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CHARLES LUTWIDGE DODGSON (/ˈtʃɑːrlz ˈlʌtwɪdʒ ˈdɒdsən/ ; 27 January 1832 – 14 January 1898), better known by his pen name LEWIS CARROLL (/ˈkærəl/ ), was an English writer , mathematician , logician , Anglican
Anglican
deacon , and photographer . His most famous writings are _Alice\'s Adventures in Wonderland _, its sequel _Through the Looking-Glass _, which includes the poem " Jabberwocky
Jabberwocky
", and the poem _ The Hunting of the Snark _, all examples of the genre of literary nonsense . He is noted for his facility at word play , logic and fantasy. There are societies in many parts of the world dedicated to the enjoyment and promotion of his works and the investigation of his life.

CONTENTS

* 1 Antecedents

* 2 Education

* 2.1 Home life * 2.2 Rugby * 2.3 Oxford

* 3 Character and appearance

* 3.1 Health challenges * 3.2 Social connections * 3.3 Politics, religion, and philosophy

* 4 Artistic activities

* 4.1 Literature

* 4.1.1 _Alice_ books * 4.1.2 _The Hunting of the Snark_ * 4.1.3 _Sylvie and Bruno_

* 4.2 Photography * 4.3 Inventions

* 5 Mathematical work * 6 Correspondence * 7 Later years

* 8 Controversies and mysteries

* 8.1 Discussion of Dodgson\'s sexuality * 8.2 Ordination * 8.3 Missing diaries * 8.4 Migraine
Migraine
and epilepsy

* 9 Memorials

* 10 Works

* 10.1 Literary works * 10.2 Mathematical works * 10.3 Other works

* 11 See also * 12 References * 13 Bibliography * 14 Further reading * 15 External links

ANTECEDENTS

Dodgson's family was predominantly northern English, with Irish connections, conservative and High Church Anglican. Most of Dodgson's male ancestors were army officers or Church of England clergy. His great-grandfather, also named Charles Dodgson , had risen through the ranks of the church to become the Bishop of Elphin . His paternal grandfather, another Charles, had been an army captain, killed in action in Ireland in 1803 when his two sons were hardly more than babies. The older of these sons – yet another Charles Dodgson – was Carroll's father. He went to Westminster School and then to Christ Church, Oxford . He reverted to the other family tradition and took holy orders . He was mathematically gifted and won a double first degree, which could have been the prelude to a brilliant academic career. Instead, he married his first cousin Frances Jane Lutwidge in 1830 and became a country parson .

Dodgson was born in the small parsonage at Daresbury in Cheshire
Cheshire
near the towns of Warrington and Runcorn
Runcorn
, the eldest boy but already the third child of the four-and-a-half-year-old marriage. Eight more children followed. When Charles was 11, his father was given the living of Croft-on-Tees in North Yorkshire
Yorkshire
, and the whole family moved to the spacious rectory. This remained their home for the next 25 years.

Charles's father was an active and highly conservative cleric of the Church of England who later became the Archdeacon of Richmond and involved himself, sometimes influentially, in the intense religious disputes that were dividing the church. He was High Church, inclining to Anglo-Catholicism , an admirer of John Henry Newman and the Tractarian movement , and did his best to instil such views in his children. Young Charles was to develop an ambiguous relationship with his father's values and with the Church of England as a whole.

EDUCATION

Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll
self-portrait c. 1856

HOME LIFE

During his early youth, Dodgson was educated at home. His "reading lists" preserved in the family archives testify to a precocious intellect: at the age of seven, he was reading books such as _The Pilgrim\'s Progress _. He also suffered from a stammer – a condition shared by most of his siblings – that often influenced his social life throughout his years. At the age of twelve, he was sent to Richmond Grammar School (now part of Richmond School
Richmond School
) at nearby Richmond .

RUGBY

In 1846, Dodgson entered Rugby School where he was evidently unhappy, as he wrote some years after leaving:

I cannot say ... that any earthly considerations would induce me to go through my three years again ... I can honestly say that if I could have been ... secure from annoyance at night, the hardships of the daily life would have been comparative trifles to bear.

Scholastically, though, he excelled with apparent ease. "I have not had a more promising boy at his age since I came to Rugby", observed mathematics master R. B. Mayor.

OXFORD

He left Rugby at the end of 1849 and matriculated at Oxford in May 1850 as a member of his father's old college, Christ Church . After waiting for rooms in college to become available, he went into residence in January 1851. He had been at Oxford only two days when he received a summons home. His mother had died of "inflammation of the brain" – perhaps meningitis or a stroke – at the age of 47.

His early academic career veered between high promise and irresistible distraction. He did not always work hard but was exceptionally gifted and achievement came easily to him. In 1852, he obtained first-class honours in Mathematics Moderations and was shortly thereafter nominated to a Studentship by his father's old friend Canon Edward Pusey . In 1854, he obtained first-class honours in the Final Honours School of Mathematics, standing first on the list, graduating Bachelor of Arts . He remained at Christ Church studying and teaching, but the next year he failed an important scholarship through his self-confessed inability to apply himself to study. Even so, his talent as a mathematician won him the Christ Church Mathematical Lectureship in 1855, which he continued to hold for the next 26 years. Despite early unhappiness, Dodgson was to remain at Christ Church, in various capacities, until his death.

CHARACTER AND APPEARANCE

1863 photograph by Oscar G. Rejlander

HEALTH CHALLENGES

The young adult Charles Dodgson was about 6 feet (1.83 m) tall and slender, and he had curly brown hair and blue or grey eyes (depending on the account). He was described in later life as somewhat asymmetrical , and as carrying himself rather stiffly and awkwardly, although this might be on account of a knee injury sustained in middle age. As a very young child, he suffered a fever that left him deaf in one ear. At the age of 17, he suffered a severe attack of whooping cough , which was probably responsible for his chronically weak chest in later life. Another defect which he carried into adulthood was what he referred to as his "hesitation", a stammer that he acquired in early childhood and which plagued him throughout his life.

The stammer has always been a significant part of the image of Dodgson. It is said that he stammered only in adult company and was free and fluent with children, but there is no evidence to support this idea. Many children of his acquaintance remembered the stammer, while many adults failed to notice it. Dodgson himself seems to have been far more acutely aware of it than most people whom he met; it is said that he caricatured himself as the Dodo in _Alice's Adventures in Wonderland_, referring to his difficulty in pronouncing his last name, but this is one of the many "facts" often repeated for which no first-hand evidence remains. He did indeed refer to himself as the dodo, but whether or not this reference was to his stammer is simply speculation.

Dodgson's stammer did trouble him, but it was never so debilitating that it prevented him from applying his other personal qualities to do well in society. He lived in a time when people commonly devised their own amusements and when singing and recitation were required social skills, and the young Dodgson was well equipped to be an engaging entertainer. He reportedly could sing tolerably well and was not afraid to do so before an audience. He was adept at mimicry and storytelling, and was reputedly quite good at charades .

SOCIAL CONNECTIONS

In the interim between his early published writings and the success of the _Alice_ books, Dodgson began to move in the pre-Raphaelite social circle. He first met John Ruskin in 1857 and became friendly with him. He developed a close relationship with Dante Gabriel Rossetti and his family, and also knew William Holman Hunt
William Holman Hunt
, John Everett Millais , and Arthur Hughes , among other artists. He knew fairy-tale author George MacDonald well – it was the enthusiastic reception of _Alice_ by the young MacDonald children that persuaded him to submit the work for publication.

POLITICS, RELIGION, AND PHILOSOPHY

In broad terms, Dodgson has traditionally been regarded as politically, religiously, and personally conservative. Martin Gardner labels Dodgson as a Tory who was "awed by lords and inclined to be snobbish towards inferiors." The Reverend W. Tuckwell , in his _Reminiscences of Oxford_ (1900), regarded him as "austere, shy, precise, absorbed in mathematical reverie, watchfully tenacious of his dignity, stiffly conservative in political, theological, social theory, his life mapped out in squares like Alice's landscape." In _The Life and Letters of Lewis Carroll_, the editor states that "his Diary is full of such modest depreciations of himself and his work, interspersed with earnest prayers (too sacred and private to be reproduced here) that God would forgive him the past, and help him to perform His holy will in the future." When a friend asked him about his religious views, Dodgson wrote in response that he was a member of the Church of England, but "doubt if he was fully a 'High Churchman'". He added:

I believe that when you and I come to lie down for the last time, if only we can keep firm hold of the great truths Christ taught us—our own utter worthlessness and His infinite worth; and that He has brought us back to our one Father, and made us His brethren, and so brethren to one another—we shall have all we need to guide us through the shadows. Most assuredly I accept to the full the doctrines you refer to—that Christ died to save us, that we have no other way of salvation open to us but through His death, and that it is by faith in Him, and through no merit of ours, that we are reconciled to God; and most assuredly I can cordially say, "I owe all to Him who loved me, and died on the Cross of Calvary." — Carroll (1897)

Dodgson also expressed interest in other fields. He was an early member of the Society for Psychical Research , and one of his letters suggests that he accepted as real what was then called "thought reading". Dodgson wrote some studies of various philosophical arguments. In 1895, he developed a philosophical regressus-argument on deductive reasoning in his article "What the Tortoise Said to Achilles ", which appeared in one of the early volumes of _Mind_. The article was reprinted in the same journal a hundred years later in 1995, with a subsequent article by Simon Blackburn titled "Practical Tortoise Raising".

ARTISTIC ACTIVITIES

One of Carroll's own illustrations

LITERATURE

From a young age, Dodgson wrote poetry and short stories, contributing heavily to the family magazine _ Mischmasch _ and later sending them to various magazines, enjoying moderate success. Between 1854 and 1856, his work appeared in the national publications _The Comic Times_ and _The Train_, as well as smaller magazines such as the _ Whitby Gazette _ and the _Oxford Critic_. Most of this output was humorous, sometimes satirical, but his standards and ambitions were exacting. "I do not think I have yet written anything worthy of real publication (in which I do not include the _Whitby Gazette_ or the _Oxonian Advertiser_), but I do not despair of doing so some day," he wrote in July 1855. Sometime after 1850, he did write puppet plays for his siblings' entertainment, of which one has survived: _La Guida di Bragia_.

In 1856, he published his first piece of work under the name that would make him famous. A romantic poem called "Solitude" appeared in _The Train_ under the authorship of "Lewis Carroll". This pseudonym was a play on his real name: _Lewis_ was the anglicised form of _Ludovicus_, which was the Latin for _Lutwidge_, and _Carroll_ an Irish surname similar to the Latin name _Carolus_, from which comes the name _Charles_. The transition went as follows: "Charles Lutwidge" translated into Latin as "Carolus Ludovicus". This was then translated back into English as "Carroll Lewis" and then reversed to make "Lewis Carroll". This pseudonym was chosen by editor Edmund Yates from a list of four submitted by Dodgson, the others being Edgar Cuthwellis, Edgar U. C. Westhill, and Louis Carroll.

_Alice_ Books

_ "The chief difficulty Alice
Alice
found at first was in managing her flamingo". Illustration by John Tenniel
John Tenniel
, 1865. The Jabberwock_, as illustrated by John Tenniel
John Tenniel
for Lewis Carroll's _Through the Looking Glass_, including the poem " Jabberwocky
Jabberwocky
".

In 1856, Dean (i.e., head of the college) Henry Liddell arrived at Christ Church , bringing with him his young family, all of whom would figure largely in Dodgson's life over the following years, and would greatly influence his writing career. Dodgson became close friends with Liddell's wife Lorina and their children, particularly the three sisters Lorina, Edith, and Alice
Alice
Liddell. He was widely assumed for many years to have derived his own "Alice" from Alice Liddell ; the acrostic poem at the end of _Through the Looking Glass_ spells out her name in full, and there are also many superficial references to her hidden in the text of both books. It has been noted that Dodgson himself repeatedly denied in later life that his "little heroine" was based on any real child, and he frequently dedicated his works to girls of his acquaintance, adding their names in acrostic poems at the beginning of the text. Gertrude Chataway 's name appears in this form at the beginning of _ The Hunting of the Snark _, and it is not suggested that this means that any of the characters in the narrative are based on her.

Information is scarce (Dodgson's diaries for the years 1858–1862 are missing), but it seems clear that his friendship with the Liddell family was an important part of his life in the late 1850s, and he grew into the habit of taking the children on rowing trips (first the boy Harry, and later the three girls) accompanied by an adult friend to nearby Nuneham Courtenay
Nuneham Courtenay
or Godstow .

It was on one such expedition on 4 July 1862 that Dodgson invented the outline of the story that eventually became his first and greatest commercial success. He told the story to Alice Liddell and she begged him to write it down, and Dodgson eventually (after much delay) presented her with a handwritten, illustrated manuscript entitled _Alice's Adventures Under Ground_ in November 1864.

Before this, the family of friend and mentor George MacDonald read Dodgson's incomplete manuscript, and the enthusiasm of the MacDonald children encouraged Dodgson to seek publication. In 1863, he had taken the unfinished manuscript to Macmillan the publisher, who liked it immediately. After the possible alternative titles were rejected – _ Alice
Alice
Among the Fairies_ and _Alice's Golden Hour_ – the work was finally published as _Alice\'s Adventures in Wonderland _ in 1865 under the Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll
pen-name, which Dodgson had first used some nine years earlier. The illustrations this time were by Sir John Tenniel ; Dodgson evidently thought that a published book would need the skills of a professional artist. Annotated versions provide insights into many of the ideas and hidden meanings that are prevalent in these books. Critical literature has often proposed Freudian interpretations of the book as "a descent into the dark world of the subconscious ", as well as seeing it as a satire upon contemporary mathematical advances.

The overwhelming commercial success of the first Alice
Alice
book changed Dodgson's life in many ways. The fame of his alter ego "Lewis Carroll" soon spread around the world. He was inundated with fan mail and with sometimes unwanted attention. Indeed, according to one popular story, Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
herself enjoyed _ Alice
Alice
In Wonderland_ so much that she commanded that he dedicate his next book to her, and was accordingly presented with his next work, a scholarly mathematical volume entitled _An Elementary Treatise on Determinants_. Dodgson himself vehemently denied this story, commenting "... It is utterly false in every particular: nothing even resembling it has occurred"; and it is unlikely for other reasons. As T.B. Strong comments in a _Times _ article, "It would have been clean contrary to all his practice to identify author of Alice
Alice
with the author of his mathematical works". He also began earning quite substantial sums of money but continued with his seemingly disliked post at Christ Church.

Late in 1871, he published the sequel _ Through the Looking-Glass
Through the Looking-Glass
and What Alice
Alice
Found There _. (The title page of the first edition erroneously gives "1872" as the date of publication. ) Its somewhat darker mood possibly reflects changes in Dodgson's life. His father's death in 1868 plunged him into a depression that lasted some years.

_The Hunting Of The Snark_

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In 1876, Dodgson produced his next great work _The Hunting of the Snark _, a fantastical "nonsense" poem exploring the adventures of a bizarre crew of nine tradesmen and one beaver, who set off to find the snark. Painter Dante Gabriel Rossetti
Dante Gabriel Rossetti
reputedly became convinced that the poem was about him.

_Sylvie And Bruno_

In 1895, 30 years after publication of his masterpieces, Carroll attempted a comeback, producing a two-volume tale of the fairy siblings Sylvie and Bruno . Carroll entwines two plots set in two alternative worlds, one set in rural England and the other in the fairytale kingdoms of Elfland, Outland, and others. The fairytale world satirizes English society, and more specifically the world of academia. _Sylvie and Bruno_ came out in two volumes and is considered a lesser work, although it has remained in print for over a century.

PHOTOGRAPHY

Main article: Lewis Carroll and fine-art photography Photo of Alice Liddell taken by Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll
(1858)

In 1856, Dodgson took up the new art form of photography under the influence first of his uncle Skeffington Lutwidge , and later of his Oxford friend Reginald Southey . He soon excelled at the art and became a well-known gentleman-photographer, and he seems even to have toyed with the idea of making a living out of it in his very early years.

A study by Roger Taylor and Edward Wakeling exhaustively lists every surviving print, and Taylor calculates that just over half of his surviving work depicts young girls, though about 60% of his original photographic portfolio is now missing. Dodgson also made many studies of men, women, boys, and landscapes; his subjects also include skeletons, dolls, dogs, statues, paintings, and trees. His pictures of children were taken with a parent in attendance and many of the pictures were taken in the Liddell garden because natural sunlight was required for good exposures.

He also found photography to be a useful entrée into higher social circles. During the most productive part of his career, he made portraits of notable sitters such as John Everett Millais
John Everett Millais
, Ellen Terry , Dante Gabriel Rossetti
Dante Gabriel Rossetti
, Julia Margaret Cameron
Julia Margaret Cameron
, Michael Faraday , Lord Salisbury , and Alfred, Lord Tennyson
Alfred, Lord Tennyson
.

By the time that Dodgson abruptly ceased photography (1880, over 24 years), he had established his own studio on the roof of Tom Quad
Tom Quad
, created around 3,000 images, and was an amateur master of the medium, though fewer than 1,000 images have survived time and deliberate destruction. He stopped taking photographs because keeping his studio working was too time-consuming. He used the wet collodion process ; commercial photographers who started using the dry-plate process in the 1870s took pictures more quickly. Popular taste changed with the advent of Modernism
Modernism
, affecting the types of photographs that he produced.

INVENTIONS

To promote letter writing, Dodgson invented "The Wonderland Postage-Stamp Case" in 1889. This was a cloth-backed folder with twelve slots, two marked for inserting the most commonly used penny stamp, and one each for the other current denominations up to one shilling. The folder was then put into a slipcase decorated with a picture of Alice
Alice
on the front and the Cheshire
Cheshire
Cat on the back. It intended to organize stamps wherever one stored their writing utensils; Carroll expressly notes in _Eight or Nine Wise Words About Letter-Writing _ it is not intended to be carried in a pocket or purse, as the most common individual stamps could easily be carried on their own. The pack included a copy of a pamphletted version of this lecture. Reconstructed nyctograph, with scale demonstrated by a 5 euro cent.

Another invention was a writing tablet called the nyctograph that allowed note-taking in the dark, thus eliminating the need to get out of bed and strike a light when one woke with an idea. The device consisted of a gridded card with sixteen squares and system of symbols representing an alphabet of Dodgson's design, using letter shapes similar to the Graffiti writing system on a Palm device.

He also devised a number of games, including an early version of what today is known as Scrabble . He appears to have invented – or at least certainly popularized – the "doublet" (see word ladder ), a form of brain-teaser that is still popular today, changing one word into another by altering one letter at a time, each successive change always resulting in a genuine word. For instance, CAT is transformed into DOG by the following steps: CAT, COT, DOT, DOG. The games and puzzles of Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll
were the subject of Martin Gardner's March 1960 Mathematical Games column in Scientific American.

Other items include a rule for finding the day of the week for any date; a means for justifying right margins on a typewriter; a steering device for a velociam (a type of tricycle); new systems of parliamentary representation; more fair elimination rules for tennis tournaments; a new sort of postal money order; rules for reckoning postage; rules for a win in betting; rules for dividing a number by various divisors; a cardboard scale for the Senior Common Room at Christ Church which, held next to a glass, ensured the right amount of liqueur for the price paid; a double-sided adhesive strip to fasten envelopes or mount things in books; a device for helping a bedridden invalid to read from a book placed sideways; and at least two ciphers for cryptography .

MATHEMATICAL WORK

A posthumous portrait of Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll
by Hubert von Herkomer
Hubert von Herkomer
, based on photographs. This painting now hangs in the Great Hall of Christ Church, Oxford .

Within the academic discipline of mathematics, Dodgson worked primarily in the fields of geometry , linear and matrix algebra , mathematical logic , and recreational mathematics , producing nearly a dozen books under his real name. Dodgson also developed new ideas in linear algebra (e.g., the first printed proof of the Kronecker-Capelli theorem ), probability, and the study of elections (e.g., Dodgson\'s method ) and committees ; some of this work was not published until well after his death. His occupation as Mathematical Lecturer at Christ Church gave him some financial security.

His mathematical work attracted renewed interest in the late 20th century. Martin Gardner's book on logic machines and diagrams and William Warren Bartley's posthumous publication of the second part of Carroll's symbolic logic book have sparked a reevaluation of Carroll's contributions to symbolic logic. Robbins\' and Rumsey's investigation of Dodgson condensation , a method of evaluating determinants , led them to the Alternating Sign Matrix conjecture, now a theorem. The discovery in the 1990s of additional ciphers that Carroll had constructed, in addition to his "Memoria Technica", showed that he had employed sophisticated mathematical ideas in their creation.

CORRESPONDENCE

Dodgson wrote and received as many as 98,721 letters, according to a special letter register which he devised. He documented his advice about how to write more satisfying letters in a missive entitled "Eight or Nine Wise Words About Letter-Writing".

LATER YEARS

Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll
self-portrait circa 1895 The grave of Lewis Carroll at the Mount Cemetery

Dodgson's existence remained little changed over the remaining twenty years of his life, throughout his growing wealth and fame. He continued to teach at Christ Church until 1881 and remained in residence there until his death. The two volumes of his last novel _ Sylvie and Bruno _ were published in 1889 and 1893, but the intricacy of this work was apparently not appreciated by contemporary readers; it achieved nothing like the success of the _Alice_ books, with disappointing reviews and sales of only 13,000 copies.

The only known occasion on which he travelled abroad was a trip to Russia in 1867 as an ecclesiastic, together with the Reverend Henry Liddon . He recounts the travel in his "Russian Journal", which was first commercially published in 1935. On his way to Russia and back, he also saw different cities in Belgium, Germany, partitioned Poland, and France.

He died of pneumonia following influenza on 14 January 1898 at his sisters' home, "The Chestnuts", in Guildford
Guildford
. He was two weeks away from turning 66 years old. His funeral was held at the nearby St Mary\'s Church . He is buried in Guildford
Guildford
at the Mount Cemetery .

CONTROVERSIES AND MYSTERIES

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Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll
portrait of Beatrice Hatch

DISCUSSION OF DODGSON\'S SEXUALITY

Some late twentieth-century biographers have suggested that Dodgson's interest in children had an erotic element, including Morton N. Cohen in his _Lewis Carroll: A Biography_ (1995), Donald Thomas in his _Lewis Carroll: A Portrait with Background_ (1995), and Michael Bakewell in his _Lewis Carroll: A Biography_ (1996). Cohen, in particular, claims that Dodgson's "sexual energies sought unconventional outlets", and further writes:

We cannot know to what extent sexual urges lay behind Charles's preference for drawing and photographing children in the nude. He contended the preference was entirely aesthetic. But given his emotional attachment to children as well as his aesthetic appreciation of their forms, his assertion that his interest was strictly artistic is naïve. He probably felt more than he dared acknowledge, even to himself.

Cohen goes on to note that Dodgson "apparently convinced many of his friends that his attachment to the nude female child form was free of any eroticism ", but adds that "later generations look beneath the surface" (p. 229). He argues that Dodgson may have wanted to marry the 11-year-old Alice
Alice
Liddell, and that this was the cause of the unexplained "break" with the family in June 1863, an event for which other explanations are offered. Biographers Derek Hudson and Roger Lancelyn Green stop short of identifying Dodgson as a paedophile (Green also edited Dodgson's diaries and papers), but they concur that he had a passion for small female children and next to no interest in the adult world. Catherine Robson refers to Carroll as "the Victorian era's most famous (or infamous) girl lover".

Several other writers and scholars have challenged the evidential basis for Cohen's and others' views about this interest of Dodgson. Lebailly has endeavoured to set Dodgson's child-photography within the "Victorian Child Cult", which perceived child-nudity as essentially an expression of innocence. Lebailly claims that studies of child nudes were mainstream and fashionable in Dodgson's time, and that most photographers made them as a matter of course, including Oscar Gustave Rejlander and Julia Margaret Cameron
Julia Margaret Cameron
. Lebailly continues that child nudes even appeared on Victorian Christmas cards , implying a very different social and aesthetic assessment of such material. Lebailly concludes that it has been an error of Dodgson's biographers to view his child-photography with 20th- or 21st-century eyes, and to have presented it as some form of personal idiosyncrasy, when it was in fact a response to a prevalent aesthetic and philosophical movement of the time.

Karoline Leach 's reappraisal of Dodgson focused in particular on his controversial sexuality. She argues that the allegations of paedophilia rose initially from a misunderstanding of Victorian morals, as well as the mistaken idea – fostered by Dodgson's various biographers – that he had no interest in adult women. She termed the traditional image of Dodgson "the Carroll Myth". She drew attention to the large amounts of evidence in his diaries and letters that he was also keenly interested in adult women, married and single, and enjoyed several relationships with them that would have been considered scandalous by the social standards of his time. She also pointed to the fact that many of those whom he described as "child-friends" were girls in their late teens and even twenties. She argues that suggestions of paedophilia emerged only many years after his death, when his well-meaning family had suppressed all evidence of his relationships with women in an effort to preserve his reputation, thus giving a false impression of a man interested only in little girls. Similarly, Leach points to a 1932 biography by Langford Reed as the source of the dubious claim that many of Carroll's female friendships ended when the girls reached the age of fourteen.

In addition to the biographical works that have discussed Dodgson's sexuality, there are modern artistic interpretations of his life and work that do so as well — in particular, Dennis Potter in his play _Alice_ and his screenplay for the motion picture _ Dreamchild _, and Robert Wilson in his film _Alice_.

ORDINATION

Dodgson had been groomed for the ordained ministry in the Church of England from a very early age and was expected to be ordained within four years of obtaining his master's degree, as a condition of his residency at Christ Church. He delayed the process for some time but was eventually ordained as a deacon on 22 December 1861. But when the time came a year later to be ordained as a priest, Dodgson appealed to the dean for permission not to proceed. This was against college rules and, initially, Dean Liddell told him that he would have to consult the college ruling body, which would almost certainly have resulted in his being expelled. For unknown reasons, Liddell changed his mind overnight and permitted Dodgson to remain at the college in defiance of the rules. Dodgson never became a priest, unique amongst senior students of his time.

There is currently no conclusive evidence about why Dodgson rejected the priesthood. Some have suggested that his stammer made him reluctant to take the step, because he was afraid of having to preach. Wilson quotes letters by Dodgson describing difficulty in reading lessons and prayers rather than preaching in his own words. But Dodgson did indeed preach in later life, even though not in priest's orders, so it seems unlikely that his impediment was a major factor affecting his choice. Wilson also points out that the Bishop of Oxford , Samuel Wilberforce , who ordained Dodgson, had strong views against clergy going to the theatre, one of Dodgson's great interests. Others have suggested that he was having serious doubts about Anglicanism. He was interested in minority forms of Christianity (he was an admirer of F. D. Maurice ) and "alternative" religions (theosophy ). Dodgson became deeply troubled by an unexplained sense of sin and guilt at this time (the early 1860s) and frequently expressed the view in his diaries that he was a "vile and worthless" sinner, unworthy of the priesthood and this sense of sin and unworthiness may well have affected his decision to abandon being ordained to the priesthood.

MISSING DIARIES

At least four complete volumes and around seven pages of text are missing from Dodgson's 13 diaries. The loss of the volumes remains unexplained; the pages have been removed by an unknown hand. Most scholars assume that the diary material was removed by family members in the interests of preserving the family name, but this has not been proven. Except for one page, material is missing from his diaries for the period between 1853 and 1863 (when Dodgson was 21–31 years old). This was a period when Dodgson began suffering great mental and spiritual anguish and confessing to an overwhelming sense of his own sin. This was also the period of time when he composed his extensive love poetry, leading to speculation that the poems may have been autobiographical.

Many theories have been put forward to explain the missing material. A popular explanation for one missing page (27 June 1863) is that it might have been torn out to conceal a proposal of marriage on that day by Dodgson to the 11-year-old Alice
Alice
Liddell. However, there has never been any evidence to suggest that this was so, and a paper offers some evidence to the contrary which was discovered by Karoline Leach in the Dodgson family archive in 1996. The "cut pages in diary" document, in the Dodgson family archive in Woking

This paper is known as the "cut pages in diary document", and was compiled by various members of Carroll's family after his death. Part of it may have been written at the time when the pages were destroyed, though this is unclear. The document offers a brief summary of two diary pages that are missing, including the one for 27 June 1863. The summary for this page states that Mrs. Liddell told Dodgson that there was gossip circulating about him and the Liddell family's governess , as well as about his relationship with "Ina", presumably Alice's older sister Lorina Liddell. The "break" with the Liddell family that occurred soon after was presumably in response to this gossip. An alternative interpretation has been made regarding Carroll's rumoured involvement with "Ina": Lorina was also the name of Alice
Alice
Liddell's mother. What is deemed most crucial and surprising is that the document seems to imply that Dodgson's break with the family was not connected with Alice
Alice
at all; until a primary source is discovered, the events of 27 June 1863 will remain in doubt.

MIGRAINE AND EPILEPSY

In his diary for 1880, Dodgson recorded experiencing his first episode of migraine with aura, describing very accurately the process of "moving fortifications" that are a manifestation of the aura stage of the syndrome. Unfortunately, there is no clear evidence to show whether this was his first experience of migraine _per se_, or if he may have previously suffered the far more common form of migraine without aura, although the latter seems most likely, given the fact that migraine most commonly develops in the teens or early adulthood. Another form of migraine aura called Alice in Wonderland syndrome has been named after Dodgson's little heroine because its manifestation can resemble the sudden size-changes in the book. It is also known as micropsia and macropsia , a brain condition affecting the way that objects are perceived by the mind. For example, an afflicted person may look at a larger object such as a basketball and perceive it as if it were the size of a golf ball. Some authors have suggested that Dodgson may have suffered from this type of aura and used it as an inspiration in his work, but there is no evidence that he did.

Dodgson also suffered two attacks in which he lost consciousness. He was diagnosed by a Dr. Morshead, Dr. Brooks, and Dr. Stedman, and they believed the attack and a consequent attack to be an "epileptiform" seizure (initially thought to be fainting, but Brooks changed his mind). Some have concluded from this that he was a lifetime sufferer of this condition, but there is no evidence of this in his diaries beyond the diagnosis of the two attacks already mentioned. Some authors, Sadi Ranson in particular, have suggested that Carroll may have suffered from temporal lobe epilepsy in which consciousness is not always completely lost but altered, and in which the symptoms mimic many of the same experiences as Alice
Alice
in Wonderland. Carroll had at least one incident in which he suffered full loss of consciousness and awoke with a bloody nose, which he recorded in his diary and noted that the episode left him not feeling himself for "quite sometime afterward". This attack was diagnosed as possibly "epileptiform" and Carroll himself later wrote of his "seizures" in the same diary.

Most of the standard diagnostic tests of today were not available in the nineteenth century. Dr. Yvonne Hart, consultant neurologist at the John Radcliffe Hospital
John Radcliffe Hospital
, Oxford, considered Dodgson's symptoms. Her conclusion, quoted in Jenny Woolf's 2010 _The Mystery of Lewis Carroll_, is that Dodgson very likely had migraine, and may have had epilepsy, but she emphasises that she would have considerable doubt about making a diagnosis of epilepsy without further information.

MEMORIALS

On Copenhagen Street in Islington
Islington
is the Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll
Children's Library.

In 1982, his great-nephew unveiled a memorial stone to him in Poets\' Corner , Westminster Abbey .

WORKS

* _The Principles of Parliamentary Representation_ (1884)

LITERARY WORKS

* _La Guida di Bragia, a Ballad Opera for the Marionette Theatre_ (around 1850) * _Alice\'s Adventures in Wonderland _ (1865) * _Rhyme? And Reason? _ (1869; also published as _Phantasmagoria_) * _Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice
Alice
Found There _ (includes " Jabberwocky
Jabberwocky
" and " The Walrus and the Carpenter ") (1871) * _ The Hunting of the Snark _ (1876) * _ A Tangled Tale _ (1885) * _ Sylvie and Bruno _ (1889) * _ Sylvie and Bruno Concluded _ (1893) * _Pillow Problems_ (1893) * _ What the Tortoise Said to Achilles _ (1895) * _Three Sunsets and Other Poems_ (1898)

MATHEMATICAL WORKS

* _A Syllabus of Plane Algebraic Geometry_ (1860) * _The Fifth Book
Book
of Euclid Treated Algebraically_ (1858 and 1868) * _An Elementary Treatise on Determinants, With Their Application to Simultaneous Linear Equations and Algebraic Equations_ * _ Euclid and his Modern Rivals _ (1879), both literary and mathematical in style * _Symbolic Logic Part I_ * _Symbolic Logic Part II_ (published posthumously) * _The Alphabet Cipher
Cipher
_ (1868) * _ The Game of Logic _ (1887) * _Curiosa Mathematica I_ (1888) * _Curiosa Mathematica II_ (1892) * _The Theory of Committees and Elections_, collected, edited, analysed, and published in 1958, by Duncan Black

OTHER WORKS

* _Some Popular Fallacies about Vivisection_ * _Eight or Nine Wise Words About Letter-Writing_ * _Notes by an Oxford Chiel_

* "Miss Jones", comic song 1862

SEE ALSO

* Biography portal * Poetry
Poetry
portal * Children\'s literature portal * Cheshire
Cheshire
portal

* Lewis Carroll identity * Lewis Carroll Shelf Award * RGS Worcester and The Alice Ottley School – Miss Ottley, the first Headmistress of The Alice
Alice
Ottley School, was a friend of Lewis Carroll. One of the school\'s houses was named after him. * Carroll diagram

REFERENCES

* ^ Elster, Charles Harrington (2006). _The big book of beastly mispronunciations: the complete opinionated guide for the careful speaker_. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. pp. 158–159. ISBN 061842315X . * ^ Emerson, R. H. (1996). "The Unpronounceables: Difficult Literary Names 1500–1940". _English Language Notes_. 34 (2): 63–74. ISSN 0013-8282 . * ^ "Lewis Carroll". _Biography in Context_. Gale. Retrieved 24 September 2015. * ^ " Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll
Societies". Lewiscarrollsociety.org.uk. Retrieved 12 September 2013. * ^ Clark , p. 10 * ^ Collingwood , pp. 6–7 * ^ Collingwood , p. 8 * ^ _A_ _B_ Cohen , pp. 30–35 * ^ "Google map of Daresbury, UK". Retrieved 22 October 2011. * ^ "Charles Lutwidge Dodgson". _The MacTutor History of Mathematics archive_. Retrieved 8 March 2011. * ^ Cohen , pp. 200–202 * ^ Cohen , p. 4 * ^ Collingwood , pp. 30–31 * ^ Collingwood , p. 29 * ^ Clark , pp. 63–64 * ^ _A_ _B_ Clark , pp. 64–65 * ^ Collingwood , p. 52 * ^ Clark , p. 74 * ^ Collingwood , p. 57 * ^ Wilson , p. 51 * ^ Cohen , p. 51 * ^ Clark , p. 79 * ^ Flood, Raymond; Rice, Adrian; Wilson, Robin (2011). _Mathematics in Victorian Britain_. Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
. p. 41. ISBN 0-19-960139-9 . OCLC
OCLC
721931689 . * ^ Cohen , pp. 414–416 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ Leach , Ch. 2. * ^ Leach , p. 91 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ _K_ Cohen , pp. 100–4 * ^ Gardner, Martin (2000). _Introduction to The annotated Alice: Alice's adventures in Wonderland & Through the looking glass_. W. W. Norton & Company. p. xv. ISBN 0-517-02962-6 . * ^ Gardner, Martin (2009). _Introduction to Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass_. Oxford University Press. p. xvi. ISBN 0-517-02962-6 . * ^ Collingwood * ^ Collingwood , Chapter IX * ^ Hayness, Renée (1982). _The Society for Psychical Research, 1882–1982 A History_. London: Macdonald & Co. pp. 13–14. ISBN 0-356-07875-2 . * ^ Carroll, L. (1895). "What the Tortoise Said to Achilles". _Mind_ (14): 278. doi :10.1093/mind/IV.14.278 . * ^ Blackburn, S. (1995). "Practical Tortoise Raising". _Mind_. 104 (416): 695. doi :10.1093/mind/104.416.695 . * ^ Heath, Peter L. (2007). "Introduction". _La Guida Di Bragia, a Ballad Opera for the Marionette Theatre_. Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll
Society of North America. pp. vii–xvi. ISBN 0-930326-15-6 . * ^ Roger Lancelyn Green On-line Encyclopædia Britannica * ^ Thomas , p. 129 * ^ Cohen, Morton N. (ed) (1979) _The Letters of Lewis Carroll_, London: Macmillan. * ^ _A_ _B_ Leach , Ch. 5 "The Unreal Alice" * ^ _A_ _B_ Winchester, Simon (2011). _The Alice
Alice
Behind Wonderland_. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-539619-5 . OCLC 641525313 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Leach , Ch. 4 * ^ Gardner, Martin (2000). "The Annotated Alice. The definitive Edition". New York: W.W. Norton. * ^ Heath, Peter (1974). "The Philosopher's Alice". New York: St. Martin's Press. * ^ "Algebra in Wonderland". _The New York Times_. 7 March 2010. * ^ Bayley, Melanie. "Alice’s adventures in algebra: Wonderland solved". _ New Scientist
New Scientist
_. * ^ Wilson * ^ _A_ _B_ " Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll
– Logician, Nonsense Writer, Mathematician
Mathematician
and Photographer". _The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy_. BBC. 26 August 2005. Retrieved 12 February 2009. * ^ Dodgson, Charles (1896). _Symbolic Logic_. * ^ Strong, T. B. (27 January 1932). "Mr. Dodgson: Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll
at Oxford". __. * ^ "Fit for a Queen". Snopes. * ^ Cohen, Morton (24 June 2009). _Introduction to " Alice
Alice
in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass"_. Random House . ISBN 978-0-553-21345-4 . * ^ Clark , p. 93 * ^ Taylor, Roger; Wakeling, Edward (25 February 2002). _Lewis Carroll, Photographer_. Princeton University Press . ISBN 978-0-691-07443-6 . * ^ Cohen, Morton (1999). "Reflections in a Looking Glass." New York: Aperture. * ^ Thomas , p. 116 * ^ Thomas , p. 265 * ^ Wakeling, Edward (1998). "Lewis Carroll's Photography". _An Exhibition From the Jon A. Lindseth Collection of C. L. Dodgson and Lewis Carroll_. New York, NY: The Grolier Club. pp. 55–67. ISBN 0-910672-23-7 . * ^ Flodden W. Heron, "Lewis Carroll, Inventor of Postage Stamp Case" in _Stamps_, vol. 26, no. 12, 25 March 1939 * ^ "Carroll Related Stamps". The Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll
Society. 28 April 2005. Retrieved 10 March 2011. * ^ Everson, Michael . (2011) "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland: An edition printed in the Nyctographic Square Alphabet devised by Lewis Carroll". Foreword by Alan Tannenbaum, Éire: Cathair na Mart. ISBN 978-1-904808-78-7 * ^ Black, Duncan; McLean, Iain; McMillan, Alistair; Monroe, Burt L.; Dodgson, Charles Lutwidge (1996). _A Mathematical Approach to Proportional Representation_. ISBN 978-0-7923-9620-8 . * ^ Seneta, Eugene (1984). " Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll
as a Probabilist and Mathematician" (PDF). _Mathematical Scientist_. 9: 79–84. * ^ Abeles, Francine F. (1998) Charles L. Dodgson, Mathematician." An Exhibition From the Jon A. Lindseth Collection of C.L. Dodgson and Lewis Carroll". New York:The Grolier Club, pp. 45–54. * ^ Wilson , p. 61 * ^ Gardner, Martin. (1958) "Logic Machines and Diagrams". Brighton, Sussex:Harvester Press * ^ Bartley, William Warren III, ed. (1977) "Lewis Carroll's Symbolic Logic." New York: Clarkson N. Potter, 2nd ed 1986. * ^ Moktefi, Amirouche. (2008) "Lewis Carroll's Logic", pp. 457–505 in _British Logic in the Nineteenth Century_, Vol. 4 of _Handbook of the History of Logic_, Dov M. Gabbay and John Woods (eds.) Amsterdam: Elsevier. * ^ Robbins, D. P.; Rumsey, H. (1986). "Determinants and alternating sign matrices". _Advances in Mathematics_. 62 (2): 169. doi :10.1016/0001-8708(86)90099-X . * ^ Abeles, F. F. (2005). "Lewis Carroll's ciphers: The literary connections". _Advances in Applied Mathematics_. 34 (4): 697. doi :10.1016/j.aam.2004.06.006 . * ^ Clark, Dorothy G. (April 2010). "The Place of Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll
in Children\'s Literature (review)". _The Lion and the Unicorn_. 34 (2): 253–258. doi :10.1353/uni.0.0495 . * ^ Angelica Shirley Carpenter (2002). _Lewis Carroll: Through the Looking Glass_. Lerner. p. 98.ISBN 978-0822500735 . * ^ Christensen, Thomas (1991). "Dodgson\'s Dodges". rightreading.com. * ^ "Chronology of Works of Lewis Carroll". Archived from the original on 20 February 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-20. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link ) * ^ Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll
and St Mary\'s Church – _Guildford: This Is Our Town_ website * ^ Cohen , pp. 166–167, 254–255 * ^ Cohen , p. 228 * ^ Robson, C., _Men in Wonderland: The Lost Girlhood of the Victorian Gentlemen_, Princeton University Press, 2001, p. 137. * ^ Leach , pp. 16–17 * ^ Leach , p. 33 * ^ Dodgson's MS diaries, volume 8, 22–24 October 1862 * ^ Cohen , p. 263 * ^ Wilson , pp. 103–104 * ^ Leach , p. 134 * ^ Dodgson's MS diaries, volume 8, see prayers scattered throughout the text * ^ Leach , pp. 48, 51 * ^ Leach , pp. 48–51 * ^ Leach , p. 52 * ^ Wakeling, Edward (April 2003). "The Real Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll
/ A Talk given to the Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll
Society". _1855 ... 1856 ... 1857 ... 1858 ... 1862 ... 1863_. Retrieved 14 September 2009. * ^ Leach p. 54 * ^ "The Dodgson Family and Their Legacy". Retrieved 5 January 2011. * ^ Dodgson Family Collection, Cat. No. F/17/1. "Cut Pages in Diary". (For an account of its discovery see _ The Times Literary Supplement_, 3 May 1996.) * ^ Leach , pp. 170–2. * ^ "Text available on-line". _Looking for Lewis Carroll_. Retrieved 4 May 2007. * ^ _A_ _B_ Wakeling, Edward (Ed.) "The Diaries of Lewis Carroll", Vol. 9, p. 52 * ^ Maudie, F.W. " Migraine
Migraine
and Lewis Carroll". _The Migraine Periodical_. 17. * ^ Podoll, K; Robinson, D (1999). "Lewis Carroll's migraine experiences". _The Lancet_. 353 (9161): 1366. PMID 10218566 . doi :10.1016/S0140-6736(05)74368-3 . * ^ Woolf, Jenny (4 February 2010). _The Mystery of Lewis Carroll_. St. Martin\'s Press . pp. 298–9. ISBN 978-0-312-67371-0 . * ^ "‘A most curious thing’ / Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll
Library". www.designbybeam.com. Archived from the original on 3 April 2015. Retrieved 15 March 2013. * ^ "LEWIS CARROLL IS HONORED ON 150TH BIRTHDAY". _The New York Times_. The New York Times Company. 18 December 1982. Retrieved 30 January 2015. * ^ The Carrollian - Issues 7-8 - Page 7 2001 "In 1862 when Lewis Carroll sent to Yates the manuscript of the words of a 'melancholy song', entitled 'Miss Jones', he hoped that it would be published and performed by a comedian on a London music-hall stage."

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Clark, Ann (1979). _Lewis Carroll: A Biography_. London: J. M. Dent. ISBN 0-460-04302-1 . * Cohen, Morton (1996). _Lewis Carroll: A Biography_. Vintage Books . pp. 30–35. ISBN 978-0-679-74562-4 . * Collingwood, Stuart Dodgson (1898). _The Life and Letters of Lewis Carroll_. London: T. Fisher Unwin. * Leach, Karoline (1999). _In the Shadow of the Dreamchild: A New Understanding of Lewis Carroll_. London: Peter Owen. * Reed, Langford, _The Life of Lewis Carroll_ (1932. London: W. and G. Foyle) * Taylor, Alexander L., Knight, _The White Knight_ (1952. Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd) * Taylor, Roger & Wakeling, Edward, _Lewis Carroll, Photographer_ (2002. Princeton University Press ) (ISBN 0691074437 ). Catalogues nearly every Carroll photograph known to be still in existence. * Thomas, Donald (1996). _ Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll
/ A Biography_. Barnes and Noble, Inc. ISBN 978-0-7607-1232-0 . * Wilson, Robin (2008). _ Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll
in Numberland: His Fantastical Mathematical Logical Life_. London: Allen Lane. ISBN 978-0-7139-9757-6 . * Woolf, Jenny, _The Mystery of Lewis Carroll_. (2010. New York: St Martin's Press.ISBN 9780312612986 )

FURTHER READING

* Black, Duncan (1958). The Circumstances in which Rev. C. L. Dodgson (Lewis Carroll) wrote his Three Pamphlets and Appendix: Text of Dodgson's Three Pamphlets and of 'The Cyclostyled Sheet' in _The Theory of Committees and Elections_, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press * Bowman, Isa (1899). _The Story of Lewis Carroll: Told for Young People by the Real Alice
Alice
in Wonderland, Miss Isa Bowman_. London: J.M. Dent & Co. * Dodgson, Charles L., _Euclid and His Modern Rivals_ (1879. Macmillan; reissued 2009 by Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press
ISBN 978-1-108-00100-7 )

* Dodgson, Charles L. "The Pamphlets of Lewis Carroll"

* v.1 The Oxford Pamphlets (1993) ISBN 0-8139-1250-4 * v.2 The Mathematical Pamphlets (1994) ISBN 0-9303-26-09-1 * v.3 The Political Pamphlets (2001) ISBN 0-930326-14-8 * v.4 The Logic Pamphlets (2010) ISBN 978-0-930326-25-8 .

* Goodacre, Selwyn (2006). _All the snarks : the illustrated editions of the hunting of the snark_. Oxford: Inky Parrot Press. * Graham-Smith, Darien (2005), _Contextualising Carroll_, University of Wales , Bangor: PhD Thesis (library.bangor.ac.uk) * Huxley, Francis _The Raven and the Writing Desk_ (1976) (ISBN 0-06-012113-0 ). * Kelly, Richard, _Lewis Carroll_ (1990. Boston: Twayne Publishers) * Kelly, Richard, ed. _Alice's Adventures in Wonderland_ (2000. Peterborough, Ontario: broadviewpress.com) * Lovett, Charlie, ' Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll
Among His Books: A Descriptive Catalogue of the Private Library of Charles L. Dodgson' (2005) (ISBN 0786421053 ) * Wullschläger, Jackie, _Inventing Wonderland_, (ISBN 0-7432-2892-8 )—also looks at Edward Lear
Edward Lear
(of the "nonsense" verses), J. M. Barrie (_ Peter Pan _), Kenneth Grahame (_ The Wind in the Willows
The Wind in the Willows
_), and A. A. Milne (_ Winnie-the-Pooh _). * n.n., _Dreaming in Pictures: The Photography of Lewis Carroll_. Yale University Press padding:0.75em; background:#f9f9f9;"> Find more aboutLEWIS CARROLLat's sister projects

* Media from Commons * Quotations from Wikiquote * Texts from Wikisource * Data from Wikidata

Library resources about LEWIS CARROLL -------------------------

* Resources in your library * Resources in other libraries

* A calendar of events in 2015 commemorating the 150th anniversary of Alice\'s Adventures in Wonderland * The Fales Library Guide to the Alfred C. Berol Collection of Lewis Carroll * Works by Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll
at Project Gutenberg
Project Gutenberg
* Works by or about Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll
at Internet Archive * Works by Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll
at LibriVox
LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks) _ * Works by Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll
at Open Library * Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll
at Goodreads * Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll
at the Internet Book
Book
List * Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll
at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database * Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll
on IMDb * Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll
at the British Library * Edward Wakeling\'s Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll
site — extensive information on Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll
by scholar Edward Wakeling. * Lewis Carroll: Reality Sewell, Susan R. "Byron W. Sewell and Susan R. Sewell: A Preliminary Inventory of Their Collection of Lewis Carroll at the Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center". Harry Ransom Center at the University of Texas at Austin
University of Texas at Austin
. Archived from the original on 12 September 2009. Retrieved 12 September 2009. * "Archival material relating to Lewis Carroll". UK National Archives . * Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll
online exhibition at the Harry Ransom Center
Harry Ransom Center
at the University of Texas at Austin * Lewis Carroll\'s Shifting Reputation * Guide to The Alfred C. Berol Collection of Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll
in the Fales Library at New York University
New York University
* Guide to Harcourt Amory collection of Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll
at Houghton Library, Harvard University * Lists and images of 1st editions * Images of the illustrated editions of Alice\'s Adventures in Wonderland_ from 1899 to the present day * Illustrators of _The Hunting of the Snark_ * Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll
Scrapbook Collection at the Library of Congress

* v * t * e

Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll

LITERARY WORKS

* _Alice\'s Adventures in Wonderland _ (1865) * _Rhyme? And Reason? _ (1869)

* _Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice
Alice
Found There _ (1871)

* includes " Jabberwocky
Jabberwocky
" * " The Walrus and the Carpenter ")

* _ The Hunting of the Snark _ (1876) * _ A Tangled Tale _ (1885) * _ Sylvie and Bruno _ (1889) * _ Sylvie and Bruno Concluded _ (1893) * " What the Tortoise Said to Achilles " (1895)

MATHEMATICAL WORKS

* _ Euclid and his Modern Rivals _ (1879) * "The Alphabet Cipher
Cipher
" (1868) * _ The Game of Logic _ (1887)

OTHER

* _Eight or Nine Wise Words About Letter-Writing_

* v * t * e

Lewis Carroll's _ Alice
Alice
_

* _Alice\'s Adventures in Wonderland _ * _ Through the Looking-Glass
Through the Looking-Glass
_ * _ The Nursery "Alice" _ * _ The Hunting of the Snark _

CHARACTERS

Alice's Adventures in Wonderland

* Alice
Alice
* The White Rabbit * The Mouse * The Dodo * The Duck * The Lory * Eaglet * Pat * Bill the Lizard * Puppy * The Caterpillar * The Duchess * The Cheshire
Cheshire
Cat * The March Hare

* The Hatter

* Tarrant Hightopp

* The Dormouse * The Queen of Hearts * The King of Hearts * The Knave of Hearts * The Gryphon * The Mock Turtle

Through the Looking-Glass

* Alice
Alice
* The Red Queen * The White Queen * The Red King * The White King * The White Knight * Tweedledum and Tweedledee * The Sheep
The Sheep
* Humpty Dumpty * Haigha * Hatta * The Lion and the Unicorn * Bandersnatch * Jubjub Bird

RELATED TOPICS

* Alice Liddell * Alice\'s Shop * John Tenniel
John Tenniel
* Theophilus Carter * _ The Annotated Alice _ * Wonderland * Looking-Glass Land * _ Mischmasch _

* Works based on _ Alice
Alice
in Wonderland_

* Films and television * Disney franchise

* Translations of _Alice\'s Adventures in Wonderland_ * Translations of _Through the Looking-Glass_

ADAPTATIONS

POEMS

* " All in the golden afternoon... " * " How Doth the Little Crocodile " * "The Mouse\'s Tale " * " Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Bat " * " You Are Old, Father William " * "\ 'Tis the Voice of the Lobster " * " Jabberwocky
Jabberwocky
" * " The Walrus and the Carpenter " * "Haddocks\' Eyes " * " They told me you had been to her... " * "The Mock Turtle\'s Song " * " The Hunting of the Snark "

SEQUELS

* _ A New Alice in the Old Wonderland _ (1895) * _ New Adventures of Alice _ (1917) * _ Alice of Wonderland in Paris (1966)_ * _ Alice
Alice
Through the Needle\'s Eye _ (1984) * _ Automated Alice _ (1996) * _ Wonderland Revisited and the Games Alice Played There _ (2009)

RETELLINGS

* _Alice\'s Adventures in Wonderland retold in words of one syllable _ (1905) * _ Alice
Alice
in Verse: The Lost Rhymes of Wonderland _ (2010)

PARODIES

* _ The Westminster Alice
The Westminster Alice
_ (1902) * _ Clara in Blunderland _ (1902) * _ Lost in Blunderland _ (1903) * _John Bull\'s Adventures in the Fiscal Wonderland _ (1904) * _ Alice
Alice
in Blunderland: An Iridescent Dream _ (1904)

IMITATIONS

* _Mopsa the Fairy _ (1869) * _ Davy and the Goblin _ (1884) * _The Admiral\'s Caravan _ (1891) * _ Gladys in Grammarland _ (1896) * _A New Wonderland _ (1898) * _ Rollo in Emblemland _ (1902) * _Justnowland _ (1912) * _ Alice in Orchestralia _ (1925)

REIMAGINING

* _ Alice
Alice
in Wonderland or What\'s a Nice Kid Like You Doing in a Place Like This? _ (1966) * _ Alice or the Last Escapade _ (1977) * _ Adventures in Wonderland _ (1991) * _ The Looking Glass Wars _ (2006) * _ Alice
Alice
_ (2009) * _Malice in Wonderland _ (2009) * _ Alice
Alice
in Wonderland _ (2010) * _ Alice
Alice
Through the Looking Glass _ (2016)

FILM

* 1903 * 1910 * 1915 * 1931 * 1933 * 1949 * 1951 * 1966 * 1972 * 1976 * 1982 * 1985 * 1987 * 1988 (Czechoslovak) * 1988 (Australian) * 1995 * 1999

STAGE

* _Alice\'s Adventures in Wonderland _ (ballet) * _ Alice
Alice
in Wonderland _ (musical) * _ Alice
Alice
in Wonderland _ (opera) * _ Peter and Alice _ (2013 play) * _ Wonder.land _ (musical)

TELEVISION

* _ Fushigi no Kuni no Alice _ * _Once Upon a Time _ * _ Once Upon a Time in Wonderland _

LITERARY

* _ Alice
Alice
in Murderland _ * _ Alice in the Country of Hearts _ * _ Miyuki-chan in Wonderland _

VIDEO GAMES

* _ Alice no Paint Adventure _ (1995) * _ Alice
Alice
in Wonderland _ (2000) * _American McGee\'s Alice
Alice
_ (2000) * _ Alice
Alice
in Wonderland _ (2010) * _Alice: Madness Returns _ (2011) * _ Kingdom Hearts _

* Book
Book
* Category
Category

* v * t * e

Victorian-era children's literature

AUTHORS

* Henry Cadwallader Adams * R. M. Ballantyne * Lucy Lyttelton Cameron * Lewis Carroll * Christabel Rose Coleridge * Maria Edgeworth
Maria Edgeworth
* Evelyn Everett-Green * Juliana Horatia Ewing * Frederic W. Farrar * G. E. Farrow * Agnes Giberne * Anna Maria Hall * L. T. Meade * G. A. Henty * Frances Hodgson Burnett * Thomas Hughes * Richard Jefferies
Richard Jefferies
* Charles Kingsley * W. H. G. Kingston * Rudyard Kipling * Andrew Lang * Frederick Marryat * George MacDonald * Mary Louisa Molesworth * Kirk Munroe * E. Nesbit * Beatrix Potter
Beatrix Potter
* William Brighty Rands * Talbot Baines Reed * Elizabeth Missing Sewell * Anna Sewell
Anna Sewell
* Mary Martha Sherwood * Flora Annie Steel * Robert Louis Stevenson * Hesba Stretton * Charlotte Elizabeth Tonna * Charlotte Maria Tucker * Charlotte Mary Yonge

ILLUSTRATORS

* Eleanor Vere Boyle * Gordon Browne * Randolph Caldecott
Randolph Caldecott
* Thomas Crane * Walter Crane
Walter Crane
* George Cruikshank
George Cruikshank
* Thomas Dalziel (engraver) * Richard Doyle * H. H. Emmerson * Edmund Evans (engraver) * Kate Greenaway * Sydney Prior Hall * Edward Lear
Edward Lear
* Harold Robert Millar * Arthur Rackham
Arthur Rackham
* J. G. Sowerby * Millicent Sowerby * John Tenniel
John Tenniel

BOOKS

* List of 19th-century British children\'s literature titles

TYPES

* Toy book

PUBLISHERS

* Marcus Ward & Co. * Frederick Warne ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

19th-century English photographers

* William de Wiveleslie Abney * William Makepeace Thackeray * Sarah Angelina Acland * Anna Atkins * William Bambridge * Alexander Bassano * Richard Beard * Robert Jefferson Bingham * Graystone Bird * Samuel Bourne * Samuel Buckle * Julia Margaret Cameron
Julia Margaret Cameron
* Lewis Carroll * Philip Henry Delamotte * Elliott & Fry * William England * Roger Fenton * Francis Frith * Peter Wickens Fry
Peter Wickens Fry
* William Hayes * Norman Heathcote * John Herschel * Alfred Horsley Hinton * Frederick Hollyer * Alice
Alice
Hughes * Richard Keene * William Edward Kilburn