1915 * 1931 * 1933 * 1949 * 1951 * 1966 * 1972 * 1976 * 1982 * 1985 * 1987 * 1988 (Czechoslovak) * 1988 (Australian) * 1995 * 1999
Alice no Paint Adventure _ (1995)
* v * t * e
Victorian-era children's literature
Henry Cadwallader Adams
R. M. Ballantyne
Lucy Lyttelton Cameron
* Lewis Carroll
Christabel Rose Coleridge
Eleanor Vere Boyle
* List of 19th-century British children\'s literature titles
* Toy book
* Marcus Ward & Co. * Frederick Warne ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v
* t * e
19th-century English photographers
William de Wiveleslie Abney
William Makepeace Thackeray
Sarah Angelina Acland
* Richard Beard
Robert Jefferson Bingham
Julia Margaret Cameron