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Lerwick
Lerwick
(/ˈlɜːrwɪk/) (Scottish Gaelic: Liùrabhaig, Norwegian: Leirvik) is the main port of Shetland
Shetland
Islands, Scotland. It is centred 123 miles (200 km) off the north coast of the Scottish mainland and on the east coast of the Shetland
Shetland
Mainland. Lerwick
Lerwick
is 211 miles (340 km) north-by-northeast of Aberdeen, 222 miles (357 km) west of the similarly sheltered port of Bergen
Bergen
in Norway
Norway
and 228 miles (367 km) south east of Tórshavn
Tórshavn
in the Faroe Islands.[n 1] Lerwick, Shetland's only burgh, had a population of about 7,500 residents in 2010. Lerwick
Lerwick
is also the second largest island settlement in Scotland,[3] and is the most northerly and most easterly town in Scotland
Scotland
(there are other large settlements more northerly in Shetland, most notably the village of Brae). One of the UK's coastal weather stations is in the settlement.

Contents

1 History 2 Climate 3 Demography 4 Industry and economy 5 Power Supply 6 Notable buildings 7 Transportation 8 Schools and education 9 Hospitals and healthcare 10 Sport 11 Media 12 Culture 13 Events 14 Places of worship 15 Gallery 16 See also 17 Notes and references 18 External links

History[edit] Lerwick
Lerwick
is a name with roots in Old Norse and its local descendant, Norn, which was spoken in Shetland
Shetland
until the mid-19th century. The name "Lerwick" means bay of clay. The corresponding Norwegian name is Leirvik, leir meaning clay and vik meaning "bay" or "inlet". Towns with similar names exist in southwestern Norway
Norway
(Leirvik, Lervik) and on the Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
(Leirvík). Evidence of human settlement in the Lerwick
Lerwick
area dates back 3,000 years, centred on the Broch of Clickimin, which was constructed in the first century BC. The first settlement to be known as Lerwick
Lerwick
was founded in the 17th century as a herring and white fish seaport to trade with the Dutch fishing fleet. This settlement was on the mainland (west) side of Bressay
Bressay
Sound, a natural harbour with south and north entrances between the Shetland
Shetland
mainland and the island of Bressay. This collection of wooden huts was burned to the ground twice: once in the 17th century by the residents of Scalloway
Scalloway
on the western side of Mainland, then the capital of Shetland, who disapproved of the immoral and drunken activities of the assembled fishermen and sailors; and again in 1702 by the French fleet. Fort Charlotte was built in the mid 17th century on Lerwick’s waterfront, and permanent stone-built buildings began to be erected around the fort and along the shoreline. The principal concentration of buildings was in the "lanes" area: a steep hillside stretching from the shoreline to Hillhead at the top. Lerwick
Lerwick
became capital of the Shetland
Shetland
Islands in 1708, taking over the function from Scalloway. The civil parish of Lerwick
Lerwick
had been in 1701 created from a small part of the parish of Tingwall, to which Scalloway
Scalloway
still belongs. When Lerwick
Lerwick
became more prosperous through sea trade and the fishing industry during the 19th century, the town expanded in 1891 to the west of Hillhead, thereby including the former civil parishes of Gulberwick
Gulberwick
and Quarff, as well as the islands parish of Burra. Lerwick
Lerwick
Town
Town
Hall was built during this period of expansion. Lerwick
Lerwick
war memorial dates from 1923 and was designed by Sir Robert Lorimer.[4] The next period of significant expansion was during the North Sea oil boom of the 1970s when large housing developments were built to the north of Staney Hill (located in Lerwick) and to the south (Nederdale and Sandveien). Climate[edit] Lerwick
Lerwick
has an oceanic climate (Cfb) closely bordering on the subpolar oceanic climate (Cfc) with cool to cold temperatures all year long. The lack of trees resembles the latter type. This is particularly pronounced by virtue of Lerwick
Lerwick
being on a small isolated island, so even extreme temperature records are subdued; the record high stands at just 23.4 °C (74.1 °F) (July 1991) and the record low just −8.9 °C (16.0 °F) (January 1952 and January 1959). Lerwick
Lerwick
is also a very cloudy town, averaging only 1,110 sunshine hours annually. February is the coldest month, with high temperatures averaging around 5.5 °C (41.9 °F). In August, the warmest month, average high temperatures are near 14.5 °C (58.1 °F). This produces an extremely narrow difference for an area north of the 60 parallel. In terms of average monthly precipitation, October to January are the year's wettest months, with over 5.5 inches of precipitation each month; May and June are the driest months, with average monthly precipitation less than 2.3 inches each. Snowfall can occur, primarily from December to March, but snow accumulation is rarely heavy and usually short-lived. The exposed North Atlantic location and proximity to autumn and winter storm tracks means high winds are a regular occurrence, alongside high levels of cloudiness and precipitation. The weather station is at an elevation of 82 metres (269 ft),[5] so temperatures are likely to be slightly milder in the town centre at sea level. Owing to its northerly location, winter months are extremely dark in Lerwick. On the day of the winter solstice it gets only 5 hours and 49 minutes of daylight.[6] In sharp contrast daylight lasts 18 hours and 55 minutes on the day of the summer solstice.[7] As a result, nights never get completely dark for a period of time in summer, with dark blue elements remaining in the sky. The maritime influence tempers the climate effects of these swings in daylight, but in many areas of the world this latitude has hostile winters. Farther north in the world, only the Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
have such high January averages as Lerwick
Lerwick
and fellow Shetland
Shetland
station at Baltasound
Baltasound
– with the warm Atlantic currents preventing ice formation. Only when temperatures in continental areas are record cold does Lerwick
Lerwick
experience some cold as was the case in December 2010 during the severe cold wave affecting the British Isles and Europe that covered much of England in snow.[8] Even so, average highs remained above 3 °C (37 °F) and frosts were light. Even warm summers are also extremely rare with the warmest recorded month being July 2006 at an average high of 16 °C (61 °F).[9]

Climate data for Lerwick, elevation: 82 m or 269 ft (1981-2010) extremes (1930-present)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 12.8 (55) 11.7 (53.1) 13.3 (55.9) 16.1 (61) 20.7 (69.3) 22.2 (72) 23.4 (74.1) 22.1 (71.8) 19.4 (66.9) 17.2 (63) 13.9 (57) 12.6 (54.7) 23.4 (74.1)

Average high °C (°F) 5.9 (42.6) 5.5 (41.9) 6.4 (43.5) 8.1 (46.6) 10.4 (50.7) 12.4 (54.3) 14.3 (57.7) 14.5 (58.1) 12.8 (55) 10.2 (50.4) 7.8 (46) 6.3 (43.3) 9.6 (49.3)

Daily mean °C (°F) 3.9 (39) 3.5 (38.3) 4.2 (39.6) 5.8 (42.4) 7.9 (46.2) 10.1 (50.2) 12.1 (53.8) 12.4 (54.3) 10.8 (51.4) 8.3 (46.9) 5.9 (42.6) 4.3 (39.7) 7.4 (45.3)

Average low °C (°F) 1.8 (35.2) 1.5 (34.7) 2.0 (35.6) 3.5 (38.3) 5.4 (41.7) 7.7 (45.9) 9.9 (49.8) 10.2 (50.4) 8.7 (47.7) 6.4 (43.5) 3.9 (39) 2.2 (36) 5.3 (41.5)

Record low °C (°F) −8.9 (16) −7.4 (18.7) −8.3 (17.1) −5.7 (21.7) −2.2 (28) −0.6 (30.9) 3.5 (38.3) 2.8 (37.0) −0.6 (30.9) −3.3 (26.1) −5.7 (21.7) −8.2 (17.2) −8.9 (16)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 142.6 (5.614) 120.8 (4.756) 124.6 (4.906) 70.4 (2.772) 53.4 (2.102) 58.2 (2.291) 66.8 (2.63) 83.7 (3.295) 106.3 (4.185) 141.5 (5.571) 146.0 (5.748) 142.6 (5.614) 1,256.8 (49.48)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 21.6 18.5 19.9 14.1 10.8 11.0 12.1 12.9 16.7 20.8 21.4 21.8 201.6

Average snowy days 10 9 9 5 1 0 0 0 0 1 5 8 48

Average relative humidity (%) 87 86 86 87 88 89 90 91 90 89 87 87 89

Mean monthly sunshine hours 27.2 55.2 94.1 131.8 181.0 146.2 124.4 127.9 101.3 68.8 33.8 18.1 1,109.9

Source #1: Met Office[10] NOAA (relative humidity and snow days 1961-1990)[11]

Source #2: KNMI[12]

Demography[edit] Lerwick
Lerwick
has 6,958 residents, as of 2011. It is 97.0% White (83.3% White Scottish, 8.9% White Other British, 2.6% White Other, 1.4% White Polish, 0.8% White Irish), 2.2% Asian or Asian Scottish or British Asian, and 0.8% Other ethnic groups. Lerwick's residents are 2.5% unemployed, 17.3% are part-time employees, and 50.3% are full-time employees.[2] Industry and economy[edit] Lerwick
Lerwick
is a busy fishing and ferry port. The harbour also services vessels supporting the offshore oil industry. Power Supply[edit] Main power supply is from Lerwick Power Station
Lerwick Power Station
located in Gremista. Notable buildings[edit]

Significant buildings in Lerwick
Lerwick
include Fort Charlotte, Lerwick
Lerwick
Town Hall, the Böd of Gremista, Shetland
Shetland
Museum and Archives and Clickimin Broch. Because of the historic nature of the area, some scenes from BBC's Shetland
Shetland
(TV series) were filmed in Lerwick.[13] Transportation[edit] Lerwick
Lerwick
is served by the Tingwall Airport
Tingwall Airport
located a few miles away and Sumburgh Airport
Sumburgh Airport
that is further south and flies all year to some Scotland
Scotland
destinations. Northlink Ferries
Northlink Ferries
operate a daily overnight ferry service between Lerwick
Lerwick
and Aberdeen, regularly calling in to Kirkwall
Kirkwall
in the Orkney Islands. The Shetland
Shetland
Islands Council operate a ro-ro ferry service to Out Skerries and Bressay
Bressay
from a terminal in the centre of the town.[14] The local bus service is provided by the Regional Transport Partnership ZetTrans and operated by a number of different local bus service operators.[15] Schools and education[edit] Lerwick
Lerwick
has three schools; Bell's Brae
Brae
Primary School, Sound Primary School and Anderson High School. Shetland
Shetland
College, a constituent partner institution of the University of the Highlands and Islands, is also based in the town, offering degree-level education (among other further education courses) to locals who may have difficulty travelling further afield to study (the next closest university-level institution is the University of Aberdeen, a twelve-hour boat journey away). Hospitals and healthcare[edit] The Gilbert Bain Hospital provides secondary care services to all of Shetland. The Lerwick
Lerwick
Health Centre is situated across the South Road from the hospital. The Montfield Hospital a few hundred metres away is an older hospital than the Gilbert Bain, but has become a secondary health care service for the people of Lerwick
Lerwick
over time. Sport[edit] The town is home to four football teams, Lerwick
Lerwick
Spurs, Lerwick Thistle, Lerwick
Lerwick
Celtic and Lerwick
Lerwick
Rangers. Media[edit] Local independent radio station SIBC broadcasts daily from a studio in Market Street. BBC Radio Shetland, a BBC Radio Scotland
Scotland
regional opt out, has its studios in Pitt Lane. The Shetland
Shetland
Times, a weekly local newspaper, has its premises in Gremista on the northern outskirts of Lerwick. Millgaet Media Group, a multi-media production company that includes Shetland
Shetland
Television, is based at the North Ness Business Park. Culture[edit] Lerwick
Lerwick
has strong ties with Scandinavian countries, particularly Norway
Norway
( Lerwick
Lerwick
has a friendship agreement with Måløy
Måløy
in Norway), and this is reflected in the street names of Lerwick
Lerwick
(e.g., King Harald Street, King Haakon Street). Events[edit] Lerwick
Lerwick
is the focus of most events in Shetland, including the largest of the annual Up Helly-Aa
Up Helly-Aa
fire festivals which takes place on the last Tuesday of January every year. Places of worship[edit] There are several churches in Lerwick, including:

Adam Clarke Memorial Methodist Church (a congregation of the Methodist Church of Great Britain). Assemblies of God. Baptist Church, Clairmont Place. [1] Congregational Church. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Emmanuel Christian Fellowship. [2] St. Columba's Church – one of three buildings of Lerwick
Lerwick
and Bressay Parish Church (part of the Church of Scotland). [3] St. Magnus' Church, Greenfield Place (part of the Scottish Episcopal Church). [4] Eben Ezer Gospel Hall, Brethren Church St. Margaret's Roman Catholic Church. Kingdom Hall
Kingdom Hall
of Jehovah's Witnesses.

In the nineteenth century there were more churches in Lerwick including a Free Church on South Hill Head.[16] Gallery[edit]

Lerwick
Lerwick
Harbour

View of Lerwick
Lerwick
from Bressay

Commercial Street

Lerwick
Lerwick
Town
Town
Hall

Lerwick
Lerwick
from Fort Charlotte

See also[edit]

Leirvik
Leirvik
– a town on the island of Stord
Stord
in Norway. Leirvík
Leirvík
– a village on the island of Eysturoy, one of the Faroe Islands. Leirvik, in the county of Sogn og Fjordane, Norway. Lervik - a village in the municipality of Fredrikstad, Norway. Lervik, Båstad Municipality - a village by the Skälderviken bay on the Bjärehalvön peninsula, Sweden.

Notes and references[edit]

References

^ 1901 - Ordnance gazetteer of Scotland
Scotland
(1065) Page 1057 ^ a b Scotland's Census 2011, National Records of Scotland, 2011. ^ "Visit.Shetland.org". Visit Shetland. Retrieved 25 December 2010.  ^ Dictionary of Scottish Architects: Robert Lorimer ^ " Lerwick
Lerwick
climate information". Lerwick
Lerwick
climate information. Retrieved 9 August 2015.  ^ " Lerwick
Lerwick
sunrise and sunset - December". Sunrise and Sunset. Retrieved 27 October 2015.  ^ "Sunrise and sunset for Lerwick
Lerwick
- June". Sunrise and Sunset. Retrieved 27 October 2015.  ^ "Met Office Station Data for Lerwick". Met Office. Retrieved 27 October 2015.  ^ "Met Office Station Data for Lerwick". Met Office. Retrieved 27 October 2015.  ^ " Lerwick
Lerwick
1981-2010 Averages". Met Office. Retrieved 30 January 2016.  ^ " Lerwick
Lerwick
1961-1990". NOAA. Retrieved 30 January 2016.  ^ "Manchester ringway extreme values". KNMI. Retrieved 30 January 2016.  ^ "Street Closed for Fiming Television Crime Series". Shetland
Shetland
Times. 9 April 2015. Retrieved 14 February 2017.  ^ "Routes and destinations". Shetland.gov. Retrieved 19 August 2016.  ^ "Shetland's Transport Partnership Website". Retrieved 27 October 2011.  ^ "25 inch 1892-1949". National Library of Scotland. Ordnance Survey. Retrieved 26 October 2017. 

Notes

^ All of these distances are greater by sea as there is are varying amounts of intervening land

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lerwick.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Lerwick.

Shetlopedia.com – Lerwick
Lerwick
Pages Listen to recordings of a speaker of Lerwick
Lerwick
Scots Weir's Way visits Lerwick Shetland
Shetland
in Statistics, published by Shetland
Shetland
Islands Council 2006 Bell's Brae
Brae
Primary School Sound Primary School Anderson High School SIBC – Official Website Northlink Ferries
Northlink Ferries
– Official Website Smyril Line – Official Website

v t e

Shetland

Inhabited islands

Mainland Bressay Burra

East Burra West Burra

Fair Isle Fetlar Foula Muckle Roe North Isles Out Skerries Papa Stour Trondra Unst Vaila Whalsay Yell

Other islands

Balta Bigga Brother Isle Colsay Hascosay Hildasay Lamba Linga, Muckle Roe Linga, Yell Mousa Noss Oxna Papa Papa Little Samphrey South Havra Uyea, Northmavine Uyea, Unst Vementry West Linga

Towns and villages

Lerwick Aith Baltasound Brae Grutness Gutcher Haroldswick Mossbank Quarff Scalloway Symbister Toft Ulsta Uyeasound Vidlin Voe Walls

Mainland Parishes

Delting Dunrossness Lerwick Nesting Northmavine Sandsting Tingwall Walls and Sandness

Insular Parishes

Bressay Fetlar Unst Yell

Maritime features

Balta Sound Bluemull Sound Burra Voe Busta Voe Calder's Geo St Magnus Bay Sullom Voe West Voe of Sumburgh Yell Sound

Extreme points

(N S E W)

Out Stack The Skerry, off Fair Isle Bound Skerry Waster Hoevda, Foula

Topics

Animal breeds Etymology History Prehistory

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 147859

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