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Leopoldo Ramón Pedro Calvo-Sotelo y Bustelo, 1st Marquess of Ría de Ribadeo (; 14 April 1926 – 3 May 2008), usually known as Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo, was Prime Minister of Spain between 1981 and 1982.


Early life and career

Calvo-Sotelo was born into a prominent political family in
Madrid Madrid (, ) is the capital and most-populous city of Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , na ...
on 14 April 1926 with his father, Leopoldo Calvo Sotelo, and his mother, Mercedes Bustelo Márquez. The assassination of his uncle,
José Calvo Sotelo
José Calvo Sotelo
, who had been finance minister under
Miguel Primo de Rivera Miguel Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja, 2nd Marquess of Estella (8 January 1870 – 16 March 1930), was a dictator, aristocrat, and military officer who served as Prime Minister of Spain from 1923 to 1930 during Spain's Restoration era. He deepl ...
, was a key event leading up to the Spanish Civil War. Calvo-Sotelo graduated as a civil engineer from the School of Civil Engineers of Madrid now part of the Technical University of Madrid, working in the area of applications of
chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements and chemical compound, compounds composed of atoms, molecules and ions: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a Ch ...
to the industry. He was the president of
RENFE Renfe Operadora () is the state-owned company which operates freight and passenger trains on the , the and the networks of the Spanish national railway infrastructure company Adif (''Administrador de Infraestructuras Ferroviarias''—Rail ...
(the Spanish national railroad network) between 1967 and 1968. Calvo-Sotelo was elected solicitor (Deputy) of Franco's Cortes, representing industrialists in the Union of Chemical Industries, in 1971. A monarchist, Sotelo was one of the founders of an association of politicians, mostly of
Right Rights are law, legal, social, or ethics, ethical principles of Liberty, freedom or entitlement; that is, rights are the fundamental normative rules about what is allowed of people or owed to people according to some legal system, social conventi ...
ists and Center Rightists, which disguised as the Fedisa publishing firm helped Spain's peaceful transition into democracy.


Political career

Calvo-Sotelo was designated Minister of Commerce by Carlos Arias Navarro to be in the first government of the Monarchy (December 1975 – July 1976). He advocated a true transition to democracy instead of mere superficial changes that politicians like Navarro planned. Calvo-Sotelo was kept in the cabinet of Adolfo Suárez upon his succession to premiership in 1976 and directed several centre-right and centre-left political associations into one party, the Union of the Democratic Centre (Spain), Union of the Democratic Centre (UCD). The UCD won in both the June 1977 and the March 1979 elections and Calvo-Sotelo was elected MP for Madrid (Spanish Congress Electoral District), Madrid.


President of the Government of Spain

Suárez decided to keep him in the Cabinet, first from 1978 to 1980 as Minister for Relations of the European Economic Community, then as Second Vicepresident (Spain), Second Vicepresident in charge of economic affairs. After the resignation of Suárez on 29 January 1981, he was supposed to be appointed Prime Minister () on 23 February, and advocated Spain's proposed entry into NATO as soon as possible. However, on that date a session of the Congress of Deputies was interrupted by the attempted coup of 23-F. After the failed coup, his appointment as Prime Minister was confirmed on 25 February by the vote of all the UCD members of the congress and 21 others as well, giving him a majority of 186 to 158. Splits in the UCD group led to the formation of three rival parties, the Democratic Action Party (Partido de Acción Democrática/PAD), which soon merged with the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE), the Democratic and Social Centre (Spain), Democratic and Social Centre (CDS) and Democratic Popular Party (Spain), Democratic Popular Party (PDP), resulting in the UCD being unable to count on sufficient support in the legislature. Fresh elections were called, resulting in a heavy defeat for the UCD, which won only 12 seats at the 1982 election compared to 168 in 1979. He served as Prime Minister until 1 December 1982 and was succeeded by the socialist Felipe González.


Later years

In 2002, Calvo-Sotelo was raised into the Spanish nobility by Juan Carlos I of Spain, King Juan Carlos of Spain and given the hereditary title of ''Marquis of Ría de Ribadeo, Marqués de la Ría de Ribadeo'' (''Marquess of Ría de Ribadeo''), together with the dignity ''Grandee of Spain, Grande de España'' (English: Grandee of Spain), this in honour for his service. Calvo-Sotelo was also a member of the Club of Madrid and of the Spanish Royal Academy of Engineering. He died of natural causes at his home in Pozuelo de Alarcón, on 3 May 2008 aged 82.


Personal life

He was married to María del Pilar Ibáñez-Martín y Mellado and had eight children: * Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo e Ibáñez-Martín (b.
Madrid Madrid (, ) is the capital and most-populous city of Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , na ...
, 4 September 1957), 2nd Marquess of Ría de Ribadeo, married to Cristina Egea y Gutiérrez-Cortines. * Juan Calvo-Sotelo e Ibáñez-Martín (b.
Madrid Madrid (, ) is the capital and most-populous city of Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , na ...
, 14 November 1958), married to Lucía Fernández y Cartuxo * María del Pilar Calvo-Sotelo e Ibáñez-Martín (b.
Madrid Madrid (, ) is the capital and most-populous city of Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , na ...
, 20 October 1959), married to Carlos Delclaux y Zulueta * Pedro Calvo-Sotelo e Ibáñez-Martín (b.
Madrid Madrid (, ) is the capital and most-populous city of Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , na ...
, 20 December 1960), married to María Alvarez-Cascos y Gómez de Arteche * Víctor Calvo-Sotelo e Ibáñez-Martín (b.
Madrid Madrid (, ) is the capital and most-populous city of Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , na ...
, 24 November 1961), unmarried and without issue * José María Calvo-Sotelo e Ibáñez-Martín (b.
Madrid Madrid (, ) is the capital and most-populous city of Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , na ...
, 2 May 1964), unmarried and without issue * Andrés Calvo-Sotelo e Ibáñez-Martín (b. Lisbon, 14 August 1965), twin with the below, unmarried and without issue * Pablo Calvo-Sotelo e Ibáñez-Martín (b. Lisbon, 14 August 1965), twin with the above, married to Elvira García-Bellido y Capdevilla


General references

*Mclean, Renwick (2006). "Spain Takes a Proud Look Back." ''International Herald Tribune''. 24 February. *Preston, Paul (1990). ''The Triumph of Democracy in Spain''. London: Routledge. *Rogers, Eamonn and Valerie Rogers, eds. (1999). ''Encyclopedia of Contemporary Spanish Culture''. London: Routledge. *Walker, Jane (2006). "The Day Freedom Was Put in Peril." ''The Irish Times''. 23 February.


References


External links

{{DEFAULTSORT:Calvo Sotelo, Leopoldo 1926 births 2008 deaths Spanish monarchists Deputy Prime Ministers of Spain Economy and finance ministers of Spain Grandees of Spain Marquesses of Spain Members of the constituent Congress of Deputies (Spain) Members of the 1st Congress of Deputies (Spain) Members of the 2nd Congress of Deputies (Spain) MEPs for Spain 1986–1987 Politicians from Madrid Polytechnic University of Madrid alumni Prime Ministers of Spain Spanish Roman Catholics Union of the Democratic Centre (Spain) politicians