Lev Davidovich Landau (Russian: Лев Дави́дович
Ланда́у, IPA: [lʲɛv dɐˈvidəvʲitɕ
lɐnˈda.u] ( listen); 22 January [O.S. 9
January] 1908 – 1 April 1968) was a Soviet physicist who
made fundamental contributions to many areas of theoretical
physics. His accomplishments include the independent co-discovery
of the density matrix method in quantum mechanics (alongside John
von Neumann), the quantum mechanical theory of diamagnetism, the
theory of superfluidity, the theory of second-order phase transitions,
Landau theory of superconductivity, the theory of Fermi
liquid, the explanation of
1.1 Early years
1.2 Leningrad and Europe
1.3 National Scientific Center
2 Fields of contribution
3 Legacy 4 Landau's List 5 In popular culture 6 Works
6.1 Course of Theoretical Physics 6.2 Other
7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links
Landau was born on 22 January 1908 to Jewish parents in
Baku, Azerbaijan, in what was then the Russian Empire. Landau's father
was an engineer with the local oil industry and his mother was a
doctor. A child prodigy in mathematics, he learned to differentiate at
age 12 and to integrate at age 13. Landau graduated in 1920 at age 13
from gymnasium. His parents considered him too young to attend
university, so for a year he attended the
Landau family in 1910
In 1937, Landau married Kora T. Drobanzeva from Kharkiv; their
son, Igor, was born in 1946. Landau believed in "free love" rather
than monogamy, and encouraged his wife and his students to practise
"free love"; his wife was not enthusiastic. During his life,
Landau was admitted involuntarily six times to the Kashchenko
Landau was an atheist. In 1957, a lengthy report to the CPSU
Central Committee by the KGB recorded Landau's views on the 1956
Hungarian Uprising, Lenin, and what he termed "red fascism".
On 7 January 1962, Landau's car collided with an oncoming truck. He
was severely injured and spent two months in a coma. Although Landau
recovered in many ways, his scientific creativity was destroyed,
and he never returned fully to scientific work. His injuries prevented
him from accepting the 1962
Nobel Prize for physics
P: "Please draw me a circle" L draws a cross P: "Hm, now draw me a cross" L draws a circle P: "Landau, why don't you do what I ask?" L: "If I did, you might come to think I've become mentally retarded".
In 1965 former students and co-workers of Landau founded the Landau
Institute for Theoretical Physics, located in the town of
DLVO theory Landau damping Landau distribution Landau gauge Landau pole Landau susceptibility Landau potential Landau quantization Landau theory Landau–Squire jet Landau–Levich problem Landau–Hopf theory of turbulence Ginzburg–Landau theory Darrieus–Landau instability Landau–Lifshitz aeroacoustic equation Landau–Raychaudhuri equation Landau–Zener formula Landau–Lifshitz model Landau–Lifshitz pseudotensor Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation Landau–Pomeranchuk–Migdal effect Landau–Yang theorem Landau principle Superfluidity Superconductivity
Course of Theoretical Physics
A commemorative Russian silver coin dedicated to the 100th anniversary of Landau's birth
Landau in 1962 on a 2010 Ukrainian stamp
Two celestial objects are named in his honour:
the minor planet 2142 Landau. the lunar crater Landau.
The highest prize in theoretical physics awarded by the Russian Academy of Sciences is named in his honour:
Landau Gold Medal
Landau kept a list of names of physicists which he ranked on a
logarithmic scale of productivity ranging from 0 to 5. The highest
ranking, 0, was assigned to Isaac Newton.
The Russian television film My Husband – the Genius (unofficial
translation of the Russian title Мой муж – гений)
released in 2008 tells the biography of Landau (played by Daniil
Spivakovsky), mostly focusing on his private life. It was generally
panned by critics. People who had personally met Landau, including
famous Russian scientist Vitaly Ginzburg, said that the film was not
only terrible but also false in historical facts.
Another film about Landau, Dau, is directed by
Ilya Khrzhanovsky with
Works Course of Theoretical Physics Main article: Course of Theoretical Physics
L. D. Landau, E. M. Lifshitz (1976). Mechanics. Vol. 1 (3rd ed.). Butterworth–Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-7506-2896-9. L. D. Landau; E. M. Lifshitz (1975). The Classical Theory of Fields. Vol. 2 (4th ed.). Butterworth–Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-7506-2768-9. L. D. Landau; E. M. Lifshitz (1977). Quantum Mechanics: Non-Relativistic Theory. Vol. 3 (3rd ed.). Pergamon Press. ISBN 978-0-08-020940-1. — 2nd ed. (1965) at archive.org V. B. Berestetskii, E. M. Lifshitz, L. P. Pitaevskii (1982). Quantum Electrodynamics. Vol. 4 (2nd ed.). Butterworth–Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-7506-3371-0. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) L. D. Landau; E. M. Lifshitz (1980). Statistical Physics, Part 1. Vol. 5 (3rd ed.). Butterworth–Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-7506-3372-7. L. D. Landau; E. M. Lifshitz (1987). Fluid Mechanics. Vol. 6 (2nd ed.). Butterworth–Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-08-033933-7. L. D. Landau; E. M. Lifshitz (1986). Theory of Elasticity. Vol. 7 (3rd ed.). Butterworth–Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-7506-2633-0. L. D. Landau; E. M. Lifshitz; L. P. Pitaevskii (1984). Electrodynamics of Continuous Media. Vol. 8 (1st ed.). Butterworth–Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-7506-2634-7. L. P. Pitaevskii; E. M. Lifshitz (1980). Statistical Physics, Part 2. Vol. 9 (1st ed.). Butterworth–Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-7506-2636-1. L. P. Pitaevskii; E. M. Lifshitz (1981). Physical Kinetics. Vol. 10 (1st ed.). Pergamon Press. ISBN 978-0-7506-2635-4.
L. D. Landau, A. J. Akhiezer, E. M. Lifshitz (1967). General Physics, Mechanics and Molecular Physics. Pergamon Press. ISBN 978-0-08-009106-8. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) L. D. Landau; A. I. Kitaigorodsky (1978). Physics for Everyone. Mir Publishers Moscow. L. D. Landau; Ya. Smorodinsky (2011). Lectures on Nuclear Theory. Dover Publications.
A complete list of Landau's works appeared in 1998 in the Russian journal Physics-Uspekhi. Landau would allow to list himself as a co-author of a journal article on two conditions: 1) he brought up the idea of the work, partly or entirely, and 2) he performed at least some calculations presented in the article. Consequently he removed his name from numerous publications of his students where his contribution was less significant. See also
Landau (crater) List of Jewish Nobel laureates
^ Rosen, Joe. Encyclopedia of Physics. Facts on File.
^ Schlüter, Michael; Lu Jeu Sham (1982). "Density functional theory".
Physics Today. 35 (2): 36. Bibcode:1982PhT....35b..36S.
doi:10.1063/1.2914933. Archived from the original on 2013-04-15.
^ Shifman, M., ed. (2013). Under the Spell of Landau: When Theoretical
Physics was Shaping Destinies. World Scientific. doi:10.1142/8641.
^ a b Kapitza, P. L.; Lifshitz, E. M. (1969). "Lev Davydovitch Landau
1908–1968". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society.
15: 140–158. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1969.0007.
^ Martin Gilbert, The Jews in the Twentieth Century: An Illustrated
History, Schocken Books, 2001, ISBN 0805241906 p. 284
^ Frontiers of physics: proceedings of the Landau Memorial Conference,
Tel Aviv, Israel, 6–10 June 1988, (Pergamon Press, 1990)
ISBN 0080369391, pp. 13–14
^ Edward Teller, Memoirs: A Twentieth Century Journey In Science And
Politics, Basic Books 2002, ISBN 0738207780 p. 124
^ František Janouch, Lev Landau: A Portrait of a Theoretical
Physicist, 1908–1988, Research Institute for Physics, 1988, p. 17.
^ Rumer, Yuriy. ЛАНДАУ. berkovich-zametki.com
^ a b c Bessarab, Maya (1971) Страницы жизни
Ландау. Московский рабочий. Moscow
^ a b Mehra, Jagdish (2001) The Golden Age of Theoretical Physics,
Boxed Set of 2 Volumes, World Scientific, p. 952.
^ During this period Landau visitied
Dorozynski, Alexander (1965). The Man They Wouldn't Let Die. Secker and Warburg. ASIN B0006DC8BA. (After Landau's 1962 car accident, the physics community around him rallied to attempt to save his life. They managed to prolong his life until 1968.) Janouch, Frantisek (1979). Lev D. Landau: His life and work. CERN. ASIN B0007AUCL0. Khalatnikov, I. M., ed. (1989). Landau. The physicist and the man. Recollections of L. D. Landau. Sykes, J. B. (trans.). Pergamon Press. ISBN 0-08-036383-0. Kojevnikov, Alexei B. (2004). Stalin's Great Science: The Times and Adventures of Soviet Physicists. History of Modern Physical Sciences. Imperial College Press. ISBN 1-86094-420-5. Landau-Drobantseva, Kora (1999). Professor Landau: How We Lived (in Russian). AST. ISBN 5-8159-0019-2. Archived from the original on 4 May 2005. Shifman, M., ed. (2013). Under the Spell of Landau: When Theoretical Physics was Shaping Destinies. World Scientific. doi:10.1142/8641. ISBN 978-981-4436-56-4.
Karl Hufbauer, "Landau's youthful sallies into stellar theory: Their origins, claims, and receptions", Historical Studies in the Physical and Biological Sciences, 37 (2007), 337–354. "As a student, Landau dared to correct Einstein in a lecture". Global Talent News. O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Lev Landau", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews . Lev Davidovich Landau. Nobel-Winners. Landau's Theoretical Minimum, Landau's Seminar, ITEP in the Beginning of the 1950s by Boris L. Ioffe, Concluding talk at the workshop QCD at the Threshold of the Fourth Decade/Ioeffest. EJTP Landau Issue 2008. Ammar Sakaji and Ignazio Licata (eds),Lev Davidovich Landau and his Impact on Contemporary Theoretical Physics, Nova Science Publishers, New York, 2009, ISBN 978-1-60692-908-7. Gennady Gorelik, "The Top Secret Life of Lev Landau", Scientific American, Aug. 1997, vol. 277(2), 53–57.
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Laureates of the Nobel Prize in Physics
1901 Röntgen 1902 Lorentz / Zeeman 1903 Becquerel / P. Curie / M. Curie 1904 Rayleigh 1905 Lenard 1906 J. J. Thomson 1907 Michelson 1908 Lippmann 1909 Marconi / Braun 1910 Van der Waals 1911 Wien 1912 Dalén 1913 Kamerlingh Onnes 1914 Laue 1915 W. L. Bragg / W. H. Bragg 1916 1917 Barkla 1918 Planck 1919 Stark 1920 Guillaume 1921 Einstein 1922 N. Bohr 1923 Millikan 1924 M. Siegbahn 1925 Franck / Hertz
1926 Perrin 1927 Compton / C. Wilson 1928 O. Richardson 1929 De Broglie 1930 Raman 1931 1932 Heisenberg 1933 Schrödinger / Dirac 1934 1935 Chadwick 1936 Hess / C. D. Anderson 1937 Davisson / G. P. Thomson 1938 Fermi 1939 Lawrence 1940 1941 1942 1943 Stern 1944 Rabi 1945 Pauli 1946 Bridgman 1947 Appleton 1948 Blackett 1949 Yukawa 1950 Powell
1951 Cockcroft / Walton 1952 Bloch / Purcell 1953 Zernike 1954 Born / Bothe 1955 Lamb / Kusch 1956 Shockley / Bardeen / Brattain 1957 C. N. Yang / T. D. Lee 1958 Cherenkov / Frank / Tamm 1959 Segrè / Chamberlain 1960 Glaser 1961 Hofstadter / Mössbauer 1962 Landau 1963 Wigner / Goeppert-Mayer / Jensen 1964 Townes / Basov / Prokhorov 1965 Tomonaga / Schwinger / Feynman 1966 Kastler 1967 Bethe 1968 Alvarez 1969 Gell-Mann 1970 Alfvén / Néel 1971 Gabor 1972 Bardeen / Cooper / Schrieffer 1973 Esaki / Giaever / Josephson 1974 Ryle / Hewish 1975 A. Bohr / Mottelson / Rainwater
1976 Richter / Ting 1977 P. W. Anderson / Mott / Van Vleck 1978 Kapitsa / Penzias / R. Wilson 1979 Glashow / Salam / Weinberg 1980 Cronin / Fitch 1981 Bloembergen / Schawlow / K. Siegbahn 1982 K. Wilson 1983 Chandrasekhar / Fowler 1984 Rubbia / Van der Meer 1985 von Klitzing 1986 Ruska / Binnig / Rohrer 1987 Bednorz / Müller 1988 Lederman / Schwartz / Steinberger 1989 Ramsey / Dehmelt / Paul 1990 Friedman / Kendall / R. Taylor 1991 de Gennes 1992 Charpak 1993 Hulse / J. Taylor 1994 Brockhouse / Shull 1995 Perl / Reines 1996 D. Lee / Osheroff / R. Richardson 1997 Chu / Cohen-Tannoudji / Phillips 1998 Laughlin / Störmer / Tsui 1999 't Hooft / Veltman 2000 Alferov / Kroemer / Kilby
2001 Cornell / Ketterle / Wieman 2002 Davis / Koshiba / Giacconi 2003 Abrikosov / Ginzburg / Leggett 2004 Gross / Politzer / Wilczek 2005 Glauber / Hall / Hänsch 2006 Mather / Smoot 2007 Fert / Grünberg 2008 Nambu / Kobayashi / Maskawa 2009 Kao / Boyle / Smith 2010 Geim / Novoselov 2011 Perlmutter / Riess / Schmidt 2012 Wineland / Haroche 2013 Englert / Higgs 2014 Akasaki / Amano / Nakamura 2015 Kajita / McDonald 2016 Thouless / Haldane / Kosterlitz 2017 Weiss / Barish / Thorne
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