The Info List - Lester Pearson

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Lester Bowles "Mike" Pearson PC OM CC OBE
(23 April 1897 – 27 December 1972) was a Canadian scholar, statesman, soldier, prime minister, and diplomat, who won the Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
in 1957 for organizing the United Nations Emergency Force
United Nations Emergency Force
to resolve the Suez Canal Crisis. He was the 14th Prime Minister of Canada
Prime Minister of Canada
from 22 April 1963 to 20 April 1968, as the head of two back-to-back Liberal minority governments following elections in 1963 and 1965. During Pearson's time as Prime Minister, his Liberal minority governments introduced universal health care, student loans, the Canada Pension Plan, the Order of Canada, and the Maple Leaf flag. His Liberal government also unified Canada's armed forces.[1] Pearson convened the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism, and he kept Canada out of the Vietnam
War. In 1967, his government passed Bill C-168, which de facto abolished capital punishment in Canada by restricting it to a few capital offences for which it was never used, and which themselves were abolished in 1976. With these accomplishments, together with his groundbreaking work at the United Nations and in international diplomacy, Pearson is generally considered among the most influential Canadians
of the 20th century[2] and is ranked among the greatest Canadian Prime Ministers.[3]


1 Early life, family, and education

1.1 Sporting interests

2 First World War 3 Immediate post-war years

3.1 Oxford

4 Marriage, family 5 Diplomat, public servant 6 Early political career 7 Nobel Peace Prize 8 Party leadership 9 Prime Minister (1963–1968) 10 Supreme Court appointments 11 Retirement 12 Illness and death 13 Honours and awards

13.1 Order of Canada
Order of Canada
Citation 13.2 Educational and academic institutions 13.3 Civic and civil infrastructure 13.4 Sports 13.5 Honorary degrees

13.5.1 Freedom of the City

14 See also 15 References

15.1 Bibliography

16 External links

Early life, family, and education[edit] Pearson was born in Newtonbrook
in the township of York, Ontario
(now a part of Toronto), the son of Annie Sarah (née Bowles) and Edwin Arthur Pearson, a Methodist (later United Church of Canada) minister. He was the brother of Vaughan Whitier Pearson and Marmaduke Pearson.[4] "Mike" Pearson's father moved the young family north of Toronto
to Aurora where the Rev. Pearson was the minister at the Aurora Methodist Church on Yonge St. Mike grew up in Aurora and attended the public school on Church St. The family lived in the Methodist manse at the corner of Spruce St. and Catherine St. The home still exists but is in private hands. The Methodist church in downtown Aurora became the United Church of Canada. The church was demolished following a devastating fire in 2014. Rev. Pearson was a member of the Aurora Rugby team where young Mike apparently got his inspiration. Pearson graduated from Hamilton Collegiate Institute in Hamilton, Ontario, in 1913 at the age of 16. Later that same year, he entered Victoria College at the University of Toronto,[4] where he lived in residence in Gate House and shared a room with his brother Duke. He was later elected to the Pi Gamma Mu
Pi Gamma Mu
social sciences honour society's chapter at the University of Toronto
for his outstanding scholastic performance in history and psychology. After Victoria College, Pearson won a scholarship to study at St John's College, Oxford, from 1921 to 1923. Sporting interests[edit] At the University of Toronto, he became a noted athlete, excelling in rugby union, and also playing basketball. He later also played for the Oxford University Ice Hockey Club
Oxford University Ice Hockey Club
while on a scholarship at the University of Oxford, a team that won the first Spengler Cup
Spengler Cup
in 1923. Pearson also excelled in baseball and lacrosse as a youth. His baseball talents as an infielder were strong enough for a summer of semi-pro play with the Guelph Maple Leafs
Guelph Maple Leafs
of the Ontario
Intercounty Baseball
League. Pearson toured North American with a combined Oxford and Cambridge Universities lacrosse team in 1923. After he joined the University of Toronto
History Department as an instructor, he helped to coach the U of T's football and hockey teams. He played golf and tennis to high standards as an adult.[5] First World War[edit]

Pearson serving with the Canadian Army
Canadian Army
Medical Corps in World War I

When World War I
World War I
broke out in 1914, Pearson volunteered for service as a medical orderly with the University of Toronto
Hospital Unit. In 1915, he entered overseas service with the Canadian Army
Canadian Army
Medical Corps as a stretcher bearer with the rank of private, and was later commissioned as a lieutenant. During this period of service he spent two years in Egypt
and in Greece. He also spent time in the Serbian Army as a corporal and a medical orderly.[6] In 1917, Pearson transferred to the Royal Flying Corps, since the Royal Canadian Air Force did not exist at that time, where he served as a flying officer until being sent home with injuries from two accidents. Pearson learned to fly at an air training school in Hendon, England. He survived an aeroplane crash during his first flight. In 1918, Pearson was hit by a bus in London
during a citywide blackout and he was sent home to recuperate, but then he was discharged from the service. It was as a pilot that he received the nickname of "Mike", given to him by a flight instructor who felt that "Lester" was too mild a name for an airman. Thereafter, Pearson would use the name "Lester" on official documents and in public life, but was always addressed as "Mike" by friends and family.[7] Immediate post-war years[edit] After the war, he returned to school, receiving his Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of Toronto
in 1919. He was able to complete his degree after one more term, under a ruling in force at the time, since he had served in the military during the war. He then spent a year working in Hamilton, Ontario
and Chicago, in the meat-packing industry, which he did not enjoy. Oxford[edit] Upon receiving a scholarship from the Massey Foundation, he studied for two years at St John's College at the University of Oxford, where he received a B.A. degree with Second-Class honours in modern history in 1923, and the M.A. in 1925. After Oxford, he returned to Canada and taught history at the University of Toronto. Marriage, family[edit] In 1925, he married Maryon Moody (1901–89), from Winnipeg, who had been one of his students at the University of Toronto. Together, they had one son, Geoffrey, and one daughter, Patricia.[5] Diplomat, public servant[edit]

Pearson with John Ross McLean, Vincent Massey
Vincent Massey
and Georges Vanier, Canada House, London

Ice hockey in Europe; Oxford University
Oxford University
vs. Switzerland, 1922. Future Canadian Prime Minister Lester Pearson is at right front. His nickname from the Swiss was "Herr Zig-Zag".

In 1927, after scoring the top marks on the Canadian foreign service entry exam, he then embarked on a career in the Department of External Affairs.[5] Prime Minister R. B. Bennett
R. B. Bennett
was a noted talent spotter. He took note of, and encouraged, the young Lester Pearson in the early 1930s, and appointed Pearson to significant roles on two major government inquiries: the 1931 Royal Commission on Grain Futures, and the 1934 Royal Commission on Price Spreads. Bennett saw that Pearson was recognized with an OBE
after he shone in that work, arranged a bonus of $1,800, and invited him to a London
conference. Pearson was assigned to the High Commission of Canada to the United Kingdom
High Commission of Canada to the United Kingdom
in 1935, and he served there during World War II
World War II
from 1939 through 1942 as the second-in-command at Canada House, where he coordinated military supply and refugee problems, serving under High Commissioner Vincent Massey.[5] Pearson returned to Ottawa
for a few months, where he was an assistant under secretary from 1941 through 1942.[8] In June 1942 he was posted to the Canadian Embassy in Washington, D.C., as a ministerial counsellor.[8] He served as second-in-command for nearly two years. Promoted minister plenipotentiary in 1944, he became the second Canadian Ambassador to the United States on 1 January 1945. He remained in this position through September 1946.[5][8] Pearson had an important part in founding both the United Nations
United Nations
and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.[9] During World War II, Pearson once served as a courier with the codename of "Mike". He went on to become the first director of signals intelligence.[citation needed] Pearson nearly became the first Secretary-General of the United Nations in 1945, but this move was vetoed by the Soviet Union.[5] He was a contender to become the second Secretary-General in 1953, but was also vetoed by the Soviet Union.[10] The Canadian Prime Minister, Mackenzie King, tried to recruit Pearson into his government as the war wound down. Pearson felt honoured by King's approach, but he resisted at the time, due to his personal dislike of King's poor personal style and political methods.[11] Pearson did not make the move into politics until a few years later, after King
had announced his retirement as the Prime Minister of Canada. Early political career[edit]

Prime Minister St Laurent and Pearson welcome UK Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchill and Foreign Secretary Sir Anthony Eden at Rockcliffe Airport, Ottawa, on 29 June 1954.

In 1948, before his retirement, Prime Minister King
appointed Pearson Secretary of State for External Affairs (foreign minister) in the Liberal government. Shortly afterward, Pearson won a seat in the House of Commons, for the federal riding of Algoma East in northern Ontario.[12] Pearson then served as Secretary of State for External Affairs for Prime Minister Louis St. Laurent, until the defeat of the St. Laurent government in 1957. Nobel Peace Prize[edit]

Lester B. Pearson
Lester B. Pearson
quote on the Peacekeeping

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In 1957, for his role in resolving the Suez Crisis
Suez Crisis
through the United Nations, Pearson was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. The selection committee argued that Pearson had "saved the world", but critics accused him of betraying the motherland and Canada's ties with the UK. Pearson and UN Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld
Dag Hammarskjöld
are considered the fathers of the modern concept of peacekeeping. Together, they were able to organize the United Nations Emergency Force
United Nations Emergency Force
by way of a five-day fly-around in early November 1956. His Nobel medal is on permanent display in the front lobby of the Lester B. Pearson Building, the headquarters of Global Affairs Canada
Global Affairs Canada
in Ottawa. Party leadership[edit]

Pearson presiding at a plenary session of the founding conference of the United Nations
United Nations
Food and Agriculture Organization
Food and Agriculture Organization
in 1945.

St. Laurent was defeated by the Progressive Conservatives under John Diefenbaker in the election of 1957. After just a few months as Leader of the Opposition, St. Laurent retired, and he endorsed Pearson as his successor. Pearson was elected leader of the Liberal Party at its leadership convention of 1958, defeating his chief rival, former cabinet minister Paul Martin, Sr. At his first parliamentary session as Opposition Leader, Pearson asked Diefenbaker to give power back to the Liberals without an election, because of a recent economic downturn. This strategy backfired when Diefenbaker showed a classified Liberal document saying that the economy would face a downturn in that year. This contrasted heavily with the Liberals' campaign promises of 1957. Consequently, Pearson's party was routed in the federal election of 1958, losing over half their seats, while Diefenbaker's Conservatives won the largest majority ever seen in Canada to that point (208 of 265 seats). The election also cost the Liberals their stronghold in Quebec. This province had voted largely Liberal in federal elections since the Conscription Crisis of 1917, but Quebec
had no favourite son leader, as it had had since 1948. Pearson convened a significant "Thinkers' Conference" at Kingston, Ontario
in 1960, which developed many of the ideas later implemented when he became the Prime Minister.[13] In the federal election of 1962, the Liberals, led by Pearson, and the surprise election of 30 Social Credit
Social Credit
MP's, helped to deprive the Tories of their majority, so that Diefenbaker's Conservatives formed a minority government. Not long after the election, Pearson capitalized on the Conservatives' indecision on accepting American nuclear warheads on Canadian BOMARC missiles. Defence Minister Douglas Harkness
Douglas Harkness
resigned from Cabinet on 4 February 1963, because of Diefenbaker's opposition to accepting the warheads. On the next day, the government lost two nonconfidence motions on the issue, forcing a national election. In that election, the Liberals took 129 seats to the Tories' 95. Despite winning 41 percent of the vote, the Liberals came up five seats short of a majority largely because of winning just three seats on the Prairies. With the support of six Social Credit
Social Credit
MPs from Quebec,[14] Pearson was able to guarantee stable government to the Governor General, and Diefenbaker resigned, allowing Pearson to form a minority government. He was sworn in as the Prime Minister on 22 April 1963. Even though the support the Social Credit
Social Credit
MPs was soon withdrawn, Pearson was able to maintain government with the support of the New Democratic Party. Prime Minister (1963–1968)[edit]

Statue on Parliament Hill
Parliament Hill

Pearson, and three of his cabinet ministers who later became Prime Ministers. From left to right, Pierre Trudeau, John Turner, Jean Chrétien, and Pearson.

See also: Electoral history of Lester B. Pearson Pearson campaigned during the election promising "60 Days of Decision" and supported the Bomarc
surface-to-air missile program. Pearson never had a majority in the House of Commons, but he brought in many of Canada's major updated social programs, including universal health care, the Canada Pension Plan, and Canada Student Loans, and he instituted a new national flag, the Maple Leaf flag. He also instituted the 40-hour work week, two weeks vacation time, and a new minimum wage. On 15 January 1964, Pearson became the first Canadian Prime Minister to make an official state visit to France.[15] Pearson signed the Canada–United States Automotive Agreement (or Auto Pact) in January 1965, and unemployment fell to its lowest rate in over a decade.[16] While in office, Pearson declined U.S. requests to send Canadian combat troops into the Vietnam
War. Pearson spoke at Temple University
Temple University
in Philadelphia
on 2 April 1965, while visiting the United States and voiced his support for a pause in the American bombing of North Vietnam, so that a diplomatic solution to the crisis may unfold. To President Lyndon B. Johnson, this criticism of American foreign policy on American soil was an intolerable sin. Before Pearson had finished his speech, he was summoned to Camp David, Maryland, to meet with Johnson the next day. Johnson, who was notorious for his personal touch in politics, reportedly grabbed Pearson by the lapels and shouted, "Don't you come into my living room and piss on my rug."[17][18] Pearson later recounted that the meeting was acrimonious, but insisted the two parted cordially. After this incident, L.B.J. and Pearson did have further contacts, including two more meetings together, both times in Canada[19] as the United States relied on Canada's raw materials and resources to fuel and sustain its efforts in the Vietnam War.[20] Pearson also started a number of Royal Commissions, including the Royal Commission on the Status of Women and the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism. These suggested changes that helped create legal equality for women, and brought official bilingualism into being. After Pearson's term in office, French was made an official language, and the Canadian government provided services in both English and French. Pearson himself had hoped that he would be the last unilingual Prime Minister of Canada
Prime Minister of Canada
and fluency in both English and French became an unofficial requirement for candidates for Prime Minister after Pearson left office. Pearson's government endured significant controversy in Canada's military services throughout the mid-1960s, following the tabling of the White Paper on Defence
White Paper on Defence
in March 1964. This document laid out a plan to merge the Royal Canadian Navy, the Royal Canadian Air Force, and the Canadian Army
Canadian Army
to form a single service called the Canadian Forces. Military unification took effect on 1 February 1968, when The Canadian Forces
Canadian Forces
Reorganization Act received Royal Assent. Pearson has been credited with instituting the world's first race-free immigration system.[21] Credit for who created the policy, however, is disputed, and likely should be shared with John Diefenbaker.[22] Diefenbaker's government in 1962 introduced a new race-free policy; however, under the 1962 policy, Americans were still given an advantage.[23] It was in 1967 that Pearson introduced a discrimination-free points-based system which encouraged immigration to Canada, a forerunner of the system still in place today. Pearson also oversaw Canada's centennial celebrations in 1967 before retiring. The Canadian news agency, The Canadian Press, named him "Newsmaker of the Year" that year, citing his leadership during the centennial celebrations, which brought the Centennial Flame
Centennial Flame
to Parliament Hill. Also in 1967, the President of France, Charles de Gaulle, made a visit to Quebec. During that visit, de Gaulle was a staunch advocate of Quebec
separatism, even going so far as to say that his procession in Montreal
reminded him of his return to Paris after it was freed from the Nazis during the Second World War. President de Gaulle also gave his "Vive le Québec libre" speech during the visit. Given Canada's efforts in aiding France
during both world wars, Pearson was enraged. He rebuked de Gaulle in a speech the following day, remarking that " Canadians
do not need to be liberated" and made it clear that de Gaulle was no longer welcome in Canada. Supreme Court appointments[edit] Pearson chose the following jurists to be appointed as justices of the Supreme Court of Canada
Supreme Court of Canada
by the Governor General:

Robert Taschereau
Robert Taschereau
(as Chief Justice, 22 April 1963 – 1 September 1967; appointed a Puisne Justice under Prime Minister King, 9 February 1940) Wishart Flett Spence
Wishart Flett Spence
(30 May 1963 – 29 December 1978) John Robert Cartwright
John Robert Cartwright
(as Chief Justice, 1 September 1967 – 23 March 1970; appointed a Puisne Justice under Prime Minister St. Laurent, 22 December 1949) Louis-Philippe Pigeon (21 September 1967 – 8 February 1980)


Pearson's gravestone in Wakefield, Quebec

After his 14 December 1967 announcement that he was retiring from politics, a leadership convention was held. Pearson's successor was Pierre Trudeau, whom Pearson had recruited and made justice minister in his cabinet. Two other cabinet ministers Pearson had recruited, John Turner
John Turner
and Jean Chrétien, served as prime ministers following Trudeau's retirement. From 1968 to 1969, Pearson served as chairman of the Commission on International Development (the Pearson Commission), which was sponsored by the World Bank. Immediately following his retirement, he lectured in history and political science at Carleton University
Carleton University
while writing his memoirs. From 1970 to 1972, he was the first chairman of the Board of Governors of the International Development Research Centre. From 1969 until his death in 1972, he was chancellor of Carleton University
Carleton University
in Ottawa. Illness and death[edit] In 1970, Pearson underwent a surgery to have his right eye removed in order to remove a tumor in that area.[24] Pearson had planned at the time to write a three-volume set of memoirs, and had published Volume One by 1972. He had finished but a few chapters of Volume Two when, in November 1972, it was reported that he was admitted to the hospital for further unspecified treatment, but the prognosis was poor. He tried to write at this juncture the story of his prime ministerial career, but his condition, which was already precarious, deteriorated rapidly by Christmas Eve.[25] On 27 December 1972, it was announced that the cancer had spread to the liver and Pearson had lapsed into a coma. He died at 11:40 pm ET on 27 December 1972 in his Ottawa
home.[26] Pearson is buried at MacLaren Cemetery in Wakefield, Quebec[27] (just north of Gatineau), next to his close External Affairs colleagues H. H. Wrong and Norman Robertson. Honours and awards[edit]

Ribbon Description Notes

Order of Merit
Order of Merit

1971 [28]

Companion of the Order of Canada
Order of Canada

Awarded on 28 June 1968 [29]

Officer of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire
Order of the British Empire

During the brief revivial of Imperial Honours during the premiership of the Right Honourable Richard Bedford Bennett between 1931 and 1935.

1914–15 Star

As a member of the Canadian Armed Forces

British War Medal

As a member of the Canadian Armed Forces

Victory Medal (United Kingdom)

As a member of the Canadian Armed Forces

Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
Coronation Medal

1953 As a member of the Queen's Privy Council for Canada
Queen's Privy Council for Canada
and an elected Member of the House of Commons of Canada, the then Honourable Lester B. Pearson, P.C., O.B.E., M.P., would be awarded the medal as a member of the Canadian order of precedence.[30]

Centennial Anniversary of the Confederation of Canada Medal

1967 As the Prime Minister of Canada
Prime Minister of Canada
and an elected Member of the House of Commons of Canada, the Right Honourable Lester B. Pearson
Lester B. Pearson
would be awarded the medal as a member of the Canadian order of precedence.[30]

Elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1957.[31] The Canadian Press
The Canadian Press
named Pearson "Newsmaker of the Year" nine times, a record he held until his successor, Pierre Trudeau, surpassed it in 2000. He was also only one of two prime ministers to have received the honour both before and when prime minister (the other being Brian Mulroney). Pearson was inducted into the Canadian Peace Hall of Fame in 2000.[32] The Pearson Medal of Peace, first awarded in 1979, is an award given out annually by the United Nations
United Nations
Association in Canada to recognize an individual Canadian's "contribution to international service". A plaque at the north end of the North American Life building in North York, placed by the Willowdale Federal Liberal Party Association commemorates the location where the manse in which Pearson was born previously stood.[33] Another plaque, placed by the Ontario
Heritage Trust, is on the grounds of Newtonbrook
United Church, the successor congregation to the one that owned the manse.[33][34] In a survey by Canadian historians of the first 20 Prime Ministers through Jean Chrétien, Pearson ranked No. 6.[35] In a survey by Canadian historians of the Canadian prime ministers who served after World War II, Pearson was ranked first "by a landslide".[2]

Order of Canada
Order of Canada
Citation[edit] Pearson was appointed a Companion of the Order of Canada
Order of Canada
on 28 June 1968. His citation reads:[29]

Former Prime Minister of Canada. For his services to Canada at home and abroad.

Educational and academic institutions[edit]

Lester B. Pearson
Lester B. Pearson
College, opened in 1974, is a United World College near Victoria, British Columbia.[36] The Pearson Peacekeeping
Centre, established in 1994, is an independent not-for-profit institution providing research and training on all aspects of peace operations. The Lester B. Pearson School Board
Lester B. Pearson School Board
is the largest English-language school board in Quebec.[37] The majority of the schools of the Lester B. Pearson School Board are located on the western half of the island of Montreal, while a few of its schools located off the island. Lester B. Pearson
Lester B. Pearson
High School lists five so-named schools, in Burlington, Calgary, Montreal, Ottawa, and Toronto. There are Lester B. Pearson
Lester B. Pearson
elementary schools in Ajax, Ontario; Aurora, Ontario; Brampton, Ontario; London, Ontario; Saskatoon, Saskatchewan; Waterloo, Ontario
and Wesleyville, Newfoundland. Mike's Place, the Graduate Student Pub at Carleton University
Carleton University
was named in 1973 in honour of Lester B. Pearson
Lester B. Pearson
with permission of his estate.[38]

Civic and civil infrastructure[edit]

Pearson International Airport, first opened in 1939 and re-christened with its current name in 1984, is Canada's busiest airport.[39] The Lester B. Pearson
Lester B. Pearson
Building, completed in 1973, is the headquarters for the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, a tribute to his service as external affairs minister. Lester B. Pearson
Lester B. Pearson
Civic Centre[40] is in Elliot Lake, Ontario Lester B. Pearson
Lester B. Pearson
Garden for Peace and Understanding, E.J. Pratt Library in the University of Toronto, completed in 2004 [41] Lester B. Pearson
Lester B. Pearson
Place, completed in 2006, is a four storey affordable housing building in Newtonbrook, Toronto, near his place of birth, and adjacent to Newtonbrook
United Church.[42] Lester B. Pearson
Lester B. Pearson
Park in St. Catharines, Ontario.[43] Pearson Avenue is located near Highway 407 and Yonge Street
Yonge Street
in Richmond Hill, Ontario, Canada; less than five miles from his place of birth. Pearson Way is an arterial access road located in a new subdivision in Milton, Ontario; many ex-prime ministers are being honoured in this growing community, including Prime Ministers Pierre Trudeau
Pierre Trudeau
and Wilfrid Laurier. Pearson Plaza, a mall being developed in Elliot Lake
Elliot Lake
to replace the Algo Centre Mall. Pearson Park, a playground built in 2013 in Wesleyville, Newfoundland.


The award for the best National Hockey League
National Hockey League
player as voted by members of the National Hockey League
National Hockey League
Players' Association (NHLPA) was known as the Lester B. Pearson
Lester B. Pearson
Award from its inception in 1971 to 2010, when its name was changed to the Ted Lindsay Award
Ted Lindsay Award
to honour one of the union's pioneers. Pearson was inducted into the Sports Hall of Fame at the University of Toronto
in 1987.[44] Pearson was inducted into the Canadian Baseball
Hall of Fame in 1983.[45] The Pearson Cup was a baseball competition between the Toronto
Blue Jays and Montreal
Expos. Pearson also served as Expos' Honorary Club President from 1969–72.

Honorary degrees[edit]

Lester B. Pearson, Canadian Ambassador to the United States, at University of Toronto
convocation, 1945

This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. Lester B. Pearson
Lester B. Pearson
received Honorary Degrees from 48 Universities, including:

University of Toronto
in 1945 (LL.D) [46] University of Rochester
University of Rochester
in 1947 (LL.D)[47] McMaster University
McMaster University
in 1948 (LL.D)[48] Bates College
Bates College
in 1951 (LL.D)[49] Harvard University
Harvard University
in 1953 (LL.D) [50] Princeton University
Princeton University
in 1956 (LL.D) [51][52] University of British Columbia
University of British Columbia
in 1958 (LL.D) [53] University of Notre Dame
University of Notre Dame
in 1963 [54] Waterloo Lutheran University (later changed to Wilfrid Laurier University) in 1964 (LL.D) Memorial University of Newfoundland
Memorial University of Newfoundland
in 1964 (LL.D)[55] Johns Hopkins University
Johns Hopkins University
in 1964 (LL.D)[56][57] University of Western Ontario
in 1964 (LL.D)[58][59] Laurentian University
Laurentian University
in 1965 (LL.D)[60] University of Saskatchewan (Regina Campus) (later changed to University of Regina) in 1965 [61][62] McGill University
McGill University
on 28 May 1965 (LL.D) [63][64] Queen's University
Queen's University
in 1965 (LL.D)[65] Dalhousie University
Dalhousie University
in 1967 (LL.D)[66] University of Calgary
University of Calgary
on 29 March 1967 [67][68][69] Prince of Wales College
Prince of Wales College
in 1967 University of California, Santa Barbara
University of California, Santa Barbara
in 1967 University of Ottawa
in 1967.[70] Columbia University Oxford University
Oxford University
(LL.D) Royal Military College of Canada
Royal Military College of Canada
on 22 May 1971 (LL.D) [71]

Freedom of the City[edit]

1967: London

This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. See also[edit]

Canadian politics portal

List of Prime Ministers of Canada Canada and the Vietnam
War Great Canadian Flag Debate Landon Pearson Canada and the United Nations


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by a Canadian PM". CBC Digital Archives. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 14 January 2011.  ^ "The Auto Pact: En Route to Free Trade". CBC Digital Archives. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 29 August 2011.  ^ "The Week". National Review. 23 December 2002. Retrieved 4 February 2009.  ^ FitzGerald, Frances (8 August 2004). "The View From Out There". The Washington Post. Retrieved 29 August 2011.  A book review of Lindaman, Dana; Ward, Kyle Roy (2004). History lessons : how textbooks from around the world portray U.S. history. New York City: The New Press. ISBN 978-1-56584-894-8. OCLC 54096924.  ^ "Presidential visits with heads of state and chiefs of government". Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum. Retrieved 29 August 2011.  ^ Daume, Daphne; Watson, Louise, eds. (1967). Britannica Book
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p. 191. OCLC 42780089. Strong exports to the United States resulting from the mounting demands of the war in Vietnam, combined with a booming domestic market, made 1966 a year of impressive economic growth for Canada.  Also OCLC 19056858. ^ Editorial Board (3 November 2009). "Racist immigration policy must change". The McGill Daily. Retrieved 29 August 2011.  ^ Korski, Tom (3 November 2010). "Liberals abolished race-based immigration: Political myth". The Jewish Tribune. Retrieved 29 August 2011. [permanent dead link] ^ McIntyre, Tobi (January–February 2001). "Visible majorities: History of Canadian immigration policy". Canadian Geographic. Royal Canadian Geographical Society. ISSN 0706-2168. Archived from the original on 6 July 2011.  ^ "Pearson hovers near death as cancer spreads to his liver". The Globe and Mail. 28 December 1972. Retrieved 17 September 2014.  ^ Pearson 1973, p. i ^ "Lester Pearson dies in Ottawa". The Globe and Mail. 28 December 1972. Retrieved 17 September 2014.  ^ "Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada – Former Prime Ministers and Their Grave Sites – The Right Honourable Lester Bowles Pearson". Parks Canada. Government of Canada. 20 December 2010. Retrieved 27 February 2014.  ^ Palmer, Alan Warwick (1986). Who's Who in World Politics: From 1860 to the Present Day. London, New York City: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-13161-2. OCLC 33970883.  ^ a b "Lester B. Pearson, P.C., C.C., O.M., O.B.E., M.A., LL.D". Honours – Order of Canada. Governor General of Canada. 30 April 2009. Retrieved 29 August 2011.  ^ a b "Commemorative Medals of The Queen's Reign in Canada". Retrieved 5 March 2017.  ^ " Book
of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter P" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 15 April 2011.  ^ "Canadian Peace Hall of Fame". Canadian Centres for Teaching Peace. Retrieved 29 August 2011.  ^ a b Brown, Alan L. " The Right Honourable Lester Bowles Pearson, 1897–1972". Toronto's Historical Plaques. Retrieved 17 January 2018.  ^ "Right Honourable Lester Bowles Pearson 1897–1972, The". Plaque Information. Ontario
Heritage Trust. Retrieved 29 August 2011.  ^ Hilmer, Granatstein (1999) ^ "History". Lester B. Pearson
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College. Archived from the original on 31 August 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2011.  ^ "The Lester B. Pearson
Lester B. Pearson
School Board". Lester B. Pearson
Lester B. Pearson
School Board. Archived from the original on 30 September 2008. Retrieved 29 August 2011.  ^ "Mike's Place".  ^ "What's in an eponym? Celebrity airports – could there be a commercial benefit in naming?". Centre for Aviation.  ^ " Lester B. Pearson
Lester B. Pearson
Civic Centre". City of Elliot Lake. Retrieved 15 October 2010.  ^ " Lester B. Pearson
Lester B. Pearson
Garden for Peace and Understanding". E.J. Pratt Library. 2015. Retrieved 12 November 2015.  ^ " Lester B. Pearson
Lester B. Pearson
Place: A Project of NUC-TUCT Non-Profit Homes Corporation". Newtonbrook
United Church. Archived from the original on 26 September 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2011.  ^ " Lester B. Pearson
Lester B. Pearson
Park". Corporation of the City of St. Catharines. 2010. Retrieved 29 August 2011.  ^ "Lester B. Pearson, Class of 1919". Hall of Fame – Induction Class of 1987. University of Toronto
Intercollegiate Athletics. Retrieved 29 August 2011.  ^ "Inductees". Canadian Baseball
Hall of Fame. 20 June 2009. Archived from the original on 26 August 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2011.  ^ – present.pdf [dead link] ^ "Honorary Degree Recipients". Library.rochester.edu. 22 February 2007. Archived from the original on 15 May 2007. Retrieved 28 July 2010.  ^ (PDF) https://web.archive.org/web/20070614014016/http://www.mcmaster.ca/univsec/lists/S_HD_Recipients.pdf. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 June 2007. Retrieved 26 February 2007.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ http://www.bates.edu/commencement/annual/past-honorands/honorary-degrees-1950-59/ ^ http://isites.harvard.edu/icb/icb.do?keyword=k55861&pageid=icb.page248474[permanent dead link] ^ "Princeton – Honorary degrees Awarded". Princeton.edu. Retrieved 28 July 2010.  ^ "Honorary Degree Index, 1748-2001 - Rare Books and Special Collections". Archived from the original on 18 June 2015. Retrieved 5 March 2017.  ^ " University of British Columbia
University of British Columbia
Library – University Archives". Library.ubc.ca. Retrieved 28 July 2010.  ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 June 2015. Retrieved 2015-06-03.  ^ "Honorary Graduates of Memorial University of Newfoundland
Memorial University of Newfoundland
1960". Mun.ca. Retrieved 28 July 2010.  ^ " Johns Hopkins University
Johns Hopkins University
Commencement 2005". Jhu.edu. 19 May 2004. Retrieved 28 July 2010.  ^ [1] Archived 24 January 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20061031193436/http://communications.uwo.ca/western_news/story.html?listing_id=12101. Archived from the original on 31 October 2006. Retrieved 24 December 2005.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 February 2012. Retrieved 6 February 2016.  ^ "Office of the President – Honorary degree
Honorary degree
recipients from 1961 to present". Oldwebsite.laurentian.ca. Archived from the original on 26 September 2007. Retrieved 28 July 2010.  ^ "UofR General Calendar: The University of Regina". Uregina.ca. Retrieved 28 July 2010.  ^ " Honorary degree
Honorary degree
recipients :: University of Saskatchewan Archives". Usask.ca. Retrieved 28 July 2010.  ^ "Convocation > McGill Facts and Institutional History > McGill History > Outreach". Archives.mcgill.ca. 24 March 2004. Retrieved 28 July 2010.  ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20170317144411/https://www.mcgill.ca/senate/files/senate/honorary_degree_recipients_alpha_list_updated_nov._2016.pdf ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2009. Retrieved 2009-03-07.  ^ "Dalhousie University". Convocation. Retrieved 28 July 2010.  ^ (PDF) https://web.archive.org/web/20060327034624/http://www.senate.ucalgary.ca/documents/HDRECIP.LST_000.pdf. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 March 2006. Retrieved 24 December 2005.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ [2] Archived 15 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ https://www.ucalgary.ca/senate/files/senate/hd-recipients-by-last-name_february-2017.pdf ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 14 April 2015. Retrieved 3 June 2015.  ^ https://www.rmcc-cmrc.ca/en/royal-military-college-canada-honorary-degree-recipients ^ Pathé, British. "Lester Pearson Honoured". Retrieved 5 March 2017. 

Bibliography[edit] See also: List of books about Prime Ministers of Canada

Works by Pearson

Pearson, Lester B. (1972). Mike: The Memoirs of the Rt. Hon. Lester B. Pearson. 1. University of Toronto
Press.  Pearson, Lester B.; Munro, John A.; Inglis, Alexander I. (1973). Mike: The Memoirs of the Rt. Hon. Lester B. Pearson. 2. University of Toronto

Works about Pearson

John English (2011). The Worldly Years: Life of Lester Pearson 1949–1972. Random House Digital, Inc. ISBN 978-0-307-37539-1.  Ferguson, Will (1999). Bastards and Boneheads: Canada's Glorious Leaders, Past and Present. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre. ISBN 978-1-55054-737-5. OCLC 44883908.  Pearson, Lester B; Fry, Michael G (1975). "Freedom and change" : essays in honour of Lester B. Pearson. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart. ISBN 978-0-7710-3187-8. OCLC 2692327.  Also OCLC 463535217 and OCLC 300360332. Hillmer, Norman; Granatstein, J L (1999). Prime ministers: ranking Canada's leaders. Toronto: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-00-200027-7. OCLC 41432030.  Also ISBN 978-0-00-638563-9. Hutchison, Bruce (1964). Mr. Prime Minister 1867–1964. Don Mills, Ont: Longmans Canada. OCLC 5024890.  Also OCLC 422290909.

Lester Pearson’s Peacekeeping: The Truth May Hurt by Yves Engler Publication Date: Feb 2012 Pages: 160 Pearson, Geoffrey A.H. (1993). Seize the Day: Lester B. Pearson
Lester B. Pearson
and Crisis Diplomacy. Ottawa: Carleton University
Carleton University

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lester B. Pearson.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Lester B. Pearson

The Four Faces of Peace – Nobel Lecture, 11 December 1957 Biography at the Library and Archives Canada

Lester B. Pearson
Lester B. Pearson
– Parliament of Canada biography Lester B. Pearson: From Peacemaker to Prime Minister at the CBC Digital Archives Lester Bowles Pearson at The Canadian Encyclopedia An in-depth exploration of Pearson’s diplomacy during the Suez Crisis of 1956, created by National Dream Productions in conjunction with The Historica Dominion Institute

Links to related articles

19th Ministry – Cabinet of Lester B. Pearson

Cabinet post (1)

Predecessor Office Successor

John Diefenbaker Prime Minister of Canada 1963–1968 Pierre Trudeau

Diplomatic posts

Preceded by Leighton McCarthy Canadian Ambassador to the United States of America 1944–1946 Succeeded by H. H. Wrong

Preceded by Luis Padilla Nervo President of the United Nations
United Nations
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Political offices

Preceded by Louis St. Laurent Secretary of State for External Affairs 1948–1957 Succeeded by John Diefenbaker

Preceded by Louis St. Laurent Leader of the Opposition 1957–1963 Succeeded by John Diefenbaker

Preceded by Thomas Farquhar Member for Algoma East 1948–1968 Succeeded by none (riding merged into Algoma)

Party political offices

Preceded by Louis St. Laurent Leader of the Liberal Party 1958–1968 Succeeded by Pierre Trudeau

Academic offices

Preceded by Jack Mackenzie Chancellor of Carleton University 1969–1972 Succeeded by Gerhard Herzberg

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Cabinet of Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson
Lester B. Pearson

Lester B. Pearson

William Moore Benidickson Edgar Benson Léo Cadieux Lucien Cardin Lionel Chevrier Jean Chrétien John Joseph Connolly Jean-Pierre Côté Azellus Denis Jean-Paul Deschatelets Charles Drury Yvon Dupuis Guy Favreau Jack Garland Walter L. Gordon Charles Granger Joe Greene Harry Hays Paul Hellyer Arthur Laing Judy LaMarsh Maurice Lamontagne William Ross Macdonald Allan MacEachen George McIlraith Bryce Mackasey John Watson MacNaught Jean Marchand Paul Joseph James Martin John Robert Nicholson Lawrence Pennell Jean-Luc Pépin Jack Pickersgill Hédard Robichaud Maurice Sauvé Mitchell Sharp Roger Teillet René Tremblay Pierre Trudeau John Turner Robert Winters

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Cabinet of Prime Minister Louis St. Laurent
Louis St. Laurent

Louis St. Laurent

Douglas Abbott Ernest Bertrand Frederick Gordon Bradley Ralph Campney Lionel Chevrier Brooke Claxton Alcide Côté Alphonse Fournier James Garfield Gardiner Stuart Garson Colin W. G. Gibson Milton Fowler Gregg Walter Harris Paul Hellyer C. D. Howe Joseph Jean Hugues Lapointe Jean Lesage James Joseph McCann William Ross Macdonald James Angus MacKinnon George Carlyle Marler Paul Joseph James Martin Robert Wellington Mayhew Humphrey Mitchell Lester B. Pearson Jack Pickersgill Roch Pinard George Prudham Édouard Rinfret Wishart McLea Robertson James Sinclair Robert Winters

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Prime Ministers of Canada

Macdonald Mackenzie Macdonald Abbott Thompson Bowell Tupper Laurier Borden Meighen King Meighen King Bennett King St. Laurent Diefenbaker Pearson P. E. Trudeau Clark P. E. Trudeau Turner Mulroney Campbell Chrétien Martin Harper J. Trudeau

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Murphy Roche Borden Meighen King Meighen King Bennett King St. Laurent Pearson Diefenbaker Smith Diefenbaker (acting) Green Martin Sharp MacEachen Jamieson MacDonald MacGuigan

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Leaders of the Official Opposition in Canada

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Canadian Ambassadors to the United States

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Massey Wrong (Chargé d'Affaires a.i.) Herridge Wrong (Chargé d'Affaires a.i.) Marler Christie McCarthy

Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary (1943–)

McCarthy Pearson Wrong Heeney Robertson C. Ritchie E. Ritchie Cadieux Warren Towe Gotlieb Burney de Chastelain Chrétien Kergin McKenna Wilson Doer MacNaughton

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Presidents of the United Nations
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Spaak (  BEL) Aranha (  BRA) Arce (  ARG) Evatt (  AUS) Rómulo (  PHI)


Entezam (  IRI) Nervo (  MEX) Pearson (  CAN) Pandit (  IND) van Kleffens (  NED) Maza (  CHI) Ortega (  CHI) Prince Wan Waithayakon
Wan Waithayakon
(  THA) Munro (  NZL) Malik (  LIB) Belaúnde (  PER)


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von Wechmar (  BRD) Kittani (  IRQ) Hollai (  HUN) Illueca (  PAN) Lusaka (  ZAM) Piniés (  ESP) Choudhury (  BAN) Florin (  DDR) Caputo (  ARG) Garba (  NGR)


de Marco (  MLT) Shihabi (  KSA) Ganev (  BUL) Insanally (  GUY) Essy (  CIV) Freitas (  POR) Ismail (  MAS) Udovenko (  UKR) Opertti (  URU) Gurirab (  NAM)


Holkeri (  FIN) Han (  KOR) Kavan (  CZE) Hunte (  LCA) Ping (  GAB) Eliasson (  SWE) Al-Khalifa (  BAH) Kerim (  MKD) d'Escoto (  NIC) Treki (  LIB)


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Laureates of the Nobel Peace Prize


1901 Henry Dunant / Frédéric Passy 1902 Élie Ducommun / Charles Gobat 1903 Randal Cremer 1904 Institut de Droit International 1905 Bertha von Suttner 1906 Theodore Roosevelt 1907 Ernesto Moneta / Louis Renault 1908 Klas Arnoldson / Fredrik Bajer 1909 A. M. F. Beernaert / Paul Estournelles de Constant 1910 International Peace Bureau 1911 Tobias Asser / Alfred Fried 1912 Elihu Root 1913 Henri La Fontaine 1914 1915 1916 1917 International Committee of the Red Cross 1918 1919 Woodrow Wilson 1920 Léon Bourgeois 1921 Hjalmar Branting / Christian Lange 1922 Fridtjof Nansen 1923 1924 1925 Austen Chamberlain / Charles Dawes


1926 Aristide Briand / Gustav Stresemann 1927 Ferdinand Buisson / Ludwig Quidde 1928 1929 Frank B. Kellogg 1930 Nathan Söderblom 1931 Jane Addams / Nicholas Butler 1932 1933 Norman Angell 1934 Arthur Henderson 1935 Carl von Ossietzky 1936 Carlos Saavedra Lamas 1937 Robert Cecil 1938 Nansen International Office for Refugees 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 International Committee of the Red Cross 1945 Cordell Hull 1946 Emily Balch / John Mott 1947 Friends Service Council / American Friends Service Committee 1948 1949 John Boyd Orr 1950 Ralph Bunche


1951 Léon Jouhaux 1952 Albert Schweitzer 1953 George Marshall 1954 United Nations
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High Commissioner for Refugees 1955 1956 1957 Lester B. Pearson 1958 Georges Pire 1959 Philip Noel-Baker 1960 Albert Lutuli 1961 Dag Hammarskjöld 1962 Linus Pauling 1963 International Committee of the Red Cross / League of Red Cross Societies 1964 Martin Luther King
Jr. 1965 UNICEF 1966 1967 1968 René Cassin 1969 International Labour Organization 1970 Norman Borlaug 1971 Willy Brandt 1972 1973 Lê Đức Thọ (declined award) / Henry Kissinger 1974 Seán MacBride / Eisaku Satō 1975 Andrei Sakharov


1976 Betty Williams / Mairead Corrigan 1977 Amnesty International 1978 Anwar Sadat / Menachem Begin 1979 Mother Teresa 1980 Adolfo Pérez Esquivel 1981 United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees 1982 Alva Myrdal / Alfonso García Robles 1983 Lech Wałęsa 1984 Desmond Tutu 1985 International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War 1986 Elie Wiesel 1987 Óscar Arias 1988 UN Peacekeeping
Forces 1989 Tenzin Gyatso (14th Dalai Lama) 1990 Mikhail Gorbachev 1991 Aung San Suu Kyi 1992 Rigoberta Menchú 1993 Nelson Mandela / F. W. de Klerk 1994 Shimon Peres / Yitzhak Rabin / Yasser Arafat 1995 Pugwash Conferences / Joseph Rotblat 1996 Carlos Belo / José Ramos-Horta 1997 International Campaign to Ban Landmines / Jody Williams 1998 John Hume / David Trimble 1999 Médecins Sans Frontières 2000 Kim Dae-jung


2001 United Nations / Kofi Annan 2002 Jimmy Carter 2003 Shirin Ebadi 2004 Wangari Maathai 2005 International Atomic Energy Agency / Mohamed ElBaradei 2006 Grameen Bank / Muhammad Yunus 2007 Al Gore / Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2008 Martti Ahtisaari 2009 Barack Obama 2010 Liu Xiaobo 2011 Ellen Johnson Sirleaf / Leymah Gbowee / Tawakkol Karman 2012 European Union 2013 Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons 2014 Kailash Satyarthi / Malala Yousafzai 2015 Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet 2016 Juan Manuel Santos 2017 International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons

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Canadian Newsmaker of the Year

Igor Gouzenko


Barbara Ann Scott


William Lyon Mackenzie King


Louis St. Laurent


Lester B. Pearson


Marilyn Bell


Lester B. Pearson


John Diefenbaker


Joey Smallwood


James Coyne


Réal Caouette


Lester B. Pearson


Lucien Rivard


John Diefenbaker


Lester B. Pearson


Pierre Trudeau


René Lévesque


Pierre Trudeau


Joe Clark


Terry Fox


Wayne Gretzky


Brian Mulroney


Steve Fonyo


Rick Hansen


Ben Johnson


Michael Wilson


Elijah Harper


Brian Mulroney


The referendum on the Charlottetown Accord


Kim Campbell


Jacques Parizeau


Lucien Bouchard


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1999, as Newsmaker of the 20th Century

Pierre Trudeau


Stockwell Day


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Stephen Harper


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Book:Canadian Newsmakers of the Year Portal:History of Canada

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 110989612 LCCN: n50049186 ISNI: 0000 0001 1083 0874 GND: 118790099 SUDOC: 032832044 BNF: cb13973388c (data) NLA: 35414319 NDL: 00452381 NKC: vse2013739