Les Misérables (French pronunciation: [le mizeʁabl(ə)]) is
a French historical novel by Victor Hugo, first published in 1862,
that is considered one of the greatest novels of the 19th century. In
the English-speaking world, the novel is usually referred to by its
original French title. However, several alternatives have been used,
including The Miserables, The Wretched, The Miserable Ones, The Poor
Ones, The Wretched Poor, The Victims and The Dispossessed.
Beginning in 1815 and culminating in the 1832
June Rebellion in Paris,
the novel follows the lives and interactions of several characters,
particularly the struggles of ex-convict
Jean Valjean and his
experience of redemption.
Examining the nature of law and grace, the novel elaborates upon the
history of France, the architecture and urban design of Paris,
politics, moral philosophy, antimonarchism, justice, religion, and the
types and nature of romantic and familial love.
Les Misérables has
been popularized through numerous adaptations for the stage,
television, and film, including a musical and a film adaptation of
2 Hugo's sources
3.1 Volume I – Fantine
3.2 Volume II – Cosette
3.3 Volume III – Marius
3.4 Volume IV – The Idyll in the Rue Plumet and the Epic in the Rue
3.5 Volume V – Jean Valjean
4.2 Friends of the ABC
4.4 The narrator
5 Contemporary reception
6 English translations
8 See also
10 External links
Upton Sinclair described the novel as "one of the half-dozen greatest
novels of the world," and remarked that Hugo set forth the purpose of
Les Misérables in the Preface:
So long as there shall exist, by reason of law and custom, a social
condemnation, which, in the face of civilization, artificially creates
hells on earth, and complicates a destiny that is divine with human
fatality; so long as the three problems of the age—the degradation
of man by poverty, the ruin of women by starvation, and the dwarfing
of childhood by physical and spiritual night—are not solved; so long
as, in certain regions, social asphyxia shall be possible; in other
words, and from a yet more extended point of view, so long as
ignorance and misery remain on earth, books like this cannot be
Towards the end of the novel, Hugo explains the work's overarching
The book which the reader has before him at this moment is, from one
end to the other, in its entirety and details ... a progress from
evil to good, from injustice to justice, from falsehood to truth, from
night to day, from appetite to conscience, from corruption to life;
from bestiality to duty, from hell to heaven, from nothingness to God.
The starting point: matter, destination: the soul. The hydra at the
beginning, the angel at the end.
The novel contains various subplots, but the main thread is the story
of ex-convict Jean Valjean, who becomes a force for good in the world
but cannot escape his criminal past. The novel is divided into five
volumes, each volume divided into several books, and subdivided into
chapters, for a total of 48 books and 365 chapters. Each chapter is
relatively short, commonly no longer than a few pages.
The novel as a whole is one of the longest ever written, with
approximately 1,500 pages in unabridged English-language editions,
and 1,900 pages in French. Hugo explained his ambitions for
the novel to his Italian publisher:
I don't know whether it will be read by everyone, but it is meant for
everyone. It addresses England as well as Spain, Italy as well as
France, Germany as well as Ireland, the republics that harbour slaves
as well as empires that have serfs. Social problems go beyond
frontiers. Humankind's wounds, those huge sores that litter the world,
do not stop at the blue and red lines drawn on maps. Wherever men go
in ignorance or despair, wherever women sell themselves for bread,
wherever children lack a book to learn from or a warm hearth, Les
Miserables knocks at the door and says: "open up, I am here for you".
More than a quarter of the novel—by one count 955 of 2,783
pages—is devoted to essays that argue a moral point or display
Hugo's encyclopedic knowledge, but do not advance the plot, nor even a
subplot, a method Hugo used in such other works as The Hunchback of
Notre Dame and Toilers of the Sea. One biographer noted that "the
digressions of genius are easily pardoned". The topics Hugo
addresses include cloistered religious orders, the construction of the
Paris sewers, argot, and the street urchins of Paris. The one about
convents he titles "Parenthesis" to alert the reader to its
irrelevance to the story line.
He devotes another 19 chapters (Volume II, Book I) to an account
of—and a meditation on the place in history of—the Battle of
Waterloo, which battlefield Hugo visited in 1861 and where he finished
writing the novel. It opens volume 2 with such a change of subject as
to seem the beginning of an entirely different work. The fact that
this 'digression' occupies such a large part of the text demands that
it be read in the context of the 'overarching structure' discussed
above. Hugo draws his own personal conclusions, taking Waterloo to be
a pivot-point in history, but definitely not a victory for the forces
Waterloo, by cutting short the demolition of European thrones by the
sword, had no other effect than to cause the revolutionary work to be
continued in another direction. The slashers have finished; it was the
turn of the thinkers. The century that Waterloo was intended to arrest
has pursued its march. That sinister victory was vanquished by
One critic has called this "the spiritual gateway" to the novel, as
its chance encounter of Thénardier and Colonel Pontmercy foreshadows
so many of the novel's encounters "blending chance and necessity", a
"confrontation of heroism and villainy".
Even when not turning to other subjects outside his narrative, Hugo
sometimes interrupts the straightforward recitation of events, his
voice and control of the story line unconstrained by time and
sequence. The novel opens with a statement about the bishop of Digne
in 1815 and immediately shifts: "Although these details in no way
essentially concern that which we have to tell..." Only after 14
chapters does Hugo pick up the opening thread again, "In the early
days of the month of October, 1815...", to introduce Jean Valjean.
Eugene Vidocq, whose career provided a model for the character of Jean
In 1829 Hugo started to get sources from seeing three strangers and a
police officer. One of the strangers was a man who stole a loaf of
bread similar to Jean Valjean. The police was taking him to the coach.
The thief also saw the mother and daughter playing with each other
which would be an inspiration for
Fantine and Cosette. Hugo imagined
the life of the man in jail and the mother and daughter taken away
from each other.
Valjean's character is loosely based on the life of Eugène François
Vidocq. Vidocq, an ex-convict, became the head of an undercover police
unit and later founded France's first private detective agency. He was
also a businessman and was widely noted for his social engagement and
philanthropy. Vidocq helped Hugo with his research for Claude Gueux
and Le Dernier jour d'un condamné (The Last Day of a Condemned
Man). In 1828, Vidocq, already pardoned, saved one of
the workers in his paper factory by lifting a heavy cart on his
shoulders as Valjean does. Hugo's description of Valjean rescuing
a sailor on the Orion drew almost word for word on a Baron La
Roncière's letter describing such an incident. Hugo used Bienvenu
de Miollis (1753–1843), the Bishop of
Digne during the time in which
Valjean encounters Myriel, as the model for Myriel.
Hugo had used the departure of prisoners for the
Bagne of Toulon
Bagne of Toulon in
one of his early stories, Le Dernier Jour d'un Condamné. He went to
Toulon to visit the Bagne in 1839 and took extensive notes, though he
did not start writing the book until 1845. On one of the pages of his
notes about the prison, he wrote in large block letters a possible
name for his hero: "JEAN TRÉJEAN". When the book was finally written,
Tréjean became Jean Valjean.
In 1841, Hugo saved a prostitute from arrest for assault. He used a
short part of his dialogue with the police when recounting Valjean's
Fantine in the novel. On 22 February 1846, when he had
begun work on the novel, Hugo witnessed the arrest of a bread thief
while a Duchess and her child watched the scene pitilessly from their
coach. He spent several vacations in Montreuil-sur-Mer, which
became the model for the town he calls M____-sur-M__. During the
1832 revolt, Hugo walked the streets of Paris, saw the barricades
blocking his way at points, and had to take shelter from gunfire.
He participated more directly in the 1848
Paris insurrection, helping
to smash barricades and suppress both the popular revolt and its
Victor Hugo actually drew his inspiration from
everything he heard and saw, writing it down in his diary. Thus, in
December 1846 he witnessed an altercation between an old woman
scavenging through rubbish and a street urchin who might have been
Gavroche. He also informed himself by personal inspection of the
Conciergerie in 1846 and Waterloo in 1861, by gathering
information on some industries, and on working-class people’s wages
and living standards. He asked his mistresses—
Léonie d’Aunet and
Juliette Drouet to tell him about life in convents. He also slipped
personal anecdotes into the plot. For instance Marius and Cosette’s
wedding night (Part V, Book 6, Chapter 1) takes place on 16 February
1833, which is also the date when Hugo and his lifelong mistress
Juliette Drouet made love for the first time.
Volume I – Fantine
Fantine by Margaret Hall
The story begins in 1815 in Digne, as the peasant Jean Valjean, just
released from 19 years' imprisonment in the Bagne of Toulon—five for
stealing bread for his starving sister and her family and fourteen
more for numerous escape attempts—is turned away by innkeepers
because his yellow passport marks him as a former convict. He sleeps
on the street, angry and bitter.
Bishop Myriel gives him shelter. At night, Valjean
runs off with Myriel's silverware. When the police capture Valjean,
Myriel pretends that he has given the silverware to Valjean and
presses him to take two silver candlesticks as well, as if he had
forgotten to take them. The police accept his explanation and leave.
Myriel tells Valjean that his life has been spared for God, and that
he should use money from the silver candlesticks to make an honest man
Valjean broods over Myriel's words. When opportunity presents itself,
purely out of habit, he steals a 40-sous coin from 12-year-old Petit
Gervais and chases the boy away. He quickly repents and searches the
city in panic for Gervais. At the same time, his theft is reported to
the authorities. Valjean hides as they search for him, because if
apprehended he will be returned to the galleys for life as a repeat
Six years pass and Valjean, using the alias Monsieur Madeleine, has
become a wealthy factory owner and is appointed mayor of a town
identified only as M____-sur-M__ (i.e., Montreuil-sur-Mer). Walking
down the street, he sees a man named Fauchelevent pinned under the
wheels of a cart. When no one volunteers to lift the cart, even for
pay, he decides to rescue Fauchelevent himself. He crawls underneath
the cart, manages to lift it, and frees him. The town's police
inspector, Inspector Javert, who was an adjutant guard at the Bagne of
Toulon during Valjean's incarceration, becomes suspicious of the mayor
after witnessing this remarkable feat of strength. He has known only
one other man, a convict named Jean Valjean, who could accomplish it.
Years earlier in Paris, a grisette named
Fantine was very much in love
with Félix Tholomyès. His friends, Listolier, Fameuil, and
Blachevelle were also paired with Fantine's friends Dahlia, Zéphine,
and Favourite. The men abandon the women, treating their relationships
as youthful amusements.
Fantine must draw on her own resources to care
for her and Tholomyès' daughter, Cosette. When
Fantine arrives at
Montfermeil, she leaves
Cosette in the care of the Thénardiers, a
corrupt innkeeper and his selfish, cruel wife.
Fantine is unaware that they are abusing her daughter and using her as
forced labor for their inn, and continues to try to meet their
growing, extortionate and fictitious demands. She is later fired from
her job at Jean Valjean's factory, because of the discovery of her
daughter, who was born out of wedlock. Meanwhile, the Thénardiers'
monetary demands continue to grow. In desperation,
Fantine sells her
hair and two front teeth, and she resorts to prostitution to pay the
Fantine is slowly dying from an unspecified disease.
A dandy named Bamatabois harasses
Fantine in the street, and she
reacts by striking him.
Javert arrests Fantine. She begs to be
released so that she can provide for her daughter, but Javert
sentences her to six months in prison. Valjean (Mayor Madeleine)
intervenes and orders
Javert to release her.
Javert resists but
Valjean prevails. Valjean, feeling responsible because his factory
turned her away, promises
Fantine that he will bring
Cosette to her.
He takes her to a hospital.
Javert comes to see Valjean again.
Javert admits that after being
forced to free Fantine, he reported him as Valjean to the French
authorities.[why?] He tells Valjean he realizes he was wrong, because
the authorities have identified someone else as the real Jean Valjean,
have him in custody, and plan to try him the next day. Valjean is
torn, but decides to reveal himself to save the innocent man, whose
real name is Champmathieu. He travels to attend the trial and there
reveals his true identity. Valjean returns to M____-sur-M__ to see
Fantine, followed by Javert, who confronts him in her hospital room.
Javert grabs Valjean, Valjean asks for three days to bring
Cosette to Fantine, but
Fantine discovers that Cosette
is not at the hospital and fretfully asks where she is.
her to be quiet, and then reveals to her Valjean's real identity.
Weakened by the severity of her illness, she falls back in shock and
dies. Valjean goes to Fantine, speaks to her in an inaudible whisper,
kisses her hand, and then leaves with Javert. Later, Fantine's body is
unceremoniously thrown into a public grave.
Volume II – Cosette
Portrait of "Cosette" by Emile Bayard, from the original edition of
Les Misérables (1862)
Valjean escapes, is recaptured, and is sentenced to death. The king
commutes his sentence to penal servitude for life. While imprisoned in
the Bagne of Toulon, Valjean, at great personal risk, rescues a sailor
caught in the ship's rigging. Spectators call for his release. Valjean
fakes his own death by allowing himself to fall into the ocean.
Authorities report him dead and his body lost.
Valjean arrives at
Montfermeil on Christmas Eve. He finds Cosette
fetching water in the woods alone and walks with her to the inn. He
orders a meal and observes how the
Thénardiers abuse her, while
pampering their own daughters
Éponine and Azelma, who mistreat
Cosette for playing with their doll. Valjean leaves and returns to
Cosette a present of an expensive new doll which, after some
hesitation, she happily accepts.
Azelma are envious.
Madame Thénardier is furious with Valjean, while her husband makes
light of Valjean's behaviour, caring only that he pay for his food and
The next morning, Valjean informs the
Thénardiers that he wants to
Cosette with him. Madame Thénardier immediately accepts, while
Thénardier pretends to love
Cosette and be concerned for her welfare,
reluctant to give her up. Valjean pays the
Thénardiers 1,500 francs,
and he and
Cosette leave the inn. Thénardier, hoping to swindle more
out of Valjean, runs after them, holding the 1,500 francs, and tells
Valjean he wants
Cosette back. He informs Valjean that he cannot
Cosette without a note from the child's mother. Valjean hands
Thénardier Fantine's letter authorizing the bearer to take Cosette.
Thénardier then demands that Valjean pay a thousand crowns, but
Cosette leave. Thénardier regrets that he did not bring
his gun and turns back toward home.
Cosette flee to Paris. Valjean rents new lodgings at
Gorbeau House, where he and
Cosette live happily. However, Javert
discovers Valjean's lodgings there a few months later. Valjean takes
Cosette and they try to escape from Javert. They soon find shelter in
the Petit-Picpus convent with the help of Fauchelevent, the man whom
Valjean once rescued from being crushed under a cart and who has
become the convent's gardener. Valjean also becomes a gardener and
Cosette becomes a student at the convent school.
Volume III – Marius
Eight years later, the Friends of the ABC, led by Enjolras, are
preparing an act of anti-
Orléanist civil unrest on the eve of the
Paris uprising on 5–6 June 1832, following the death of General
Lamarque, the only French leader who had sympathy towards the working
class. Lamarque was a victim of a major cholera epidemic that had
ravaged the city, particularly its poor neighborhoods, arousing
suspicion that the government had been poisoning wells. The Friends of
the ABC are joined by the poor of the Cour des miracles, including the
Thénardiers' eldest son Gavroche, who is a street urchin.
One of the students, Marius Pontmercy, has become alienated from his
family (especially his grandfather M. Gillenormand) because of his
liberal views. After the death of his father Colonel Georges
Pontmercy, Marius discovers a note from him instructing his son to
provide help to a sergeant named Thénardier who saved Pontmercy's
life at Waterloo—in reality Thénardier was looting corpses and only
saved Pontmercy's life by accident; he had called himself a sergeant
Napoleon to avoid exposing himself as a robber.
At the Luxembourg Garden, Marius falls in love with the now grown and
beautiful Cosette. The
Thénardiers have also moved to
Paris and now
live in poverty after losing their inn. They live under the surname
"Jondrette" at Gorbeau House (coincidentally, the same building
Cosette briefly lived in after leaving the Thénardiers'
inn). Marius lives there as well, next door to the Thénardiers.
Éponine, now ragged and emaciated, visits Marius at his apartment to
beg for money. To impress him, she tries to prove her literacy by
reading aloud from a book and by writing "The Cops Are Here" on a
sheet of paper. Marius pities her and gives her some money. After
Éponine leaves, Marius observes the "Jondrettes" in their apartment
through a crack in the wall.
Éponine comes in and announces that a
philanthropist and his daughter are arriving to visit them. In order
to look poorer, Thénardier puts out the fire and breaks a chair. He
Azelma to punch out a window pane, which she does,
resulting in cutting her hand (as Thénardier had hoped).
The philanthropist and his daughter enter—actually Valjean and
Cosette. Marius immediately recognizes Cosette. After seeing them,
Valjean promises them he will return with rent money for them. After
Cosette leave, Marius asks
Éponine to retrieve her address for
him. Éponine, who is in love with Marius herself, reluctantly agrees
to do so. The
Thénardiers have also recognized Valjean and Cosette,
and vow their revenge. Thénardier enlists the aid of the
Patron-Minette, a well-known and feared gang of murderers and robbers.
Marius overhears Thénardier's plan and goes to
Javert to report the
Javert gives Marius two pistols and instructs him to fire one
into the air if things get dangerous. Marius returns home and waits
Javert and the police to arrive. Thénardier sends
Azelma outside to look out for the police. When Valjean returns with
rent money, Thénardier, with Patron-Minette, ambushes him and he
reveals his real identity to Valjean. Marius recognizes Thénardier as
the man who "saved" his father's life at Waterloo and is caught in a
He tries to find a way to save Valjean while not betraying
Thénardier. Valjean denies knowing Thénardier and tells him that
they have never met. Valjean tries to escape through a window but is
subdued and tied up. Thénardier orders Valjean to pay him 200,000
francs. He also orders Valjean to write a letter to
Cosette to return
to the apartment, and they would keep her with them until he delivers
the money. After Valjean writes the letter and informs Thénardier of
his address, Thénardier sends out Mme. Thénardier to get Cosette.
Mme. Thénardier comes back alone, and announces the address is a
It is during this time that Valjean manages to free himself.
Thénardier decides to kill Valjean. While he and
about to do so, Marius remembers the scrap of paper that Éponine
wrote on earlier. He throws it into the Thénardiers' apartment
through the wall crack. Thénardier reads it and thinks
it inside. He, Mme. Thénardier and
Patron-Minette try to escape, only
to be stopped by Javert.
He arrests all the
Patron-Minette (except Claquesous,
who escapes during his transportation to prison; Montparnasse, who
stops to run off with
Éponine instead of joining in on the robbery;
and Gavroche, who was not present and rarely participates in his
family's crimes, a notable exception being his part in breaking his
father out of prison). Valjean manages to escape the scene before
Javert sees him.
Volume IV – The Idyll in the Rue Plumet and the Epic in the Rue St.
Éponine prevents the robbery at Valjean's house
After Éponine's release from prison, she finds Marius at "The Field
of the Lark" and sadly tells him that she found Cosette's address. She
leads him to Valjean's and Cosette's house on Rue Plumet, and Marius
watches the house for a few days. He and
Cosette then finally meet and
declare their love for one another. Thénardier,
Brujon manage to escape from prison with the aid of Gavroche. One
night, during one of Marius's visits with Cosette, the six men attempt
to raid Valjean's and Cosette's house. However, Éponine, who has been
sitting by the gates of the house, threatens to scream and awaken the
whole neighbourhood if the thieves do not leave. Hearing this, they
reluctantly retire. Meanwhile,
Cosette informs Marius that she and
Valjean will be leaving for England in a week's time, which greatly
troubles the pair.
The next day, Valjean is sitting in the Champ de Mars. He is feeling
troubled about seeing Thénardier in the neighbourhood several times.
Unexpectedly, a note lands in his lap, which says "Move Out." He sees
a figure running away in the dim light. He goes back to his house,
Cosette they will be staying at their other house on Rue de
l'Homme Arme, and reconfirms to her that they will be moving to
England. Marius tries to get permission from M. Gillenormand to marry
Cosette. His grandfather seems stern and angry, but has been longing
for Marius's return. When tempers flare, he refuses his assent to the
marriage, telling Marius to make
Cosette his mistress instead.
Insulted, Marius leaves.
The following day, the students revolt and erect barricades in the
narrow streets of Paris.
Javert and informs Enjolras
Javert is a spy. When
Enjolras confronts him about this, he
admits his identity and his orders to spy on the students. Enjolras
and the other students tie him up to a pole in the Corinth restaurant.
Later that evening, Marius goes back to Valjean's and Cosette's house
on Rue Plumet, but finds the house no longer occupied. He then hears a
voice telling him that his friends are waiting for him at the
barricade. Distraught to find
Cosette gone, he heeds the voice and
When Marius arrives at the barricade, the "revolution" has already
started. When he stoops down to pick up a powder keg, a soldier comes
up to shoot Marius. However, a man covers the muzzle of the soldier's
gun with his hand. The soldier fires, fatally wounding the man, while
missing Marius. Meanwhile, the soldiers are closing in. Marius climbs
to the top of the barricade, holding a torch in one hand, a powder keg
in the other, and threatens to the soldiers that he will blow up the
barricade. After confirming this, the soldiers retreat from the
Marius decides to go to the smaller barricade, which he finds empty.
As he turns back, the man who took the fatal shot for Marius earlier
calls Marius by his name. Marius discovers this man is Éponine,
dressed in men's clothes. As she lies dying on his knees, she
confesses that she was the one who told him to go to the barricade,
hoping they would die together. She also confesses to saving his life
because she wanted to die before he did.
The author also states to the reader that
Éponine anonymously threw
the note to Valjean.
Éponine then tells Marius that she has a letter
for him. She also confesses to have obtained the letter the day
before, originally not planning to give it to him, but decides to do
so in fear he would be angry at her about it in the afterlife. After
Marius takes the letter,
Éponine then asks him to kiss her on the
forehead when she is dead, which he promises to do. With her last
breath, she confesses that she was "a little bit in love" with him,
Marius fulfills her request and goes into a tavern to read the letter.
It is written by Cosette. He learns Cosette's whereabouts and he
writes a farewell letter to her. He sends
Gavroche to deliver it to
Gavroche leaves it with Valjean. Valjean, learning that
Cosette's lover is fighting, is at first relieved, but an hour later,
he puts on a National Guard uniform, arms himself with a gun and
ammunition, and leaves his home.
Volume V – Jean Valjean
Valjean arrives at the barricade and immediately saves a man's life.
He is still not certain if he wants to protect Marius or kill him.
Marius recognizes Valjean at first sight.
Enjolras announces that they
are almost out of cartridges. When
Gavroche goes outside the barricade
to collect more ammunition from the dead National Guardsmen, he is
shot by the troops.
Valjean in the sewers with the wounded Marius (US edition, 1900)
Valjean volunteers to execute
Javert himself, and
permission. Valjean takes
Javert out of sight, and then shoots into
the air while letting him go. Marius mistakenly believes that Valjean
has killed Javert. As the barricade falls, Valjean carries off the
injured and unconscious Marius. All the other students are killed.
Valjean escapes through the sewers, carrying Marius's body. He evades
a police patrol, and reaches an exit gate but finds it locked.
Thénardier emerges from the darkness. Valjean recognizes him, but his
filthy appearance prevents Thénardier from recognizing him. Thinking
Valjean a murderer lugging his victim's corpse, Thénardier offers to
open the gate for money. As he searches Valjean and Marius's pockets,
he surreptitiously tears off a piece of Marius's coat so he can later
find out his identity. Thénardier takes the thirty francs he finds,
opens the gate, and allows Valjean to leave, expecting Valjean's
emergence from the sewer will distract the police who have been
Upon exiting, Valjean encounters
Javert and requests time to return
Marius to his family before surrendering to him.
assuming that Marius will be dead within minutes. After leaving Marius
at his grandfather's house, Valjean asks to be allowed a brief visit
to his own home, and
Javert agrees. There,
Javert tells Valjean he
will wait for him in the street, but when Valjean scans the street
from the landing window he finds
Javert has gone.
Javert walks down
the street, realizing that he is caught between his strict belief in
the law and the mercy Valjean has shown him. He feels he can no longer
give Valjean up to the authorities but also cannot ignore his duty to
the law. Unable to cope with this dilemma,
Javert commits suicide by
throwing himself into the Seine.
Marius slowly recovers from his injuries. As he and
wedding preparations, Valjean endows them with a fortune of nearly
600,000 francs. As their wedding party winds through
Mardi Gras festivities, Valjean is spotted by Thénardier, who then
Azelma to follow him. After the wedding, Valjean confesses to
Marius that he is an ex-convict. Marius is horrified, assumes the
worst about Valjean's moral character, and contrives to limit
Valjean's time with Cosette. Valjean accedes to Marius' judgment and
his separation from Cosette. Valjean loses the will to live and
retires to his bed.
Thénardier approaches Marius in disguise, but Marius recognizes him.
Thénardier attempts to blackmail Marius with what he knows of
Valjean, but in doing so, he inadvertently corrects Marius's
misconceptions about Valjean and reveals all of the good he has done.
He tries to convince Marius that Valjean is actually a murderer, and
presents the piece of coat he tore off as evidence. Stunned, Marius
recognizes the fabric as part of his own coat and realizes that it was
Valjean who rescued him from the barricade. Marius pulls out a fistful
of notes and flings it at Thénardier's face. He then confronts
Thénardier with his crimes and offers him an immense sum to depart
and never return. Thénardier accepts the offer, and he and Azelma
travel to America where he becomes a slave trader.
As they rush to Valjean's house, Marius tells
Cosette that Valjean
saved his life at the barricade. They arrive to find Valjean near
death and are reconciled with him. Valjean tells
Cosette her mother's
story and name. He dies content and is buried beneath a blank slab in
Père Lachaise Cemetery.
Jean Valjean (also known as Monsieur Madeleine, Ultime Fauchelevent,
Monsieur Leblanc, and Urbain Fabre) – The protagonist of the novel.
Convicted for stealing a loaf of bread to feed his sister's seven
starving children and sent to prison for five years, he is paroled
from prison nineteen years later (after four unsuccessful escape
attempts added twelve years and fighting back during the second escape
attempt added two extra years). Rejected by society for being a former
convict, he encounters Bishop Myriel, who turns his life around by
showing him mercy and encouraging him to become a new man. While
sitting and pondering what
Bishop Myriel had said, he puts his shoe on
a forty-sou piece dropped by a young wanderer. Valjean threatens the
boy with his stick when the boy attempts to rouse Valjean from his
reverie and recover his money. He tells a passing priest his name, and
the name of the boy, and this allows the police to charge him with
armed robbery – a sentence that, if he were caught again, would
return him to prison for life. He assumes a new identity (Monsieur
Madeleine) in order to pursue an honest life. He introduces new
manufacturing techniques and eventually builds two factories and
becomes one of the richest men in the area. By popular acclaim he is
made mayor. He confronts
Javert over Fantine's punishment, turns
himself in to the police to save another man from prison for life, and
Cosette from the Thénardiers. Discovered by
Javert in Paris
because of his generosity to the poor, he evades capture for the next
several years in a convent. He saves Marius from imprisonment and
probable death at the barricade, reveals his true identity to Marius
Cosette after their wedding, and is reunited with them just before
his death, having kept his promise to the bishop and to Fantine, the
image of whom is the last thing he sees before dying.
Javert – A fanatic police inspector in pursuit to recapture Valjean.
Born in the prisons to a convict father and a fortune teller mother,
he renounces both of them and starts working as a guard in the prison,
including one stint as the overseer for the chain gang of which
Valjean is part (and here witnesses firsthand Valjean's enormous
strength and just what he looks like). Eventually he joins the police
force in the small town identified only as M____-sur-M__. He arrests
Fantine and butts heads with Valjean/Madeleine, who orders him to
release Fantine. Valjean dismisses
Javert in front of his squad and
Javert, seeking revenge, reports to the Police Inspector that he has
discovered Jean Valjean. He is told that he must be incorrect, as a
man mistakenly believed to be
Jean Valjean was just arrested. He
requests of M. Madeline that he be dismissed in disgrace, for he
cannot be less harsh on himself than on others. When the real Jean
Valjean turns himself in,
Javert is promoted to the
Paris police force
where he arrests Valjean and sends him back to prison. After Valjean
Javert attempts one more arrest in vain. He then almost
recaptures Valjean at Gorbeau house when he arrests the Thénardiers
and Patron-Minette. Later, while working undercover behind the
barricade, his identity is discovered. Valjean pretends to execute
Javert, but releases him. When
Javert next encounters Valjean emerging
from the sewers, he allows him to make a brief visit home and then
walks off instead of arresting him.
Javert cannot reconcile his
devotion to the law with his recognition that the lawful course is
immoral. After composing a letter to the prefect of police outlining
the squalid conditions that occur in prisons and the abuses that
prisoners are subjected to, he takes his own life by jumping into the
Fantine – A beautiful Parisian grisette abandoned with a small child
by her lover Félix Tholomyès.
Fantine leaves her daughter
the care of the Thénardiers, innkeepers in the village of
Montfermeil. Mme. Thénardier spoils her own daughters and abuses
Fantine finds work at Monsieur Madeleine's factory.
Illiterate, she has others write letters to the
Thénardiers on her
behalf. A female supervisor discovers that she is an unwed mother and
dismisses her. To meet the Thénardiers' repeated demands for money,
she sells her hair and two front teeth, and turns to prostitution. She
becomes ill. Valjean learns of her plight when
Javert arrests her for
attacking a man who called her insulting names and threw snow down her
back, and sends her to a hospital. As
Javert confronts Valjean in her
hospital room, because her illness has made her so weak, she dies of
Javert reveals that Valjean is a convict and hasn't
brought her daughter
Cosette to her (after the doctor encouraged that
incorrect belief that Jean Valjean's recent absence was because he was
bringing her daughter to her).
Cosette (formally Euphrasie, also known as "the Lark", Mademoiselle
Lanoire, Ursula) – The illegitimate daughter of
Tholomyès. From approximately the age of three to the age of eight,
she is beaten and forced to work as a drudge for the Thénardiers.
After her mother
Fantine dies, Valjean ransoms
Cosette from the
Thénardiers and cares for her as if she were his daughter. Nuns in a
Paris convent educate her. She grows up to become very beautiful. She
falls in love with
Marius Pontmercy and marries him near the novel's
Marius Pontmercy – A young law student loosely associated with the
Friends of the ABC. He shares the political principles of his father
and has a tempestuous relationship with his royalist grandfather,
Monsieur Gillenormand. He falls in love with
Cosette and fights on the
barricades when he believes Valjean has taken her to London. After he
Cosette marry, he recognizes Thénardier as a swindler and pays
him to leave France.
Éponine (the Jondrette girl) – The Thénardiers' elder daughter. As
a child, she is pampered and spoiled by her parents, but ends up a
street urchin when she reaches adolescence. She participates in her
father's crimes and begging schemes to obtain money. She is blindly in
love with Marius. At Marius' request, she finds Valjean and Cosette's
house for him and sadly leads him there. She also prevents her father,
Patron-Minette, and Brujon from robbing the house during one of
Marius' visits there to see Cosette. After disguising herself as a
boy, she manipulates Marius into going to the barricades, hoping that
she and Marius will die there together. Wanting to die before Marius,
she reaches out her hand to stop a soldier from shooting at him; she
is mortally wounded as the bullet goes through her hand and her back.
As she is dying, she confesses all this to Marius, and gives him a
letter from Cosette. Her final request to Marius is that once she has
passed, he will kiss her on the forehead. He fulfills her request not
because of romantic feelings on his part, but out of pity for her hard
Monsieur Thénardier and Madame Thénardier (also known as the
Jondrettes, M. Fabantou, M. Thénard. Some translations identify her
as the Thenardiess) – Husband and wife, parents of five children:
Éponine and Azelma, and three sons,
Gavroche and two
unnamed younger sons. As innkeepers, they abuse
Cosette as a child and
extract payment from
Fantine for her support, until Valjean takes
Cosette away. They become bankrupt and relocate under the name
Jondrette to a house in
Paris called the Gorbeau house, living in the
room next to Marius. The husband associates with a criminal group
called "the Patron-Minette", and conspires to rob Valjean until he is
thwarted by Marius.
Javert arrests the couple. The wife dies in
prison. Her husband attempts to blackmail Marius with his knowledge of
Valjean's past, but Marius pays him to leave the country. He becomes a
slave trader in the United States.
Enjolras – The leader of Les Amis de l'ABC (Friends of the ABC) in
Paris uprising. He is passionately committed to republican
principles and the idea of progress. He and Grantaire are executed by
the National Guards after the barricade falls.
Gavroche – The unloved middle child and eldest son of the
Thénardiers. He lives on his own as a street urchin and sleeps inside
an elephant statue outside the Bastille. He briefly takes care of his
two younger brothers, unaware they are related to him. He takes part
in the barricades and is killed while collecting bullets from dead
Bishop Myriel – The Bishop of
Digne (full name
Charles-François-Bienvenu Myriel, also called Monseigneur Bienvenu)
– A kindly old priest promoted to bishop after a chance encounter
with Napoleon. After Valjean steals some silver from him, he saves
Valjean from being arrested and inspires Valjean to change his ways.
Grantaire – Grantaire (Also known as "R") was a student
revolutionary with little interest in the cause. He reveres Enjolras,
and his admiration is the main reason that Grantaire spends time with
Les Amis de l'ABC (Friends of the ABC), despite Enjolras's occasional
scorn for him. Grantaire is often drunk and is unconscious for the
majority of the June Rebellion. He and
Enjolras are executed by the
National Guards after the barricade falls.
Friends of the ABC
A revolutionary student club. In French, the letters "ABC" are
pronounced identically to the French word abaissés, "the abased".
Bahorel – A dandy and an idler from a peasant background, who is
known well around the student cafés of Paris.
Combeferre – A medical student who is described as representing the
philosophy of the revolution.
Courfeyrac – A law student who is described as the centre of the
group of Friends. He is honorable and warm and is Marius' closest
Enjolras – The leader of the Friends. A resolute and charismatic
youth, devoted to progress.
Feuilly – An orphaned fan maker who taught himself to read and
write. He is the only member of the Friends who is not a student.
Grantaire – An drunk with little interest in revolution. Despite his
pessimism, he eventually declares himself a believer in the Republic,
and dies alongside Enjolras.
Jean Prouvaire (also Jehan) – A Romantic with knowledge of Italian,
Latin, Greek, and Hebrew, and an interest in the Middle Ages.
Joly – A medical student who has unusual theories about health. He
is a hypochondriac and is described as the happiest of the Friends.
Lesgle (also Lègle, Laigle, L'Aigle [The Eagle] or Bossuet) – The
oldest member of the group. Considered notoriously unlucky, Lesgle
begins balding at the age of twenty-five. It is Lesgle who introduces
Marius to the Friends.
Azelma – The younger daughter of the Thénardiers. Like her sister
Éponine, she is spoiled as a child, impoverished when older. She
abets her father's failed robbery of Valjean. On Marius and Cosette's
wedding day, she tails Valjean on her father's orders. She travels to
America with her father at the end of the novel.
Bamatabois – An idler who harasses Fantine. Later a juror at
(Mlle) Baptistine Myriel – Bishop Myriel's sister. She loves and
venerates her brother.
Blachevelle – A wealthy student in
Paris originally from Montauban.
He is a friend of Félix Tholomyès and becomes romantically involved
with Fantine's friend Favourite.
Bougon, Madame (called Ma'am Burgon) – Housekeeper of Gorbeau House.
Brevet – An ex-convict from Toulon who knew Valjean there; released
one year after Valjean. In 1823, he is serving time in the prison in
Arras for an unknown crime. He is the first to claim that Champmathieu
is really Valjean. He used to wear knitted, checkered suspenders.
Brujon – A robber and criminal. He participates in crimes with M.
Thénardier and the
Patron-Minette gang (such as the Gorbeau Robbery
and the attempted robbery at the Rue Plumet). The author describes
Brujon as being "a sprightly young fellow, very cunning and very
adroit, with a flurried and plaintive appearance."
Champmathieu – A vagabond who is misidentified as Valjean after
being caught stealing apples.
Chenildieu – A lifer from Toulon. He and Valjean were chain mates
for five years. He once tried to unsuccessfully remove his lifer's
brand TFP ("travaux forcés à perpetuité", "forced labour for life")
by putting his shoulder on a chafing dish full of embers. He is
described as a small, wiry but energetic man.
Cochepaille – Another lifer from Toulon. He used to be a shepherd
from the Pyrenees who became a smuggler. He is described as stupid and
has a tattoo on his arm, 1 Mars 1815.
Colonel Georges Pontmercy – Marius's father and an officer in
Napoleon's army. Wounded at Waterloo, Pontmercy erroneously believes
M. Thénardier saved his life. He tells Marius of this great debt. He
loves Marius and although M. Gillenormand does not allow him to visit,
he continually hid behind a pillar in the church on Sunday so that he
could at least look at Marius from a distance.
Napoleon made him a
baron, but the next regime refused to recognize his barony or his
status as a colonel, instead referring to him only as a commandant.
The book usually calls him "The colonel".
Dahlia – A young grisette in
Paris and member of Fantine's group of
seamstress friends along with Favourite and Zéphine. She becomes
romantically involved with Félix Tholomyès' friend Listolier.
Fameuil – A wealthy student in
Paris originally from Limoges. He is
a friend of Félix Tholomyès and becomes romantically involved with
Fantine's friend Zéphine.
Fauchelevent – A failed businessman whom Valjean (as M. Madeleine)
saves from being crushed under a carriage. Valjean gets him a position
as gardener at a
Paris convent, where Fauchelevent later provides
sanctuary for Valjean and
Cosette and allows Valjean to pose as his
Favourite – A young grisette in
Paris and leader of Fantine's group
of seamstress friends (including Zéphine and Dahlia). She is
independent and well versed in the ways of the world and had
previously been in England. Although she cannot stand Félix
Tholomyès' friend Blachevelle and is in love with someone else, she
endures a relationship with him so she can enjoy the perks of courting
a wealthy man.
Listolier – A wealthy student in
Paris originally from Cahors. He is
a friend of Félix Tholomyès and becomes romantically involved with
Fantine's friend Dahlia.
Mabeuf – An elderly churchwarden, friend of Colonel Pontmercy, who
after the Colonel's death befriends his son Marius and helps Marius
realize his father loved him. Mabeuf loves plants and books, but sells
his books and prints in order to pay for a friend's medical care. When
Mabeuf finds a purse in his yard, he takes it to the police. After
selling his last book, he joins the students in the insurrection. He
is shot dead raising the flag atop the barricade.
Mademoiselle Gillenormand – Daughter of M. Gillenormand, with whom
she lives. Her late half-sister (M. Gillenormand's daughter from
another marriage), was Marius' mother.
Magloire, Madame – Domestic servant to
Bishop Myriel and his sister.
Magnon – Former servant of M. Gillenormand and friend of the
Thénardiers. She had been receiving child support payments from M.
Gillenormand for her two illegitimate sons, who she claimed were
fathered by him. When her sons died in an epidemic, she had them
replaced with the Thénardiers' two youngest sons so that she could
protect her income. The
Thénardiers get a portion of the payments.
She is incorrectly arrested for involvement in the Gorbeau robbery.
Monsieur Gillenormand – Marius' grandfather. A monarchist, he
disagrees sharply with Marius on political issues, and they have
several arguments. He attempts to keep Marius from being influenced by
his father, Colonel Georges Pontmercy. While in perpetual conflict
over ideas, he does illustrate his love for his grandson.
Mother Innocente (a.k.a. Marguerite de Blemeur) – The prioress of
the Petit-Picpus convent.
Patron-Minette – A quartet of bandits who assist in the
Thénardiers' ambush of Valjean at Gorbeau House and the attempted
robbery at the Rue Plumet. The gang consists of Montparnasse,
Claquesous, Babet, and Gueulemer. Claquesous, who escaped from the
carriage transporting him to prison after the Gorbeau Robbery, joins
the revolution under the guise of "Le Cabuc" and is executed by
Enjolras for firing on civilians.
Petit Gervais – A travelling Savoyard boy who drops a coin. Valjean,
still a man of criminal mind, places his foot on the coin and refuses
to return it.
Sister Simplice – A famously truthful nun who cares for
her sickbed and lies to
Javert to protect Valjean.
Félix Tholomyès – Fantine's lover and Cosette's biological father.
A wealthy, self-centered student in
Paris originally from Toulouse, he
Fantine when their daughter is two years old.
Toussaint – Valjean and Cosette's servant in Paris. She has a slight
Two little boys – The two unnamed youngest sons of the Thénardiers,
whom they send to Magnon to replace her two dead sons. Living on the
streets, they encounter Gavroche, who is unaware they are his siblings
but treats them like they are his brothers. After Gavroche's death,
they retrieve bread tossed by a bourgeois man to geese in a fountain
at the Luxembourg Garden.
Zéphine – A young grisette in
Paris and member of Fantine's group
of seamstress friends along with Favourite and Dahlia. She becomes
romantically involved with Félix Tholomyès' friend Fameuil.
Hugo does not give the narrator a name and allows the reader to
identify the narrator with the novel's author. The narrator
occasionally injects himself into the narrative or reports facts
outside the time of the narrative to emphasize that he is recounting
historical events, not entirely fiction. He introduces his recounting
of Waterloo with several paragraphs describing the narrator's recent
approach to the battlefield: "Last year (1861),on a beautiful May
morning, a traveller, the person who is telling this story, was coming
from Nivelles ..." The narrator describes how "[a]n observer,
a dreamer, the author of this book" during the 1832 street fighting
was caught in crossfire: "All that he had to protect him from the
bullets was the swell of the two half columns which separate the
shops; he remained in this delicate situation for nearly half an
hour." At one point he apologizes for intruding—"The author of this
book, who regrets the necessity of mentioning himself"—to ask the
reader's understanding when he describes "the
Paris of his
youth ... as though it still existed." This introduces a
meditation on memories of past places that his contemporary readers
would recognize as a self-portrait written from exile: "you have left
a part of your heart, of your blood, of your soul, in those
pavements." He describes another occasion when a bullet shot "pierced
a brass shaving-dish suspended ... over a hairdresser's shop.
This pierced shaving-dish was still to be seen in 1848, in the Rue du
Contrat-Social, at the corner of the pillars of the market." As
evidence of police double agents at the barricades, he writes: "The
author of this book had in his hands, in 1848, the special report on
this subject made to the Prefect of Police in 1832."
The appearance of the novel was a highly anticipated event as Victor
Hugo was considered one of France's foremost poets in the middle of
the nineteenth century. The
New York Times
New York Times announced its forthcoming
publication as early as April 1860. Hugo forbade his publishers
from summarizing his story and refused to authorize the publication of
excerpts in advance of publication. He instructed them to build on his
earlier success and suggested this approach: "What Victor H. did for
the Gothic world in Notre-Dame of
Paris [The Hunchback of Notre Dame],
he accomplishes for the modern world in Les Miserables". A massive
advertising campaign preceded the release of the first two volumes
Les Misérables in Brussels on 30 or 31 March and in
Paris on 3
April 1862. The remaining volumes appeared on 15 May 1862.
Critical reactions were wide-ranging and often negative. Some critics
found the subject matter immoral, others complained of its excessive
sentimentality, and others were disquieted by its apparent sympathy
with the revolutionaries. L. Gauthier wrote in Le Monde of 17 August
1862: "One cannot read without an unconquerable disgust all the
details Monsieur Hugo gives regarding the successful planning of
Goncourt brothers judged the novel artificial and
disappointing. Flaubert found "neither truth nor greatness" in it.
He complained that the characters were crude stereotypes who all
"speak very well – but all in the same way". He deemed it an
"infantile" effort and brought an end to Hugo's career like "the fall
of a god". In a newspaper review,
Charles Baudelaire praised
Hugo's success in focusing public attention on social problems, though
he believed that such propaganda was the opposite of art. In private
he castigated it as "repulsive and inept" ("immonde et inepte").
Catholic Church banned the book, placing it on the Index Librorum
The work was a commercial success and has been a popular book ever
since it was published. While exiled in England shortly after
its publication, Hugo telegraphed his English publishers a
one-character query: "?". Hurst & Blackett replied: "!".
Translated the same year it appeared into several foreign languages,
including Italian, Greek, and Portuguese, it proved popular not only
in France, but across Europe and abroad.
Charles E. Wilbour. New York: Carleton Publishing Company, June 1862.
The first English translation. The first volume was available for
purchase in New York beginning 7 June 1862. Also New York and
London: George Routledge and Sons, 1879.
Lascelles Wraxall. London: Hurst and Blackett, October 1862. The first
Translator identified as "A.F." Richmond, Virginia, 1863. Published by
West and Johnston publishers. The Editor's Preface announces its
intention of correcting errors in Wilbour's translation. It said that
some passages "exclusively intended for the French readers of the
book" were being omitted, as well as "[a] few scattered sentences
reflecting on slavery" because "the absence of a few antislavery
paragraphs will hardly be complained of by Southern readers." Because
of paper shortages in wartime, the passages omitted became longer with
each successive volume.
Isabel Florence Hapgood. Published 1887, this translation is available
at Project Gutenberg.
Norman Denny. Folio Press, 1976. A modern British translation later
re-published in paperback by Penguin Books, ISBN 0-14-044430-0.
The translator explains in an introduction that he has placed two of
the novel's longer digressive passages into appendices and made some
minor abridgements in the text.
Lee Fahnestock and Norman McAfee. Signet Classics. 3 March 1987. An
unabridged edition based on the Wilbour translation with its language
modernized. Paperback ISBN 0-451-52526-4
Julie Rose. 2007. Vintage Classics, 3 July 2008. A new translation of
the full work, with a detailed biographical sketch of Victor Hugo's
life, a chronology, and notes. ISBN 978-0-09-951113-7
Christine Donougher. Penguin Classics, 7 November 2013. A new
translation of the full work, with a detailed biographical sketch of
Victor Hugo's life, a chronology, and notes. ISBN 978-0141393599
Main article: Adaptations of Les Misérables
Since its original publication,
Les Misérables has been the subject
of a large number of adaptations in numerous types of media, such as
books, films, musicals, plays and games.
Notable examples of these adaptations include:
The 1935 film directed by Richard Boleslawski, starring Fredric March
and Charles Laughton.
The film was nominated for Best Picture, Best Film Editing, Best
Assistant Director at 8th Academy Awards.
The 1937 radio adaptation by Orson Welles.
The 1952 film adaptation directed by
Lewis Milestone starring Michael
Rennie and Robert Newton.
The 1958 film adaptation directed by Jean-Paul Le Chanois, with an
international cast starring Jean Gabin, Bernard Blier, and
Bourvil. Called "the most memorable film version", it was filmed
in East Germany and was overtly political.
The 1978 television film adaptation, starring
Richard Jordan and
The 1980 musical, by
Alain Boublil and Claude-Michel Schönberg.
The 1995 film, by Claude Lelouch, starring
Jean-Paul Belmondo 
The 1998 film, starring
Liam Neeson and Geoffrey Rush.
The 2000 TV miniseries, starring
Gérard Depardieu and John
The 2012 film of the musical, starring Hugh Jackman, Russell Crowe,
Anne Hathaway and Amanda Seyfried.
The film received eight
Academy Award nominations including Best
Picture, Best Actor for Jackman, and won three, for Best Sound Mixing,
Best Makeup and Hairstyling, and Best Supporting Actress for Hathaway.
A 2013 Japanese manga adaptation by Takahiro Arai, to be published in
Monthly Shonen Sunday
Monthly Shonen Sunday magazine from September 2013.
An upcoming BBC miniseries by Andrew Davies, starring Dominic West,
David Oyelowo and Lily Collins.
Laura Kalpakian's Cosette: The Sequel to
Les Misérables was published
in 1995. It continues the story of
Cosette and Marius, but is more a
sequel to the musical than to the original novel.
In 2001, two French novels by François Cérésa that continue Hugo's
Cosette ou le temps des illusions and Marius ou le
fugitif. The former has been published in an English translation.
Javert appears as a hero who survived his suicide attempt and become
religious; Thénardier returns from America; Marius is unjustly
imprisoned. The works were the subject of an unsuccessful lawsuit
brought by Hugo's great-great-grandson.
Elephant of the Bastille
Fex urbis lex orbis
François Cérésa (in French)
Jean Val Jean, abridged version in English (1935)
Cosette (given name)
^ Novelist Susanne Alleyn has argued that "the phrase “les
misérables”, which has a whole range of subtly shaded meanings in
French, is much better translated into English as “the
dispossessed” or even as “the outsiders” — which can describe
every major character in the novel in one way or another — than
simply as “the miserable ones” / “the wretched ones.” No,
It’s Not Actually the French Revolution:
Les Misérables and
^ "BBC News – Bon anniversaire! 25 facts about Les Mis". BBC Online.
1 October 2010. Retrieved 1 October 2010.
^ Sinclair, Upton (1915). The Cry for Justice: An Anthology of the
Literature of Social Protest. charlesrivereditors.com Charles Rivers
Editors. ISBN 978-1-247-96345-7.
^ Alexander Welsh, "Opening and Closing Les Misérables", in Harold
Bloom, ed., Victor Hugo: Modern Critical Views (NY: Chelsea House,
1988), 155; Vol. 5, Book 1, Chapter 20
^ "Read the Ten Longest Novels Ever Written". Amazon.com. Retrieved 31
^ "Les Miserables – Books by Victor Hugo". Penguin Group (USA). 3
March 1987. Retrieved 30 December 2012.
^ "Hugo : Les Misérables: Amazon.fr: Victor Hugo, Maurice Allem:
Livres". Amazon.fr. Retrieved 30 December 2012.
Les Misérables – poche – Fnac.com –
Victor Hugo – Livre ou
ebook". Livre.fnac.com. Retrieved 31 December 2012.
Les Misérables – poche – Fnac.com –
Victor Hugo – Livre ou
ebook". Livre.fnac.com. Retrieved 31 December 2012.
^ Behr, Complete Book, 39–42
^ A. F. Davidson,
Victor Hugo His Life And Work (J.B. Lippincott,
1929), Kindle Location 4026, 4189
^ Victor Brombert, "Les Misérables: Salvation from Below," in Harold
Bloom, ed., Modern Critical Views:
Victor Hugo (Chelsea House, 1988),
^ Brombert, "Salvation from Below," 195–97
^ Alexander Welsh, "Opening and Closing Les Misérables," in Harold
Bloom, ed., Modern Critical Views:
Victor Hugo (Chelsea House, 1988),
^ Day, Anonymous (15 August 2014). "About the Novel" (PDF). The
Official Les Miserables Website Times.
^ Morton, James (2004). The First Detective: The Life and
Revolutionary Times of Vidocq, Criminal, Spy and Private Eye. NY:
^ Hugo, Victor,
Les Misérables (Preface by A. Rosa), Laffont, 1985,
ISBN 2-221-04689-7, p. IV.
^ Edward Behr, The Complete Book of Les Miserables (Arcade, 1993), 29
^ Le Bagne de Toulon (1748–1873), Académie du Var, Autres Temps
Editions (2010), ISBN 978-2-84521-394-4
^ Victor Hugo, Things Seen, vol. 1 (Glasgow and NY: George Routledge
and Sons, 1887), 49–52. The chapter is title "1841. Origin of
Fantine". Behr quotes this passage at length in Behr, Complete Book,
^ Victor Hugo, Choses vues: nouvelle série (Paris: Calman Lévy,
^ Behr, Complete Book, 29-30
^ Behr, Complete Book, 32
^ Robb, Graham (1997). Victor Hugo: A Biography. NY: W.W. Norton.
^ Robb, Graham (1997). Victor Hugo: A Biography. NY: W.W. Norton.
^ Rosa, Annette, Introduction to Les Miserables, Laffont, 1985,
^ Robb, Graham, Victor Hugo: A Biography, W. W. Norton & Company,
1999, ISBN 978-0393318999, 720 p.
^ Victor Brombert, "Les Misérables: Salvation from Below", in Harold
Bloom, ed., Victor Hugo: Modern Critical Views (NY: Chelsea House,
1988), 198–99; Vol. 2, Book 1, Chapter 1
^ "Personalities". New York Times. 10 April 1860. Retrieved 3 January
^ Behr, Compete Book, 38
^ La réception des Misérables en 1862 – Max Bach – PMLA, Vol.
77, No. 5 (December 1962)
^ "les miserables, victor hugo, First Edition, 1862". ABE Books.
Retrieved 21 January 2013.
^ Goncourt, Edmond et Jules, Journal, Vol. I, Laffont, 1989,
ISBN 2-221-05527-6, April 1862, pp. 808–09
^ Letter of G. Flaubert to Madame Roger des Genettes – July 1862
Archived 27 November 2006 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Hyslop, Lois Bee (October 1976). "Baudelaire on Les Misérables".
The French Review. 41 (1): 23–29.
^ Turner, David Hancock (January 18, 2013). "
Les Misérables and Its
Critics". Jacobin. Retrieved 14 June 2016.
^ Marguerite Yourcenar. "Réception des Misérables en Grèce"
^ Réception des Misérables au Portugal Archived 29 September 2007 at
the Wayback Machine.
Victor Hugo at
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^ a b c Moore, Olin H. (March 1959). "Some Translations of Les
Miserables". Modern Language Notes. 74 (3): 240–46.
Les Misérables by
Victor Hugo – Project Gutenberg".
Gutenberg.org. 22 June 2008. Retrieved 15 October 2009.
^ Radio Programs Scheduled for this Week, The New York Times, 25 July
Les Misérables on IMDb
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Arcade. pp. 152–53.
^ The Broadway League. "The official source for Broadway Information".
IBDB. Retrieved 31 December 2012.
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Les Misérables on IMDb
Les Misérables on IMDb
Les Misérables on IMDb
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to Les Misérables.
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Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Les Misérables at CliffsNotes.com
Les Misérables at the Internet Movie Database
French text of Les Misérables, scroll down to see the links to the
Les Misérables at
Project Gutenberg – English translation.
Review by Edwin Percy Whipple The Atlantic Monthly. July 1862.
Les Miserables public domain audiobook at LibriVox
Les Misérables by Victor Hugo
Friends of the ABC
Les Misérables: Shōjo Cosette
Jean Val Jean
Beedala Patlu (1950)
Ezhai Padum Padu
Ezhai Padum Padu (1950)
Duppathuge Dukka (1956)
Beedala Patlu (1972)
Songs and soundtracks
Songs from Les Misérables
"Do You Hear the People Sing?"
"I Dreamed a Dream"
"On My Own"
"One Day More"
Les Misérables: Highlights from the Motion Picture Soundtrack
Fantine (1886 painting)
Han d'Islande (1823)
The Last Day of a Condemned Man
The Last Day of a Condemned Man (1829)
The Hunchback of Notre-Dame
The Hunchback of Notre-Dame (1831)
Les Misérables (1862)
Toilers of the Sea
Toilers of the Sea (1866)
The Man Who Laughs
The Man Who Laughs (1869)
Inez de Castro (1820; published in 1863)
Marion de Lorme (1831)
Le roi s'amuse
Le roi s'amuse (1832)
Lucrezia Borgia (1833)
Marie Tudor (1833)
Angelo, Tyrant of Padua (1835)
La Esmeralda (1836; libretto only)
Ruy Blas (1838)
Les Burgraves (1843)
"Claude Gueux" (1834)
Odes et poésies diverses (1822)
Nouvelles Odes (1824)
Odes et Ballades (1828)
Les Orientales (1829)
Les Feuilles d'automne (1831)
Les Chants du crépuscule (1835)
Les Voix intérieures (1837)
Les Rayons et les Ombres (1840)
Les Châtiments (1853)
Les Contemplations (1856)
La Légende des siècles
La Légende des siècles (Part One 1859)
Les Chansons des rues et des bois (1865)
L'Année terrible (1872)
L'Art d'être grand-père (1877)
La Légende des siècles
La Légende des siècles (Part Two 1877)
Le Pape (1878)
La Pitié suprême (1879)
Les Quatre Vents de l'esprit (1881)
Final part of
La Légende des siècles
La Légende des siècles (1883)
La Fin de Satan (1886)
Dieu (1891, 1941)
Toute la Lyre
Toute la Lyre (1888, 1893, 1897, 1935-1937)
Les Années funestes (1898)
Dernière Gerbe (1902, 1941)
Océan, Tas de pierres (1942)
Le Verso de la page (1960)
Œuvres d'enfance et de jeunesse, 1814-20 (juvenilia, 1964)
Le Rhin (1842)
Napoléon le Petit (1852 pamphlet)
William Shakespeare (1864 essay)
Actes et Paroles (1875)
Religions et religion (1880)
Association Littéraire et Artistique Internationale
Maison de Victor Hugo
Léopoldine Hugo (daughter)
Victor Hugo (son)
Adèle Hugo (daughter)
Joseph Léopold Sigisbert Hugo (father)
Avenue Victor-Hugo (Paris)
BNF: cb13516296h (data)