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Lev Davidovich Landau (Russian: Лев Дави́дович Ланда́у, IPA: [lʲɛv dɐˈvidəvʲitɕ lɐnˈda.u] ( listen); 22 January [O.S. 9 January] 1908 – 1 April 1968) was a Soviet physicist who made fundamental contributions to many areas of theoretical physics.[1] His accomplishments include the independent co-discovery of the density matrix method[2] in quantum mechanics (alongside John von Neumann), the quantum mechanical theory of diamagnetism, the theory of superfluidity, the theory of second-order phase transitions, the Ginzburg– Landau theory of superconductivity, the theory of Fermi liquid, the explanation of Landau damping
Landau damping
in plasma physics, the Landau pole in quantum electrodynamics, the two-component theory of neutrinos, and Landau's equations for S matrix singularities.[3] He received the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physics
Nobel Prize in Physics
for his development of a mathematical theory of superfluidity that accounts for the properties of liquid helium II at a temperature below 7000217000000000000♠2.17 K (7000216999999999995♠−270.98 °C).[4]

Contents

1 Life

1.1 Early years 1.2 Leningrad and Europe 1.3 National Scientific Center Kharkiv
Kharkiv
Institute of Physics and Technology, Kharkiv 1.4 Institute for Physical Problems, Moscow 1.5 Scientific achievements 1.6 Personal life and views 1.7 Last years 1.8 Death

2 Fields of contribution

2.1 Pedagogy

3 Legacy 4 Landau's List 5 In popular culture 6 Works

6.1 Course of Theoretical Physics 6.2 Other

7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links

Life[edit] Early years[edit] Landau was born on 22 January 1908 to Jewish parents[4][5][6][7] in Baku, Azerbaijan, in what was then the Russian Empire. Landau's father was an engineer with the local oil industry and his mother was a doctor. A child prodigy in mathematics, he learned to differentiate at age 12 and to integrate at age 13. Landau graduated in 1920 at age 13 from gymnasium. His parents considered him too young to attend university, so for a year he attended the Baku
Baku
Economical Technical School (техникум). In 1922, at age 14, he matriculated at the Baku
Baku
State University, studying in two departments simultaneously: the Departments of Physics and Mathematics, and the Department of Chemistry. Subsequently, he ceased studying chemistry, but remained interested in the field throughout his life. Leningrad and Europe[edit] In 1924, he moved to the main centre of Soviet physics at the time: the Physics Department of Leningrad State University, where he dedicated himself to the study of theoretical physics, graduating in 1927. Landau subsequently enrolled for post-graduate studies at the Leningrad Physico-Technical Institute where he eventually received a doctorate in Physical and Mathematical Sciences in 1934.[8] Landau got his first chance to travel abroad during the period 1929–1931, on a Soviet government—People's Commissariat for Education—travelling fellowship supplemented by a Rockefeller Foundation
Rockefeller Foundation
fellowship. By that time he was fluent in German and French and could communicate in English.[9] He later improved his English and learned Danish.[10] After brief stays in Göttingen
Göttingen
and Leipzig, he went to Copenhagen
Copenhagen
on 8 April 1930 to work at the Niels Bohr's Institute for Theoretical Physics. He stayed there until 3 May of the same year. After the visit, Landau always considered himself a pupil of Niels Bohr
Niels Bohr
and Landau's approach to physics was greatly influenced by Bohr. After his stay in Copenhagen, he visited Cambridge
Cambridge
(mid-1930), where he worked with P. A. M. Dirac,[11] Copenhagen
Copenhagen
( September to November 1930),[12] and Zurich
Zurich
(December 1930 to January 1931), where he worked with Wolfgang Pauli.[11] From Zurich
Zurich
Landau went back to Copenhagen
Copenhagen
for the third time[13] and stayed there from 25 February until 19 March 1931 before returning to Leningrad the same year.[14] National Scientific Center Kharkiv
Kharkiv
Institute of Physics and Technology, Kharkiv[edit] Between 1932 and 1937, Landau headed the Department of Theoretical Physics at the National Scientific Center Kharkiv
Kharkiv
Institute of Physics and Technology, and he lectured at the University of Kharkiv
University of Kharkiv
and the Kharkiv
Kharkiv
Polytechnical Institute. Apart from his theoretical accomplishments, Landau was the principal founder of a great tradition of theoretical physics in Kharkiv, Ukraine, sometimes referred to as the "Landau school". In Kharkiv, he and his friend and former student, Evgeny Lifshitz, began writing the Course of Theoretical Physics, ten volumes that together span the whole of the subject and are still widely used as graduate-level physics texts. During the Great Purge, Landau was investigated within the UPTI Affair in Kharkiv, but he managed to leave for Moscow
Moscow
to take up a new post.[15] Landau developed a famous comprehensive exam called the "Theoretical Minimum" which students were expected to pass before admission to the school. The exam covered all aspects of theoretical physics, and between 1934 and 1961 only 43 candidates passed, but those who did later became quite notable theoretical physicists.[16][17] In 1932, Landau computed the Chandrashekhar limit;[18] however, he did not apply it to white dwarf stars.[citation needed] Institute for Physical Problems, Moscow[edit] From 1937 until 1962, Landau was the head of the Theoretical Division at the Institute for Physical Problems.[19] On 27 April 1938, Landau was arrested for comparing the Stalinist dictatorship to that of Hitler's,[15][20] and he was held in the NKVD's Lubyanka prison until his release on 29 April 1939, after the head of the institute Pyotr Kapitsa, an experimental low-temperature physicist, wrote a letter to Joseph Stalin, personally vouching for Landau's behavior, and threatening to quit the institute if Landau were not released.[21] After his release, Landau discovered how to explain Kapitsa's superfluidity using sound waves, or phonons, and a new excitation called a roton.[15] Landau led a team of mathematicians supporting Soviet atomic and hydrogen bomb development. He calculated the dynamics of the first Soviet thermonuclear bomb, including predicting the yield. For this work Landau received the Stalin Prize
Stalin Prize
in 1949 and 1953, and was awarded the title "Hero of Socialist Labour" in 1954.[15] Landau's students included Lev Pitaevskii, Alexei Abrikosov, Evgeny Lifshitz, Lev Gor'kov, Isaak Khalatnikov, Roald Sagdeev and Isaak Pomeranchuk. Scientific achievements[edit] Landau's accomplishments include the independent co-discovery of the density matrix method in quantum mechanics (alongside John von Neumann), the quantum mechanical theory of diamagnetism, the theory of superfluidity, the theory of second-order phase transitions, the Ginzburg– Landau theory of superconductivity, the theory of Fermi liquid, the explanation of Landau damping
Landau damping
in plasma physics, the Landau pole in quantum electrodynamics, the two-component theory of neutrinos, and Landau's equations for S matrix singularities. Landau received the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physics
Nobel Prize in Physics
for his development of a mathematical theory of superfluidity that accounts for the properties of liquid helium II at a temperature below 2.17 K (−270.98 °C)." [22] Personal life and views[edit]

Landau family in 1910

In 1937, Landau married Kora T. Drobanzeva from Kharkiv;[23] their son, Igor, was born in 1946. Landau believed in "free love" rather than monogamy, and encouraged his wife and his students to practise "free love"; his wife was not enthusiastic.[15] During his life, Landau was admitted involuntarily six times to the Kashchenko psychiatric hospital.[24] Landau was an atheist.[25][26] In 1957, a lengthy report to the CPSU Central Committee by the KGB recorded Landau's views on the 1956 Hungarian Uprising, Lenin, and what he termed "red fascism".[27] Last years[edit] On 7 January 1962, Landau's car collided with an oncoming truck. He was severely injured and spent two months in a coma. Although Landau recovered in many ways, his scientific creativity was destroyed,[19] and he never returned fully to scientific work. His injuries prevented him from accepting the 1962 Nobel Prize for physics
Nobel Prize for physics
in person.[28] Throughout his whole life Landau was known for his sharp humour, which can be illustrated by the following dialogue with a psychiatrist (P), who tried to test for a possible brain damage while Landau (L) was recovering from the car crash:[10]

P: "Please draw me a circle" L draws a cross P: "Hm, now draw me a cross" L draws a circle P: "Landau, why don't you do what I ask?" L: "If I did, you might come to think I've become mentally retarded".

In 1965 former students and co-workers of Landau founded the Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, located in the town of Chernogolovka
Chernogolovka
near Moscow, and led for the following three decades by Isaak Markovich Khalatnikov. In June 1965, Lev Landau
Lev Landau
and Yevsei Liberman published a letter in the New York Times, stating that as Soviet Jews
Soviet Jews
they opposed U.S. intervention on behalf of the Student Struggle for Soviet Jewry.[29] Death[edit] Landau died on 1 April 1968, aged 60, from complications of the injuries sustained in the car accident he was involved in six years earlier. He was buried at the Novodevichy cemetery.[30][31] Fields of contribution[edit]

DLVO theory Landau damping Landau distribution Landau gauge Landau pole Landau susceptibility Landau potential Landau quantization Landau theory Landau–Squire jet Landau–Levich problem Landau–Hopf theory of turbulence Ginzburg–Landau theory Darrieus–Landau instability Landau–Lifshitz aeroacoustic equation Landau–Raychaudhuri equation Landau–Zener formula Landau–Lifshitz model Landau–Lifshitz pseudotensor Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation Landau–Pomeranchuk–Migdal effect Landau–Yang theorem Landau principle Superfluidity Superconductivity

Pedagogy[edit]

Course of Theoretical Physics

Legacy[edit]

A commemorative Russian silver coin dedicated to the 100th anniversary of Landau's birth

Landau in 1962[10] on a 2010 Ukrainian stamp

Two celestial objects are named in his honour:

the minor planet 2142 Landau.[32] the lunar crater Landau.

The highest prize in theoretical physics awarded by the Russian Academy of Sciences is named in his honour:

Landau Gold Medal

Landau's List[edit] Landau kept a list of names of physicists which he ranked on a logarithmic scale of productivity ranging from 0 to 5.[33] The highest ranking, 0, was assigned to Isaac Newton. Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
was ranked 0.5. A rank of 1 was awarded to the founding fathers of quantum mechanics, Niels Bohr, Werner Heisenberg, Paul Dirac
Paul Dirac
and Erwin Schrödinger, and others. Landau ranked himself as a 2.5 but later promoted himself to a 2. David Mermin, writing about Landau, referred to the scale, and ranked himself in the fourth division, in the article "My Life with Landau: Homage of a 4.5 to a 2".[33][34] In popular culture[edit]

The Russian television film My Husband – the Genius (unofficial translation of the Russian title Мой муж – гений) released in 2008 tells the biography of Landau (played by Daniil Spivakovsky), mostly focusing on his private life. It was generally panned by critics. People who had personally met Landau, including famous Russian scientist Vitaly Ginzburg, said that the film was not only terrible but also false in historical facts. Another film about Landau, Dau, is directed by Ilya Khrzhanovsky with non-professional actor Teodor Currentzis
Teodor Currentzis
(an orchestra conductor) as Landau. Dau was a common nickname of Lev Landau.[35]

Works[edit] Course of Theoretical Physics[edit] Main article: Course of Theoretical Physics

L. D. Landau, E. M. Lifshitz (1976). Mechanics. Vol. 1 (3rd ed.). Butterworth–Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-7506-2896-9.  L. D. Landau; E. M. Lifshitz (1975). The Classical Theory of Fields. Vol. 2 (4th ed.). Butterworth–Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-7506-2768-9.  L. D. Landau; E. M. Lifshitz (1977). Quantum Mechanics: Non-Relativistic Theory. Vol. 3 (3rd ed.). Pergamon Press. ISBN 978-0-08-020940-1.  — 2nd ed. (1965) at archive.org V. B. Berestetskii, E. M. Lifshitz, L. P. Pitaevskii (1982). Quantum Electrodynamics. Vol. 4 (2nd ed.). Butterworth–Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-7506-3371-0. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) L. D. Landau; E. M. Lifshitz (1980). Statistical Physics, Part 1. Vol. 5 (3rd ed.). Butterworth–Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-7506-3372-7.  L. D. Landau; E. M. Lifshitz (1987). Fluid Mechanics. Vol. 6 (2nd ed.). Butterworth–Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-08-033933-7.  L. D. Landau; E. M. Lifshitz (1986). Theory of Elasticity. Vol. 7 (3rd ed.). Butterworth–Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-7506-2633-0.  L. D. Landau; E. M. Lifshitz; L. P. Pitaevskii (1984). Electrodynamics of Continuous Media. Vol. 8 (1st ed.). Butterworth–Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-7506-2634-7.  L. P. Pitaevskii; E. M. Lifshitz (1980). Statistical Physics, Part 2. Vol. 9 (1st ed.). Butterworth–Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-7506-2636-1.  L. P. Pitaevskii; E. M. Lifshitz (1981). Physical Kinetics. Vol. 10 (1st ed.). Pergamon Press. ISBN 978-0-7506-2635-4. 

Other[edit]

L. D. Landau, A. J. Akhiezer, E. M. Lifshitz (1967). General Physics, Mechanics and Molecular Physics. Pergamon Press. ISBN 978-0-08-009106-8. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) L. D. Landau; A. I. Kitaigorodsky (1978). Physics for Everyone. Mir Publishers Moscow.  L. D. Landau; Ya. Smorodinsky (2011). Lectures on Nuclear Theory. Dover Publications. 

A complete list of Landau's works appeared in 1998 in the Russian journal Physics-Uspekhi.[36] Landau would allow to list himself as a co-author of a journal article on two conditions: 1) he brought up the idea of the work, partly or entirely, and 2) he performed at least some calculations presented in the article. Consequently he removed his name from numerous publications of his students where his contribution was less significant.[35] See also[edit]

Landau (crater) List of Jewish Nobel laureates

References[edit]

^ Rosen, Joe. Encyclopedia of Physics. Facts on File. p. 177.  ^ Schlüter, Michael; Lu Jeu Sham (1982). "Density functional theory". Physics Today. 35 (2): 36. Bibcode:1982PhT....35b..36S. doi:10.1063/1.2914933. Archived from the original on 2013-04-15.  ^ Shifman, M., ed. (2013). Under the Spell of Landau: When Theoretical Physics was Shaping Destinies. World Scientific. doi:10.1142/8641. ISBN 978-981-4436-56-4.  ^ a b Kapitza, P. L.; Lifshitz, E. M. (1969). "Lev Davydovitch Landau 1908–1968". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 15: 140–158. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1969.0007.  ^ Martin Gilbert, The Jews in the Twentieth Century: An Illustrated History, Schocken Books, 2001, ISBN 0805241906 p. 284 ^ Frontiers of physics: proceedings of the Landau Memorial Conference, Tel Aviv, Israel, 6–10 June 1988, (Pergamon Press, 1990) ISBN 0080369391, pp. 13–14 ^ Edward Teller, Memoirs: A Twentieth Century Journey In Science And Politics, Basic Books 2002, ISBN 0738207780 p. 124 ^ František Janouch, Lev Landau: A Portrait of a Theoretical Physicist, 1908–1988, Research Institute for Physics, 1988, p. 17. ^ Rumer, Yuriy. ЛАНДАУ. berkovich-zametki.com ^ a b c Bessarab, Maya (1971) Страницы жизни Ландау. Московский рабочий. Moscow ^ a b Mehra, Jagdish (2001) The Golden Age of Theoretical Physics, Boxed Set of 2 Volumes, World Scientific, p. 952. ISBN 9810243421. ^ During this period Landau visitied Copenhagen
Copenhagen
three times: 8 April to 3 May 1930, from 20 September to 22 November 1930, and from 25 February to 19 March 1931 (see Landau Lev biography – MacTutor History of Mathematics). ^ Sykes, J. B. (2013) Landau: The Physicist
Physicist
and the Man: Recollections of L. D. Landau, Elsevier, p. 81. ISBN 9781483286884. ^ Haensel, P.; Potekhin, A. Y. and Yakovlev, D. G. (2007) Neutron Stars 1: Equation of State and Structure, Springer Science & Business Media, p. 2. ISBN 0387335439. ^ a b c d e Gennady Gorelik, Scientific American
Scientific American
1997, "The Top Secret Life of Lev Landau" ^ Blundell, Stephen J. (2009). Superconductivity: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford U. Press. p. 67. ISBN 9780191579097.  ^ Ioffe, Boris L. (25 April 2002). "Landau's Theoretical Minimum, Landau's Seminar, ITEP in the beginning of the 1950's". arxiv.org. arXiv:hep-ph/0204295 . Bibcode:2002hep.ph....4295I.  ^ On the Theory of Stars, in Collected Papers of L. D. Landau, ed. and with an introduction by D. ter Haar, New York: Gordon and Breach, 1965; originally published in Phys. Z. Sowjet. 1 (1932), 285. ^ a b Dorozynsk, Alexander (1965). The Man They Wouldn't Let Die.  ^ Музей-кабинет Петра Леонидовича Капицы (Peter Kapitza Memorial Museum-Study), Академик Капица: Биографический очерк (a biographical sketch of Academician Kapitza). ^ Richard Rhodes, Dark Sun: The Making of the Hydrogen Bomb, pub Simon & Schuster, 1995, ISBN 0684824140 p. 33. ^ "Lev Davidovich Landau, Soviet physicist and Nobel laureate". Physics Today. 57 (2): 62. 2004. Bibcode:2004PhT....57Q..62.. doi:10.1063/1.2408530.  ^ Petr Leonidovich Kapitsa, Experiment, Theory, Practice: Articles and Addresses, Springer, 1980, ISBN 9027710619, p. 329. ^ Mishina, Irina (17 December 2012). Раздвоение личностей [Dual personalities]. Версия [Versiya] (in Russian). Retrieved 3 March 2014.  ^ Schaefer, Henry F.
Schaefer, Henry F.
(2003). Science and Christianity: Conflict Or Coherence?. The Apollos Trust. p. 9. ISBN 9780974297507. I present here two examples of notable atheists. The first is Lev Landau, the most brilliant Soviet physicist of the twentieth century.  ^ "Lev Landau". Soylent Communications. 2012. Retrieved 7 May 2013.  ^ 19 December 1957* (no number). The Bukovsky Archives. ^ Nobel Presentation speech by Professor I. Waller, member of the Swedish Academy of Sciences. Nobelprize.org. Retrieved on 28 January 2012. ^ Yaacov Ro'i, The Struggle for Soviet Jewish Emigration, 1948–1967, Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press 2003, ISBN 0521522447 p. 199 ^ "Lev Davidovich Landau". Find a Grave. Retrieved 28 January 2012.  ^ Obelisk at the Novodevichye Cemetery. novodevichye.com (26 October 2008). Retrieved on 28 January 2012. ^ Schmadel, Lutz D. (2003). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names (5th ed.). Springer Verlag. p. 174. ISBN 3-540-00238-3.  ^ a b Hey, Tony (1997). Einstein's Mirror. Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press. p. 1. ISBN 0-521-43532-3.  ^ Mitra, Asoke; Ramlo, Susan; Dharamsi, Amin; Mitra, Asoke; Dolan, Richard; Smolin, Lee (2006). "New Einsteins Need Positive Environment, Independent Spirit". Physics Today. 59 (11): 10. Bibcode:2006PhT....59k..10H. doi:10.1063/1.2435630.  ^ a b Дао Ландау Archived 7 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine.. strf.ru (25 January 2008) ^ "Complete list of L D Landau's works". Phys. Usp. 41 (6): 621–623. June 1998. Bibcode:1998PhyU...41..621.. doi:10.1070/PU1998v041n06ABEH000413. 

Further reading[edit]

Books

Dorozynski, Alexander (1965). The Man They Wouldn't Let Die. Secker and Warburg. ASIN B0006DC8BA.  (After Landau's 1962 car accident, the physics community around him rallied to attempt to save his life. They managed to prolong his life until 1968.) Janouch, Frantisek (1979). Lev D. Landau: His life and work. CERN. ASIN B0007AUCL0.  Khalatnikov, I. M., ed. (1989). Landau. The physicist and the man. Recollections of L. D. Landau. Sykes, J. B. (trans.). Pergamon Press. ISBN 0-08-036383-0.  Kojevnikov, Alexei B. (2004). Stalin's Great Science: The Times and Adventures of Soviet Physicists. History of Modern Physical Sciences. Imperial College Press. ISBN 1-86094-420-5.  Landau-Drobantseva, Kora (1999). Professor Landau: How We Lived (in Russian). AST. ISBN 5-8159-0019-2. Archived from the original on 4 May 2005.  Shifman, M., ed. (2013). Under the Spell of Landau: When Theoretical Physics was Shaping Destinies. World Scientific. doi:10.1142/8641. ISBN 978-981-4436-56-4. 

Articles

Karl Hufbauer, "Landau's youthful sallies into stellar theory: Their origins, claims, and receptions", Historical Studies in the Physical and Biological Sciences, 37 (2007), 337–354. "As a student, Landau dared to correct Einstein in a lecture". Global Talent News. O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Lev Landau", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews . Lev Davidovich Landau. Nobel-Winners. Landau's Theoretical Minimum, Landau's Seminar, ITEP in the Beginning of the 1950s by Boris L. Ioffe, Concluding talk at the workshop QCD at the Threshold of the Fourth Decade/Ioeffest. EJTP Landau Issue 2008. Ammar Sakaji and Ignazio Licata (eds),Lev Davidovich Landau and his Impact on Contemporary Theoretical Physics, Nova Science Publishers, New York, 2009, ISBN 978-1-60692-908-7. Gennady Gorelik, "The Top Secret Life of Lev Landau", Scientific American, Aug. 1997, vol. 277(2), 53–57.

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v t e

Laureates of the Nobel Prize in Physics

1901–1925

1901 Röntgen 1902 Lorentz / Zeeman 1903 Becquerel / P. Curie / M. Curie 1904 Rayleigh 1905 Lenard 1906 J. J. Thomson 1907 Michelson 1908 Lippmann 1909 Marconi / Braun 1910 Van der Waals 1911 Wien 1912 Dalén 1913 Kamerlingh Onnes 1914 Laue 1915 W. L. Bragg / W. H. Bragg 1916 1917 Barkla 1918 Planck 1919 Stark 1920 Guillaume 1921 Einstein 1922 N. Bohr 1923 Millikan 1924 M. Siegbahn 1925 Franck / Hertz

1926–1950

1926 Perrin 1927 Compton / C. Wilson 1928 O. Richardson 1929 De Broglie 1930 Raman 1931 1932 Heisenberg 1933 Schrödinger / Dirac 1934 1935 Chadwick 1936 Hess / C. D. Anderson 1937 Davisson / G. P. Thomson 1938 Fermi 1939 Lawrence 1940 1941 1942 1943 Stern 1944 Rabi 1945 Pauli 1946 Bridgman 1947 Appleton 1948 Blackett 1949 Yukawa 1950 Powell

1951–1975

1951 Cockcroft / Walton 1952 Bloch / Purcell 1953 Zernike 1954 Born / Bothe 1955 Lamb / Kusch 1956 Shockley / Bardeen / Brattain 1957 C. N. Yang / T. D. Lee 1958 Cherenkov / Frank / Tamm 1959 Segrè / Chamberlain 1960 Glaser 1961 Hofstadter / Mössbauer 1962 Landau 1963 Wigner / Goeppert-Mayer / Jensen 1964 Townes / Basov / Prokhorov 1965 Tomonaga / Schwinger / Feynman 1966 Kastler 1967 Bethe 1968 Alvarez 1969 Gell-Mann 1970 Alfvén / Néel 1971 Gabor 1972 Bardeen / Cooper / Schrieffer 1973 Esaki / Giaever / Josephson 1974 Ryle / Hewish 1975 A. Bohr / Mottelson / Rainwater

1976–2000

1976 Richter / Ting 1977 P. W. Anderson / Mott / Van Vleck 1978 Kapitsa / Penzias / R. Wilson 1979 Glashow / Salam / Weinberg 1980 Cronin / Fitch 1981 Bloembergen / Schawlow / K. Siegbahn 1982 K. Wilson 1983 Chandrasekhar / Fowler 1984 Rubbia / Van der Meer 1985 von Klitzing 1986 Ruska / Binnig / Rohrer 1987 Bednorz / Müller 1988 Lederman / Schwartz / Steinberger 1989 Ramsey / Dehmelt / Paul 1990 Friedman / Kendall / R. Taylor 1991 de Gennes 1992 Charpak 1993 Hulse / J. Taylor 1994 Brockhouse / Shull 1995 Perl / Reines 1996 D. Lee / Osheroff / R. Richardson 1997 Chu / Cohen-Tannoudji / Phillips 1998 Laughlin / Störmer / Tsui 1999 't Hooft / Veltman 2000 Alferov / Kroemer / Kilby

2001– present

2001 Cornell / Ketterle / Wieman 2002 Davis / Koshiba / Giacconi 2003 Abrikosov / Ginzburg / Leggett 2004 Gross / Politzer / Wilczek 2005 Glauber / Hall / Hänsch 2006 Mather / Smoot 2007 Fert / Grünberg 2008 Nambu / Kobayashi / Maskawa 2009 Kao / Boyle / Smith 2010 Geim / Novoselov 2011 Perlmutter / Riess / Schmidt 2012 Wineland / Haroche 2013 Englert / Higgs 2014 Akasaki / Amano / Nakamura 2015 Kajita / McDonald 2016 Thouless / Haldane / Kosterlitz 2017 Weiss / Barish / Thorne

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 68968503 LCCN: n50039212 ISNI: 0000 0000 8148 3016 GND: 118569066 SELIBR: 210960 SUDOC: 030109590 BNF: cb12159123r (data) BPN: 54402164 BIBSYS: 90058704 MGP: 105773 NDL: 00446770 BNE: XX982521 SN

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